Location of Akçaabat within Turkey.
|• Mayor||Şefik Türkmen (AKP)|
|• District||353.66 km2 (136.55 sq mi)|
|Elevation||10 m (30 ft)|
|• District density||320/km2 (830/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (EEST)|
Akçaabat is a town and district of Trabzon Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. It is located to the west of the city of Trabzon. It covers an area of 385 km2 (149 sq mi) and the elevation is ten metres (33 ft). The town has an estimated population of 48,315 (2007). Akçaabat is a coastal town known for its local soccer team Akçaabat Sebatspor, its kofta dish Akçaabat köfte and the Akçaabat Horonu dance. Akçaabat has hosted an international folklore festival since 1990, and it was a venue for Archery and Athletics competitions of the First Black Sea Games held in 2007.
The first settlers of the town came from Aegean shores and named the town "Platana" because of the abundance of plane trees (Greek Plátanos, Πλάτανος, Latin Platanus). In Turkish, the name was reinterpreted as Pulathane 'land of iron' and the surrounding district became Akçeabad 'abundance of money'.
The climate in this area is characterized by relatively high temperatures and evenly distributed precipitation throughout the year. The Köppen Climate System classifies this climate as humid subtropical, abbreviated Cfa.
|Climate data for Akçaabat|
|Average high °C (°F)||10|
|Average low °C (°F)||3|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||79|
Founded as a trade colony of Miletus around the 7th century BC, the town came under Persian rule around the 6th century BC. After a brief rule under Alexander the Great, Akçaabat was incorporated into the Kingdom of Pontus established by Mithridates I of Pontus around the 3rd century BC. After the dissolution of the Kingdom of Pontus around 60 BC, the Romans took control of the region surrounding Trabzon. Serving as a natural port for Trabzon, Akçaabat was one of the important towns of eastern Black Sea region, and thus Pontus region of the Roman Empire.
Although attacked several times by different nations and tribes Akçaabat remained under Byzantine control until a branch of the Byzantine dynasty, Komnenos family established their own kingdom with the help of Georgian queen Tamara after the Latin capture of Constantinople in 1204. This new state, called the Empire of Trebizond, survived as a vassal kingdom under the Seljukid Empire until Sultan Mehmet II "the conqueror" of the Ottoman Empire added Trabzon to his territories in October 1461. The first battle between the Ottoman Navy and the Komnenos Navy occurred to the west of Akçaabat port, around Akçakale where the Trapezuntines lost eight ships. As Akçaabat lies to the west of Trabzon, Mehmet II used Akçaabat as his base for the final conquest of Trebizond. Akçakale tower "the White Castle" held its defense until 1468 when the Ottomans finally succeeded in their siege.
During the centuries of Ottoman rule, Akçaabat remained the main and most important town center of Trebizond after the city of Trebizond itself. After the establishment of Akçaabat municipality in 1880, Akçaabat officially gained the status of "town" according to the municipal and administrative reform of 1884 which reorganized the administrative structure in the provinces of the Ottoman Empire.
In 1810 the Russian Navy landed troops on Akçaabat's shores around Salacik where the defense of the townspeople repulsed the Russian landing after several days.
During the First World War, Tsarist Russian armies occupied Akçaabat on 20 April 1916. As the Russian forces withdrew after the Russian Revolution, Ottoman forces recaptured Akçaabat on 17 February 1918. After the establishment of Turkish Republic in 1923, Akçaabat was designated as one of the towns of the city of Trabzon according to the new administrative organization. Akçaabat has remained as the biggest town of Trabzon until today. Until the 1980s Akçaabat did not witness major changes in its natural and social composition despite being the closest town to Trabzon city center, however, with the return of the German Turks people to their hometowns and flow of rural [village] population to the town center, the composition of the town center changed. The population of the town skyrocketed from 15000 in the 1980s to 50000 in 2008. The unique old-style houses [Akçaabat evleri] were replaced by huge apartment blocks, the sea has been constantly filled in order to gain land to meet rising demand for expansion of inter-city roads and recreational lands. The dissolution of the USSR in 1990 brought the influx of former Soviet citizens who mainly involved in small trades and sex tourism, and this brought major changes in social composition. Added to this, the flood of June 1990, which killed dozens of people and caused much damage necessitated the rebuilding of the town. Today, Akçaabat is one of the most densely populated towns on the Black Sea coast.
