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Ajristan District in yellow
|• Total||2,653 km2 (1,024 sq mi)|
Ajristan (Persian/Pashto: اجرستان) also spelled Ajeristan, is a district in the western part of Ghazni Province, Afghanistan. Its population was estimated at 62,028 in 2001, of which 90% are Pashtun people with others from the Hazara people. Sangar, in the center of the district, is the capital. Most of the population live in the Jikhai River valley and depend upon agriculture, the main source of its economy. The last decade of severe winters and droughts have affected the economy and quality of life..
Ajristan (or Hujiristan) was previously including most part of the Hazara homeland. Ajristan has currently an area of 2,653 km2 (1,024 sq mi) and consists of a series of valleys. The hills Shah Tus Aka Ghar and Koishafil surround Ajristan and act as natural barriers. There are no natural boundaries between Ajristan and adjoining districts of Malistan to the northeast, Gizab and Sangi Masha to the east, and Daya Chopan. The closest major city is Ghazni to the west. Ajristan lies in the lap of several mountain ranges, which are the extensions of Shah Tus Baba, so a larger part consists of high mountains and hills. The ranges are irregularly placed: some extend to the west; others to the east, but the general direction is north–south. The mountain ranges enclose many small valleys. In the middle of the valley passes the Jikhai River, a major source of water, especially for agriculture.
Ajristan was historically part of Uruzgan Province, when it was called Daya wa Polad. Hazara people were the original inhabitants of the district until the 1880s. After their disastrous defeat in the early 1890s, they were mostly killed or driven out. The district is now dominated mostly by the Pashtun. However, some Hazara remnants are still living there as the minority.Pashto is the language spoken by majority of Ajristani residents. Other languages include Persian. Pashton peoples in this area originate mostly from the Mulla Khail Tribe.
Ajristan has a semi-arid climate with a significant temperature variation between summer and winter. Summer starts in late May and continues until early September with average temperatures ranging from 24 to 26 °C (75–78 °F). The highest recorded temperature is 42 °C (108 °F) on 10 July 1998. Autumn begins in late September and continues until mid-November with average temperatures in the 12–18 °C (55–65 °F) range. Winter starts in late November and ends in late March, with average temperatures near 4–5 °C (39–41 °F). The lowest recorded temperature was −18.3 °C (−0.9 °F) on 8 January 1970. Spring starts in early April and ends in late May with average temperatures near 15 °C (60 °F). Unlike areas to the east, Ajristan does not have a monsoon season of heavy rainfall. Highest recorded rainfall within 24 hours is 113 millimetres (4.4 in) on 17 December 2000. Highest recorded monthly rainfall is 232.4 millimetres (9.15 in) in March 1982, and the highest recorded annual rainfall 949.8 millimetres (37.39 in) was in 1982. Snowfall occurs primarily in December, January, and February and is the principal precipitation in the winter.
During a severe drought from 1999 to 2001, Ajristan did not receive any snowfall, and rainfall was below normal levels. In 2003, the district received significant snowfall after a long drought. In 2004 and 2005, it received normal rains for the first time in three years with some snowfall, while in 2006, 2007, and 2009, the district received no snow. In 2008, Ajristan received four inches of snow in four hours on 29 January 2008.On 2 February 2008, Ajristan received ten inches of snow in 10 hours, the heaviest snowfall for the district in the last ten years. During the winter of 2010, it received no snow and suffered below normal levels of rainfall due to El-Nino.
The severe droughts and winters have taken a toll on the economy, which is based mostly on agriculture and other locally grown products. A 2009 paper describes Ajristan residents "eating alfalfa, which is...detrimental to the human digestive system,"a problem compounded by the lack of adequate medical care in the area. Most karezes have dried, so the district relies on a few wells and the Jikhai River for water.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, formerly known as the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and located in the northwestern region of the country along the International border with Afghanistan.
Quetta (Pashto: کوټه Kwaṭa; Balochi: کویته;Urdu: کوئٹہ; [ˈkweːʈə]; formerly known as Shalkot is the provincial capital and largest city of the Province of Balochistan in Pakistan. It is also the 10th largest city of Pakistan. It was largely destroyed in the 1935 Quetta earthquake, but was rebuilt and has a population of 1,001,205 according to the census of 2017. Quetta is at an average elevation of 1,680 metres above sea level, making it Pakistan's only high-altitude major city. The city is known as the "Fruit Garden of Pakistan," due to the numerous fruit orchards in and around it, and the large variety of fruits and dried fruit products produced there.
The climate of India comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a vast geographic scale and varied topography, making generalizations difficult. Climate in north India is generally hotter than south India whereas the South India gets more humid due to nearby coasts. Most parts of the nation don't experience temperatures below 10 °C (50 °F) in winter, and the temperature usually tends to exceed 40 °C (104 °F) during summer. Based on the Köppen system, India hosts six major climatic sub types, ranging from arid deserts in the west, alpine tundra and glaciers in the north, and humid tropical regions supporting rain forests in the southwest and the island territories. Many regions have starkly different microclimates, making it one of the most climatically diverse countries in the world. The country's meteorological department follows the international standard of four seasons with some local adjustments: winter, summer, monsoon (rainy) season, and a post-monsoon period.
A humid continental climate is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, typified by four distinct seasons and large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters. Precipitation is usually distributed throughout the year. The definition of this climate regarding temperature is as follows: the mean temperature of the coldest month must be below −3 °C (26.6 °F) and there must be at least four months whose mean temperatures are at or above 10 °C (50 °F). In addition, the location in question must not be semi-arid or arid. The Dfb, Dwb and Dsb subtypes are also known as hemiboreal.
