Aix-en-Provence

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Aix-en-Provence

Ais de Provença  (Occitan)
Aix en Provence - panoramio (1).jpg
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Aix-Pavillon Vendome-bjs180805-01.jpg
2016 Aix-en-Provence - Hotel de ville.jpg
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Top down, from left to right: Aix Cathedral, Place d'Albertas, Pavillon Vendôme, Town Hall Clock Tower and Fontaine de la Rotonde
Flag of Aix-en-Provence.svg
Flag
Armes de Ais de Provenca.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Aix-en-Provence
Aix-en-Provence
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Aix-en-Provence
Provence-Alpes-Cote d'azur region location map.svg
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Aix-en-Provence
Coordinates: 43°31′35″N5°26′44″E / 43.526304°N 5.445429°E / 43.526304; 5.445429 Coordinates: 43°31′35″N5°26′44″E / 43.526304°N 5.445429°E / 43.526304; 5.445429
Country France
Region Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
Department Bouches-du-Rhône
Arrondissement Aix-en-Provence
Canton Aix-en-Provence 1
Aix-en-Provence 2
Intercommunality Aix-Marseille-Provence
Government
  Mayor (2014-2020) Maryse Joissains-Masini
Area
1
186.08 km2 (71.85 sq mi)
Population
 (2017-01-01) [1]
142,482
  Density770/km2 (2,000/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
13001 /13100, 13090
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Aix-en-Provence ( UK: /ˌɛksɒ̃prɒˈvɒ̃s/ , [2] US: /ˌksɒ̃prˈvɒ̃s,ˌɛks-/ , [3] [4] French:  [ɛks ɑ̃ pʁɔvɑ̃s] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Provençal : Ais de Provençain classical norm, orAis de Prouvènçoin Mistralian norm, [lower-alpha 1] pronounced  [ˈajz de pʀuˈvɛnsɔ] ; Latin : Aquae Sextiae), or simply Aix (pronounced  [ɛks] ; medieval Occitan Aics), is a city and commune in Southern France, about 30 km (19 mi) north of Marseille. A former capital of Provence, it is the subprefecture of the arrondissement of Aix-en-Provence, in the department of Bouches-du-Rhône, in the region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. The population of Aix-en-Provence is of approximately 143,000. Its inhabitants are called Aixois or, less commonly, Aquisextains.

Contents

History

Rue Espariat in November 2013. Aix (52402216).jpeg
Rue Espariat in November 2013.

Aix (Aquae Sextiae) was founded in 123 BC by the Roman consul Sextius Calvinus, who gave his name to its springs, following the destruction of the nearby Gallic oppidum at Entremont. [5] [6] In 102 BC its vicinity was the scene of the Battle of Aquae Sextiae, where the Romans under Gaius Marius defeated the Ambrones and Teutones, [5] with mass suicides among the captured women, which passed into Roman legends of Germanic heroism. [7]

In the 4th century AD it became the metropolis of Narbonensis Secunda. It was occupied by the Visigoths in 477. In the succeeding century, the town was repeatedly plundered by the Franks and Lombards, and was occupied by the Saracens in 731 and by Charles Martel in 737. Aix, which during the Middle Ages was the capital of Provence, did not reach its zenith until after the 12th century, when, under the houses of Barcelona/Aragon and Anjou, it became an artistic centre and seat of learning. [5]

Aix passed to the crown of France with the rest of Provence in 1487, and in 1501 Louis XII established there the parliament of Provence, which existed until 1789. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the town was the seat of the Intendance of Provence. [5] Current archeological excavations in the Ville des Tours, a medieval suburb of Aix, have unearthed the remains of a Roman amphitheatre. [8] A deposit of fossil bones from the Upper Continental Miocene gave rise to a Christian dragon legend. [9]

Geography and climate

Aix-en-Provence is situated in the south of France, in a plain overlooking the Arc river, about a mile from the right bank of the river. The city slopes gently from north to south and the Montagne Sainte-Victoire can easily be seen to the east. Aix's position in the south of France gives it a warm climate, though more extreme than Marseille due to the inland location. It has an average January temperature of 6 °C (43  °F ) and a July average of 24 °C (75  °F ). It has an average of 300 days of sunshine and only 91 days of rain. [10] While it is partially protected from the Mistral, Aix still occasionally experiences the cooler and gusty conditions it brings.