The church was built in 1332 in memory of the victory of the Byzantine Emperor Manuel Komnenos against the Seljuks. In 1846 it was repaired by the citizens of the city. Later, in 1922 after the Greek citizens left it was turned into a residential home. After the death of the family members who lived there, the building was neglected and damaged. In 2019, started the restoration and in 2021 after the restoration finished is used for social and cultural activities by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism.
Trabzon, historically known as Trebizond in English, is a city on the Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. Trabzon, located on the historical Silk Road, became a melting pot of religions, languages and culture for centuries and a trade gateway to Persia in the southeast and the Caucasus to the northeast. The Venetian and Genoese merchants paid visits to Trabzon during the medieval period and sold silk, linen and woolen fabric. Both republics had merchant colonies within the city – Leonkastron and the former "Venetian castle" – that played a role to Trabzon similar to the one Galata played to Constantinople. Trabzon formed the basis of several states in its long history and was the capital city of the Empire of Trebizond between 1204 and 1461. During the early modern period, Trabzon, because of the importance of its port, again became a focal point of trade to Persia and the Caucasus.
Pontus or Pontos is a region on the southern coast of the Black Sea, located in modern-day eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey. The name was applied to the coastal region and its mountainous hinterland by the Greeks who colonized the area in the Archaic period and derived from the Greek name of the Black Sea: Εύξεινος Πόντος (Eúxinos Póntos), "Hospitable Sea", or simply Pontos as early as the Aeschylean Persians and Herodotus' Histories.
Sinop, historically known as Sinope, is a city with a population of 219,733 on the isthmus of İnce Burun, near Cape Sinope which is situated on the northernmost edge of the Turkish side of the Black Sea coast, in the ancient region of Paphlagonia, in modern-day northern Turkey. The city serves as the capital of Sinop Province.
The Empire of Trebizond, or Trapezuntine Empire, was a monarchy and one of three successor rump states of the Byzantine Empire that flourished during the 13th through 15th centuries, consisting of the far northeastern corner of Anatolia and the southern Crimea. The empire was formed in 1204 with the help of the Georgian queen Tamar after the Georgian expedition in Chaldia and Paphlagonia, commanded by Alexios Komnenos a few weeks before the sack of Constantinople. Alexios later declared himself Emperor and established himself in Trebizond. Alexios and David Komnenos, grandsons and last male descendants of deposed Emperor Andronikos I Komnenos, pressed their claims as "Roman Emperors" against Byzantine Emperor Alexios V Doukas. The later Byzantine emperors, as well as Byzantine authors, such as George Pachymeres, Nicephorus Gregoras and to some extent Trapezuntines such as John Lazaropoulos and Basilios Bessarion, regarded the emperors of Trebizond as the "princes of the Lazes", while the possession of these "princes" was also called Lazica, in other words, their state was known as the Principality of the Lazes. Thus from the point of view of the Byzantine writers connected with the Laskaris and later with the Palaiologos dynasties, the rulers of Trebizond were not emperors.
Rize Province is a province of northeast Turkey, on the eastern Black Sea coast between Trabzon and Artvin. The province of Erzurum is to the south. It was formerly known as Lazistan, the designation of the term of Lazistan was officially banned in 1926, by patriots. The province is home to Laz, Hemshin, Turkish people and Georgian communities. Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan spent his early childhood in Rize, where his father was a member of the Turkish Coast Guard, and from which both of Erdogan's parents come from.
Trabzon Province is a province of Turkey on the Black Sea coast. Located in a strategically important region, Trabzon is one of the oldest trade port cities in Anatolia. Neighbouring provinces are Giresun to the west, Gümüşhane to the southwest, Bayburt to the southeast and Rize to the east.İsmail Ustaoğlu was appointed the Governor of the province in October 2018.
Rize is the capital city of Rize Province in the eastern part of the Black Sea Region of Turkey.