The climate of Salt Lake City, Utah features cold and snowy winters, hot and dry summers, and modest to light seasonal rainfall. Lying in the Salt Lake Valley, the city is surrounded by mountains and the Great Salt Lake. Under the Köppen climate classification, Salt Lake City has either a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) or a humid continental climate (Dfa) depending on which variant of the system is used, though it borders on a Mediterranean climate (Csa) or dry-summer continental climate (Dsa) as summers are quite dry.
Hazara is a region in the northeastern part of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. It is located east of the Indus River and comprises seven districts: Abbottabad, Battagram, Haripur, Mansehra, Upper Kohistan, Lower Kohistan, and Torghar.
The climate of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, is a moderate oceanic climate that borders on a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Csb). Its summer months are typically dry, often resulting in moderate drought conditions, usually in July and August. In contrast, the rest of the year is rainy, especially between October and March.
The characteristics of United States rainfall climatology differ significantly across the United States and those under United States sovereignty. Late summer and fall tropical cyclones bring precipitation which falls across the Gulf and Atlantic states. During the winter, and spring, Pacific storm systems bring Hawaii and the western United States most of their precipitation. Low pressure systems moving up the East coast bring cold season precipitation to the Mid-West and Northeast states, as well as Great Salt Lake and the Finger Lakes region. The snow to liquid ratio across the contiguous United States averages 13:1, meaning 13 inches (330 mm) of snow melts down to 1 inch (25 mm) of water.
Rashidan District is a new district in Afghanistan; it was created from the larger Jaghatu district.
Australia's climate is governed mostly by its size and by the hot, sinking air of the subtropical high pressure belt. This moves north-west and north-east with the seasons. The climate is variable, with frequent droughts lasting several seasons, thought to be caused in part by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Australia has a wide variety of climates due to its large geographical size. The largest part of Australia is desert or semi-arid. Only the south-east and south-west corners have a temperate climate and moderately fertile soil. The northern part of the country has a tropical climate, varying between grasslands and desert. Australia holds many heat-related records: the continent has the hottest extended region year-round, the areas with the hottest summer climate, and the highest sunshine duration.
Texas' weather varies widely, from arid in the west to humid in the east. The huge expanse of Texas encompasses several regions with distinctly different climates: Northern Plains, Trans-Pecos Region, Texas Hill Country, Piney Woods, and South Texas. Generally speaking, the part of Texas that lies to the east of Interstate 35 is subtropical, while the portion that lies to the west of Interstate 35 is arid desert.
The climate of Georgia is a humid subtropical climate, with most of the state having short, mild winters and long, hot summers. The Atlantic Ocean on the east coast of Georgia and the hill country in the north impact the state's climate. Also, the Chattahoochee River divides Georgia into separate climatic regions with the mountain region to the northwest being cooler than the rest of the state, the average temperatures for that region in January and July being 39 °F (4 °C) and 78 °F (26 °C) respectively. Winter in Georgia is characterized by mild temperatures and little snowfall around the state, with the potential for snow and ice increasing in the northern parts of the state. Summer daytime temperatures in Georgia often exceed 95 °F (35 °C). The state experiences widespread precipitation. Tornadoes and tropical cyclones are common.
The climate of the United States varies due to changes in latitude, and a range of geographic features, including mountains and deserts. Generally, on the mainland, the climate of the U.S. becomes warmer the further south one travels, and drier the further west, until one reaches the West Coast.
The climate of Moncton is mostly maritime, typical of most cities located in the Maritime Provinces of Canada, but the climate demonstrates strong seasonal continental influences. Despite being less than 50 km (31 mi) from the Bay of Fundy and less than 30 km (19 mi) from the Northumberland Strait, the climate can seem more continental than maritime during the summer and winter seasons, whereas maritime influences tend to temper the transitional seasons of spring and autumn.
Tasmania has a cool temperate climate with four distinct seasons. The highest recorded maximum temperature in Tasmania is 42.2 °C (108.0 °F) at Scamander on 30 January 2009, during the 2009 southeastern Australia heat wave. Tasmania's lowest recorded minimum temperature is −14.2 °C (6.4 °F) on 7 August 2020, at Central Plateau.
A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and cold to mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents, generally between latitudes 25° and 40° and are located poleward from adjacent tropical climates. It is also known as warm temperate climate.
Launceston, Tasmania has a cool, temperate climate, with four distinct seasons. The city is located in the Tamar Valley in Northern Tasmania and is surrounded by many large hills and mountains. With this type of topography, Launceston's weather patterns can change considerably in a short period.
The climate of south-west England is classed as oceanic (Cfb) according to the Köppen climate classification. The oceanic climate is typified by cool winters with warmer summers and precipitation all year round, with more experienced in winter. Annual rainfall is about 1,000 millimetres (39 in) and up to 2,000 millimetres (79 in) on higher ground. Summer maxima averages range from 18 °C (64 °F) to 22 °C (72 °F) and winter minima averages range from 1 °C (34 °F) to 4 °C (39 °F) across the south-west. It is the second windiest area of the United Kingdom, the majority of winds coming from the south-west and north-east. Government organisations predict the area will experience a rise in temperature and become the hottest region in the United Kingdom.
Quetta, Pakistan features a continental semiarid climate with a large variation between summer and winter temperatures. The highest temperature recorded in Quetta was 42 °C (108 °F) on 10 July 1998. The lowest temperature in Quetta is −18.3 °C (−0.9 °F) which was recorded on 8 January 1970.