Unlike most of France which has an oceanic climate, Aix-en-Provence has a Mediterranean climate.

Climate data for Aix-en-Provence (1981–2010, extremes 1955–present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)20.9
(69.6)
22.8
(73.0)
25.6
(78.1)
28.2
(82.8)
34.2
(93.6)
42.0
(107.6)
40.2
(104.4)
39.3
(102.7)
34.6
(94.3)
29.9
(85.8)
23.6
(74.5)
22.7
(72.9)
42.0
(107.6)
Average high °C (°F)11.4
(52.5)
12.4
(54.3)
15.6
(60.1)
18.3
(64.9)
22.8
(73.0)
27.1
(80.8)
30.6
(87.1)
30.1
(86.2)
25.5
(77.9)
20.8
(69.4)
15.0
(59.0)
11.9
(53.4)
20.2
(68.4)
Daily mean °C (°F)6.2
(43.2)
6.9
(44.4)
9.7
(49.5)
12.4
(54.3)
16.7
(62.1)
20.5
(68.9)
23.6
(74.5)
23.2
(73.8)
19.3
(66.7)
15.4
(59.7)
9.9
(49.8)
6.9
(44.4)
14.3
(57.7)
Average low °C (°F)0.9
(33.6)
1.3
(34.3)
3.7
(38.7)
6.5
(43.7)
10.5
(50.9)
14.0
(57.2)
16.6
(61.9)
16.2
(61.2)
13.0
(55.4)
10.0
(50.0)
4.8
(40.6)
1.9
(35.4)
8.3
(46.9)
Record low °C (°F)−16.6
(2.1)
−20.2
(−4.4)
−12.5
(9.5)
−4
(25)
−1.1
(30.0)
3.2
(37.8)
6.0
(42.8)
4.0
(39.2)
1.7
(35.1)
−4.7
(23.5)
−9
(16)
−14.9
(5.2)
−20.2
(−4.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches)51.7
(2.04)
36.1
(1.42)
34.8
(1.37)
56.3
(2.22)
51.2
(2.02)
30.7
(1.21)
13.3
(0.52)
36.0
(1.42)
85.7
(3.37)
74.6
(2.94)
61.4
(2.42)
54.0
(2.13)
585.8
(23.06)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)5.74.64.36.65.43.61.93.14.96.56.75.959.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 150.7178.7238.8242.0289.4327.3370.2328.6256.2185.1154.1140.12,861
Source: Météo France [11]

Sights

Les Deux Garcons Aix- cafe des deux garcons.jpg
Les Deux Garçons
The Cathedral Cloisters Aix - cloitre St Sauveur.JPG
The Cathedral Cloisters

The Cours Mirabeau is a wide thoroughfare, planted with double rows of plane trees, bordered by fine houses and decorated by fountains. It follows the line of the old city wall, and divides the town into two sections. The new town extends to the south and west; the old town, with its narrow, irregular streets and its old mansions dating from the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, lies to the north. Situated on this avenue, which is lined on one side with banks and on the other with cafés, is the Deux Garçons, the most famous brasserie in Aix. Built in 1792, it was frequented by the likes of Paul Cézanne, Émile Zola and Ernest Hemingway. [12] On 01/12/2019 Les Deux Garçons was devastated by a fire that engulfed the entire building, leaving the much loved establishment just a shell. [13]

The Cathedral of the Holy Saviour (Aix Cathedral) is situated to the north in the medieval part of Aix. Built on the site of a former Roman forum and an adjacent basilica, it contains a mixture of all styles from the 5th to the 17th century, including a richly decorated portal in the Gothic style with doors elaborately carved in walnut. The interior contains 16th-century tapestries, a 15th-century triptych depicting King René and his wife on the side panels, as well as a Merovingian baptistery, its Renaissance dome supported by original Roman columns. The archbishop's palace (Palais de l'Archêveché) and a Romanesque cloister adjoin the cathedral on its south side. [14] The Archbishopric of Aix is now shared with Arles.

Place de l'Hotel de Ville Hoteldeville-aix.JPG
Place de l'Hôtel de Ville
Saint-Jean-de-Malte L'Eglise St-Jean de Malte - Place St Jean de Malte - Aix-en-Provence.jpg
Saint-Jean-de-Malte

Among its other public institutions, Aix also has the second most important Appeal Court (Palais de Justice) outside of Paris, located near the site of the former Palace of the Counts (Palais des Comtes) of Provence.