The Pontic Greeks are an ethnically Greek group who traditionally lived in the region of Pontus, on the shores of the Black Sea and in the Pontic Mountains of northeastern Anatolia. Many later migrated to other parts of Eastern Anatolia, to the former Russian province of Kars Oblast in the Transcaucasus, and to Georgia in various waves between the Ottoman conquest of the Empire of Trebizond in 1461 and the Russo-Turkish War of 1828-1829. Those from southern Russia, Ukraine, and Crimea are often referred to as "Northern Pontic [Greeks]", in contrast to those from "South Pontus", which strictly speaking is Pontus proper. Those from Georgia, northeastern Anatolia, and the former Russian Caucasus are in contemporary Greek academic circles often referred to as "Eastern Pontic [Greeks]" or as Caucasian Greeks, but also include the Turkic-speaking Urums.
Giresun, formerly Cerasus, is the provincial capital of Giresun Province in the Black Sea Region of northeastern Turkey, about 175 km (109 mi) west of the city of Trabzon.
Niksar is a city in Tokat Province, Turkey. It was settled by many empires, being once the capital city of the province. Niksar is known as "Çukurova of the North-Anatolia" due to its production of many kinds of fruits and vegetables except citrus fruits. On May 2, 2018, Niksar was included in the World Heritage tentative list.
Comana Pontica, was an ancient city located in ancient Pontus, now in modern Turkey.
The Vilayet of Trebizond or Trabzon was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) in the north-eastern part of the Ottoman Empire and corresponding to the area along the eastern Black Sea coastline and the interior highland region of the Pontic Alps. The region was populated mainly by ethnic Turks in the western half and Laz-speaking Muslims in the eastern half, although throughout the period of Ottoman rule there was a history of conversion to Turkish Islam of many of the region's Pontic Greeks - with even Gulbahar Hatun, the mother of sultan Selim the Grim said to be of Pontic Greek origin.
Espiye is a town and a district of Giresun Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey.
Eynesil is a town and a district of Giresun Province on the Black Sea coast of Turkey, east of the city of Giresun, towards Trabzon. The population was 7,505 in 2010.
Görele is a town and a district of Giresun Province on the Black Sea coast of eastern Turkey. The population was 16,033 in 2010.
Ünye is a large town and district of Ordu Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey, 76 km west of the city of Ordu. In 2009 it had 74,806 inhabitants.
The Laz people, or Lazi, are an indigenous ethnic group who mainly live in Black Sea coastal regions of Turkey and Georgia and speak Laz language, a member of the same South Caucasian language family as Georgian, Svan and Mingrelian. The Laz language is classified as endangered by UNESCO, with an estimated 130,000 to 150,000 speakers in 2001.
The Republic of Pontus was a proposed Pontic Greek state on the southern coast of the Black Sea. Its territory would have encompassed much of historical Pontus and today forms part of Turkey's Black Sea Region. The proposed state was discussed at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, but the Greek government of Eleftherios Venizelos feared the precarious position of such a state and so it was included instead in the larger proposed state of Wilsonian Armenia. Ultimately, however, neither state came into existence and the Pontic Greek population was expelled from Turkey after 1922 and resettled in the Soviet Union or in Greek Macedonia. This state of affairs was later formally recognized as part of the population exchange between Greece and Turkey in 1923. In modern Greek political circles, the exchange is seen as inextricable from the contemporaneous Greek genocide.
Chaldia was a historical region located in mountainous interior of the eastern Black Sea, northeast Anatolia. Its name was derived from a people called the Chaldoi that inhabited the region in antiquity. Chaldia was used throughout the Byzantine period and was established as a formal theme, known as the Theme of Chaldia, by 840. During the Late Middle Ages, it formed the core of the Empire of Trebizond until its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1461.
The Fatih Mosque is a mosque in Ortahisar district of Trabzon Province, Turkey. It was originally built in Byzantine times as the Panagia Chrysokephalos Church, serving as both the catholicon for the see of Trebizond, and a church for a monastery. It was built sometime in the 10th or 11th century. After Ottoman conquest of the city in 1461, the building became a mosque. The Fatih Mosque also displays the most beautiful samples of the Ottoman writing arts.