The Aix-en-Provence Town Hall (Hôtel de Ville), a building in the classical style of the middle of the 17th century, looks onto a picturesque square (Place de l'Hôtel de Ville). It contains some fine woodwork and tapestries. At its side rises a handsome clock-tower erected in 1510. [15] Also on the Place de l'Hôtel de Ville is the former Corn Exchange (1759–1761) (Halle de Grains). This ornately decorated 18th-century building was designed by the Vallon brothers. Nearby are the remarkable thermal springs, containing lime and carbonic acid, that first drew the Romans to Aix and gave it the name Aquae Sextiae. A spa was built in 1705 near the remains of the ancient Roman baths of Sextius. [16]

South of the Cours Mirabeau is the Quartier Mazarin. This residential district was constructed for the gentry of Aix by Archbishop Michele Mazzarino brother of Cardinal Jules Mazarin in the last half of the 17th century and contains several notable hôtels particuliers. The 13th-century church of Saint-Jean-de-Malte contains valuable pictures and a recently restored organ. Next to it is the Musée Granet, devoted to European painting and sculpture.

Aix is often referred to as the city of a thousand fountains. [17] Among the most notable are the 17th-century Fontaine des Quatre Dauphins (Fountain of the Four Dolphins) in the Quartier Mazarin, designed by Jean-Claude Rambot, [18] and three of the fountains down the central Cours Mirabeau: At the top, a 19th-century fountain depicts the "good king" René holding the Muscat grapes that he introduced to Provence in the 15th century; halfway down is a natural hot water fountain (34 °C), covered in moss, dating back to the Romans; and at the bottom at la Rotonde, the hub of modern Aix, stands a monumental fountain from 1860 beneath three giant statues representing art, justice and agriculture. In the older part of Aix, there are also fountains of note in the Place d'Albertas and the Place des Trois-Ormeaux.

Education

The Institute of Political Studies (Sciences Po) Aix-en-Provence Institut etudes politiques 20061227.jpg
The Institute of Political Studies (Sciences Po)

Aix has long been a university town: Louis II of Anjou granted a royal charter for a university in 1409. Today Aix-en-Provence remains an important educational centre, with many teaching and research institutes:

Aix also has several training collèges, lycées, and a college of art and design. It has also become a centre for many international study programmes. Several lycées offer CPGE.

Culture

Sir Simon Rattle conducting Das Rheingold in 2006. Rattle BPH-Rittershaus1-Wikipedia.jpg
Sir Simon Rattle conducting Das Rheingold in 2006.

Music

Aix holds two significant musical events each year. These are:

Festival d'Aix-en-Provence

An important opera festival, the Festival international d'Art Lyrique , founded in 1948, now ranks with those in Bayreuth, Salzburg and Glyndebourne. The current director is Bernard Foccroulle, director of la Monnaie in Brussels. The festival takes place in late June and July each year. The main venues in Aix itself are the outdoor Théâtre de l'Archévêché in the former garden of the archbishop's palace, the recently restored 18th-century Théâtre du Jeu de Paume, and the newly built Grand Théâtre de Provence; operas are also staged in the outdoor Théâtre du Grand Saint-Jean outside Aix. Linked to the festival is the Académie européenne de musique, a summer school for young musicians with master classes by celebrated artists. Over the four-year period from 2006 until 2009, Sir Simon Rattle's version of Wagner's Ring Cycle with the Berlin Philharmonic was performed at the Aix festival.

Musique dans la Rue

This takes place each year in June to coincide with the national 'Fête de la Musique.' There is a week of classical, jazz and popular concerts held in different street venues and courtyards in the city. Some of these events are held in the Conservatoire Darius Milhaud, named in honour of the French composer, a native of Aix.

Dance

The dance company Ballet Preljocaj of the French dancer and choreographer Angelin Preljocaj has been located in Aix since 1996. In 2007 it took up residence in the Pavillon Noir, a centre for dance performance, designed in 1999 by the architect Rudy Ricciotti. The centre is one of nineteen of its kind in France, designated Centre chorégraphique national.

European Capital of Culture

Aix-en-Provence was part of Marseille-Provence 2013, the year-long cultural festival when the region served as the European Capital of Culture. Aix hosted several major cultural events including one half of the Grand Atelier du Midi gala exhibition and an episode of the Révélations pyrotechnical performance. The city also unveiled major new cultural infrastructure to coincide with Marseille-Provence 2013, including the Darius Milhaud Conservatory designed by Kengo Kuma.

Museums and Libraries

Granet's "Pumpkin Harvest" at the Musee Granet. Francois Marius Granet - La recolte des citrouilles a la Bastide de Malvalat.jpg
Granet's "Pumpkin Harvest" at the Musée Granet.

Aix has several museums and galleries:

The Vendome Pavilion in Aix-en-Provence. Aix-en-Provence - Pavillon Vendome.jpg
The Vendôme Pavilion in Aix-en-Provence.

Prior to 1989 Aix had several libraries, for example in the Parc Jourdan and the Town Hall. In 1989, many of these were moved to the Méjanes, an old match factory.

In 1993, the "Cité du Livre" was opened around the library. This has media spaces for dance, cinema and music, and a training facility for librarians. Adjacent to the Cité du Livre are the Grand Théâtre de Provence and the Pavillon Noir (see above).

Montagne Sainte-Victoire

Mont Sainte-Victoire and the Viaduct of the Arc River Valley, Paul Cezanne 1882-1885. Paul Cezanne - Mont Sainte-Victoire and the Viaduct of the Arc River Valley (Metropolitan Museum of Art).jpg
Mont Sainte-Victoire and the Viaduct of the Arc River Valley , Paul Cézanne 1882–1885.
Mont Sainte-Victoire, Paul Cezanne 1904-1906. Montagne Sainte-Victoire, par Paul Cezanne 109.jpg
Mont Sainte-Victoire, Paul Cézanne 1904–1906.

To the east of Aix rises the Montagne Sainte-Victoire (1011 m), one of the landmarks of the Pays d'Aix. It is accessible from the centre of Aix by road or on foot, taking the wooded footpath of Escrachou Pevou to the plateau of Bibemus. [21] It dramatically overshadows the small dam built by Émile Zola's father and was a favourite subject and haunt of Paul Cézanne throughout his lifetime. In the village of Le Tholonet on the precipitous southern side of Mont Sainte-Victoire, there is a windmill that he used and beyond that a mountain hut, the refuge Cézanne, where he liked to paint.

To the north, the mountain slopes gently down through woodland to the village of Vauvenargues. The Château of Vauvenargues overlooking the village was formerly occupied by the Counts of Provence (including René of Anjou) and the Archbishops of Aix before it became the family home of the marquis de Vauvenargues. [22] It was acquired by the Spanish artist Pablo Picasso in 1958, who was resident there from 1959 until 1962, when he moved to Mougins. He and his wife Jacqueline are buried in its grounds, [23] [24] [25] which are not usually open to the public. From 2009 onwards, the château, which now belongs to Jacqueline's daughter Catherine Hutin, has been open to the public from June to September. [26]

Mont Sainte-Victoire has a complex network of paths, leading to the priory and Croix de Provence at the summit, to the large man-made reservoir of Bimont and to the Roman viaduct above le Tholonet.

Sport

-The city holds a junior fencing World Cup for men's foil in January of each year Las Argonautes - American Football Team

Economy

Calissons, a specialty of Aix. Calisson.jpg
Calissons, a specialty of Aix.

Industries formerly included flour-milling, the manufacture of confectionery, iron-ware, hats, matches and the extraction of olive oil. [28]

Current economic activities include:

The airline Twin Jet has its head office in Aix-en-Provence. [36]

Population

Historical population
YearPop.±%
2006142,534    
2007143,404+0.6%
2008142,743−0.5%
2009141,895−0.6%
2010141,438−0.3%
2011140,684−0.5%
2012141,148+0.3%
2013141,545+0.3%
2014142,149+0.4%
2015142,668+0.4%
2016143,006+0.2%

Politics

Presidential Elections Second Round: [37]

ElectionWinning CandidateParty%
2017 Emmanuel Macron EM 73.59
2012 Nicolas Sarkozy UMP 53.09
2007 Nicolas Sarkozy UMP 57.30
2002 Jacques Chirac RPR 80.74

Transport

Aix-en-Provence TGV railway station. Gare aix en provence tgv3.jpg
Aix-en-Provence TGV railway station.

A set of ancient roads radiate out from Aix to the surrounding countryside, the Pays d'Aix. There are also a large number of modern autoroutes connecting Aix to nearby towns. There are autoroutes northwards to Avignon and to the Luberon; southwards to Marseille; and eastwards to Aubagne and the Mediterranean coast of Provence; and to Nice and other towns on the French Riviera. Aix and Marseille are equidistant from the Marseille Provence Airport (MRS) at Marignane on the Etang de Berre which features domestic and international scheduled passenger service. There is another airport at Les Milles, which is mostly used by general aviation. There is a frequent bus shuttle service from the main bus station in Aix which also serves the nearby TGV station at l'Arbois, in the middle of the countryside about 10 miles (16 km) from Aix.

At Aix, the line from Paris branches to Marseille and Nice; it takes about 3 hours to get from Paris to Aix by TGV. Aix also has a railway station near the centre, Gare d'Aix-en-Provence, with connections to Marseille, Pertuis and Briançon in the French Alps. A frequent and rapid shuttle bus service for commuters operates between the bus station in Aix and Marseille. There are many other long distance and local buses from the bus station. The city also offers a "city pass" available in 24, 48, and 72-hour packages for visiting tourists. [38] The "pass tourisitque" is offered at the Aix-en-Provence Tourist Office, the Atelier de Cézanne, and the official Aix tourism website. [38]

In the town itself, there is an inexpensive municipal bus service, including a dial-a-bus service ("proxibus"), a park-and-ride service and tiny electrified buses for those with mobility problems. Those are six seater vehicles that circulate at a speed of 10 mph (16.09 km/h). [39] The central old town of Aix is for the most part pedestrianised. There are large underground and overground parking structures placed at regular intervals on the "boulevard exterieur", the predominantly one-way ring road that encircles the old town. Access to the old town is by a series of often narrow one-way streets that can be confusing to navigate for the uninitiated. [40] [41]

As in many other French cities, a short-term bicycle hire scheme nicknamed V'Hello, free for trips of less than half an hour, has recently been put in place by the town council: and has been popular with tourists. [42] As well as overland routes, two "rivers" flow through Aix, the Arc and the Torse, but neither of which can remotely be described as navigable.

Miscellaneous

Cours Mirabeau. 2016 Aix-en-Provence - Le cours Mirabeau.jpg
Cours Mirabeau.

The local Aix dialect, rarely used and spoken by a rapidly decreasing number of people, is part of the provencal dialect of the Occitan language. The provencal for "Aix-en-Provence" is "Ais de Prouvènço" [ˈaj de pʀuˈvɛ̃sɔ]. Most of the older streets in Aix have names in both Provençal and French.

Aix hosted the ninth International Congress of Modern Architecture in 1953.

Aix is the home town of the rugby union team Provence Rugby. It played host to the All Blacks during the early stages of the 2007 Rugby World Cup. [43] [44]

Ysabel , the tenth novel of the best-selling Canadian author Guy Gavriel Kay, was set and written in Aix.

Italian electroacoustic artist Giuseppe Ielasi's album Aix [45] was produced in Aix-en-Provence, hence the title.

This is also the site of an alleged sighting and landing of a UFO in 1981 that is taken seriously by GEIPAN, the department within the French Space Agency responsible for investigating aerospace phenomena. [46]

Twin towns and sister cities

Twin towns - Sister cities

Aix-en-Provence is officially twinned [47] [48] with the following seven cities (in alphabetical order):

Partnerships

In addition, Aix has international cooperations, partnerships and exchanges with the following cities from all over the world: [47]

People from Aix

Births

Jean-Baptiste van Loo JB van Loo.jpg
Jean-Baptiste van Loo
Francois Marius Granet. Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres 018.jpg
François Marius Granet.
Paul Cezanne. Paul cezanne 1861.jpg
Paul Cézanne.
Helene Grimaud. Helene Grimaud Roque-d Antheron 2004 cropped.jpg
Hélène Grimaud.

Aix-en-Provence was the birthplace of:

Famous residents

Rene of Anjou Le Roi Rene.PNG
René of Anjou
Edouard Manet, Portrait of Emile Zola, 1868, Musee d'Orsay Manet, Edouard - Portrait of Emile Zola.jpg
Édouard Manet, Portrait of Émile Zola , 1868, Musée d'Orsay


See also

Notes

  1. "Populations légales 2017". INSEE . Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  2. "Aix-en-Provence". Lexico UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press . Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  3. "Aix-en-Provence". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt . Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  4. "Aix-en-Provence". Merriam-Webster Dictionary . Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  5. 1 2 3 4 Chisholm 1911, p. 447.
  6. « Histoire d'Aix » Archived 4 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine , site de l'office du tourisme d'Aix-en-Provence.
  7. cf Jerome, letter cxxiii, To Ageruchia, 8, 409 A.D.
  8. Théâtre antique d’Aquae Sextiae (in French)
  9. "Tourist office; the climate of Aix". Aixenprovencetourism.com. Archived from the original on 10 February 2010. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
  10. "Aix en Provence (13)" (PDF). Fiche Climatologique: Statistiques 1981–2010 et records (in French). Meteo France. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 March 2018. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  11. Sarre, Claude-Alain (2007). "Les Deux Garçons. Quatre Siècles d'Histoire au Coeur d'Aix-en-Provence". Université Aix. ISBN   2-903449-92-9.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  12. "Aix : les "2G" totalement détruits par un incendie". La Provence. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  13. Michelin Guide to Provence, ISBN   2-06-137503-0, pages 67–68.
  14. "Tourist office: Old Aix". Aixenprovencetourism.com. Archived from the original on 17 February 2010. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
  15. Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911.
  16. Laurence Labrouche, "Ariane Mnouchkine: un parcours théâtral: le terrassier, l'enfant et le voyageur", L'Harmattan (1999), ISBN   2-7384-8022-5, page 66, "la ville aux mille fontaines"
  17. "Provence". Michelin Green Guide. Michelin. 1999. ISBN   0-320-03732-0.Cite journal requires |journal= (help), page 69. The fountain was built in 1667.
  18. "Website of the Musée Granet". Museegranet-aixenprovence.fr. Archived from the original on 23 April 2010. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
  19. "Reopening of the Musée Granet in Aix-en-Provence". The Art Tribune. 20 August 2007. Retrieved 22 May 2009.
  20. "Montagne Ste-Victoire, Aix-en-Provence, Gardanne, Trets". La Carte de Randonnée, 1;25,000. 3244 ET. Institut Géographique National.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  21. Mairie of Vauvenargues, History and heritage (in French)
  22. O'Brian, Patrick (1976). "Picasso: Pablo Ruiz Picasso : a Biography" . Putnam. ISBN   88-304-0863-8.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  23. "Pablo Picasso's Last Days and Final Journey". TIME. 23 April 1973.
  24. Bruno Ely (2009). "Château de Vauvenargues". ImageArt. ISBN   978-2-9534525-0-1.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  25. Château of Vauvenargues, official web site
  26. Ribeiro, Benjamin. "Euro 2016: Aix, camp de base de l'Ukraine" Archived 26 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine , aix-international.com (in French). Retrieved on 18 March 2016.
  27. "Histoire d'Aix-en-Provence". Edisud. 1977. ISBN   2-85744-237-8.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  28. Beckett-Young, Kathleen (26 February 1989). "FARE OF THE COUNTRY; Provence's Almond Calissons". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 24 November 2019.
  29. "France battles China over sweets trademark". 16 November 2016. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
  30. Parker, Robert (1996). "The Wine Buyer's Guide". Dorling Kindersley: 488. ISBN   0-7513-0342-9.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  31. "Official website for Château Simone". Chateau-simone.fr. Archived from the original on 10 April 2010. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
  32. "Guide des Vins – Château Crémade" (in French). Guidevins.com. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
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  48. "British towns twinned with French towns". The Mayor of Bath.
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  51. "Acordos de Geminação" (in Portuguese). © 2009 Câmara Municipal de Coimbra – Praça 8 de Maio – 3000-300 Coimbra. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  52. Perugia Official site – Relazioni Internazionali Archived 15 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine (in Italian)
  53. Jessula, Georges (2003). "Darius Milhaud, Compositeur de Musique". Revue Juive: 140–144. Since their marriage in 1892, Milhaud's parents lived in the Bras d'Or in Aix-en-Provence, where their son grew up; however he was delivered at the home of his maternal grandparents in Marseille.
  54. Milhaud, Darius (1998). "Ma Vie heureuse". Zurfluh. ISBN   2-87750-083-7.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  55. FullSIX (22 December 1972). "Franck Cammas – Profile". Cammas-groupama.com. Archived from the original on 21 May 2009. Retrieved 22 May 2009.

Explanatory footnotes

  1. However, with the preposition a/à 'to', the forms are as Ais/à-z-Ais [aˈzaj] .

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Attribution

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