Akkaraipattu

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Akkaraipattu
அக்கரைப்பற்று
අක්කMරපත්තුව
Town
Sri Lanka location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Akkaraipattu
Coordinates: 7°13′0″N81°51′0″E / 7.21667°N 81.85000°E / 7.21667; 81.85000
Country Sri Lanka
Province Eastern
District Ampara
DS Division Akkaraipattu
Government
  Type Municipal Council
  MayorAhamed Zackie Athaullah (NC)
Area
  Total6,000 ha (15,000 acres)

Akkaraipattu (Tamil: அக்கரைப்பற்று, Sinhala: අක්කරපත්තුව) is a coastal town in the Ampara District, Eastern Province of Sri Lanka. It is approximately 250 km (160 mi) east of Colombo. During the period of British rule, the town was called Karunkodithivu. Akkaraipattu acts as an agro-economic hub. Vast extents of paddy field surround the township. [1]

Tamil language language

Tamil is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Douglas, and Chindians. Tamil is an official language of two countries: Sri Lanka and Singapore and official language of the Indian state Tamil Nadu. It has official status in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the Indian Union Territory of Puducherry. It is used as one of the languages of education in Malaysia, along with English, Malay and Mandarin. Tamil is spoken by significant minorities in the four other South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana and the Union Territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India.

Ampara District Administrative District in Eastern, Sri Lanka

Ampara District is one of the 25 districts of Sri Lanka, the second level administrative division of the country. The district is administered by a District Secretariat headed by a District Secretary appointed by the central government of Sri Lanka. The capital of the district is the town of Ampara. The district was carved out of the southern part of Batticaloa District in April 1961.

Eastern Province, Sri Lanka Province in Sri Lanka

The Eastern Province is one of the nine provinces of Sri Lanka, the first level administrative division of the country. The provinces have existed since the 19th century but did not have any legal status until 1987 when the 13th Amendment to the Constitution of Sri Lanka established provincial councils. Between 1988 and 2006 the province was temporarily merged with the Northern Province to form the North Eastern Province. The capital of the province is Trincomalee.

Contents

Akkaraipattu is located in the Sri Lankan dry zone and experiences an average annual rainfall of 119 mm (4.7 in). Approximately 47,000 people live in the area.

History

During the period of British rule, Akkaraipattu was within the Batticaloa District. A Government Agent headed each district. The posts of Maniyakkara (Assistant Government Agent) and Vanniyanar (Additional Government Agent) reported to the Government Agent.[ citation needed ]. The Vanniyanar appointed two officers directly responsible for irrigation, development, and education. Under this structure, agriculture and road construction became a prominent part of the development of the Akkaraipattu area. The Vanniyanar was also responsible for appointing the Chairman and members of local government organizations who would then conduct the functions of a local council including collecting taxes, civic construction, and maintaining law and order. The construction of the Gal Oya scheme, which commenced in 1949 and continues to be improved upon, further established agriculture—particularly paddy and sugar cane—as a driving economic force. Road development also continued in parallel with the development of land for agriculture. [2] The Urban Development Area of Akkaraipattu includes Akkaraipattu Municipal Council and includes 23 Grama Niladhari Divisions (GND) of Akkaraipattu Municipal Council and five GNDs from the Pradeshiya Sabha area. [3] (A GND is the smallest administrative unit in government.)

Batticaloa District Administrative District in Eastern, Sri Lanka

Batticaloa District is one of the 25 districts of Sri Lanka, the second level administrative division of the country. The district is administered by a District Secretariat headed by a District Secretary appointed by the central government of Sri Lanka. The capital of the district is the city of Batticaloa. Ampara District was carved out of the southern part of Batticaloa District in April 1961.

Gal Oya river in Sri Lanka

The Gal Oya is a 108 km (67 mi) long river, in South east Sri Lanka. It is the 16th longest river in Sri Lanka. It begins in the hills east of Badulla and flows northeast, emptying into the Indian Ocean south of Kalmunai.

Geography

The town is located just south of the center of the eastern coastline and can be found through the Siyambalanduwa - Damana - Ampara Road (A25) and the Colombo-Ratnapura-Wellawaya-Batticaloa Road (A4). Akkaraipattu covers an area of 48.36 km2 (18.67 sq mi). The Urban Development Area of Akkaraipattu includes Akkaraipattu Municipal Council which covers 5.07 km2 (1.96 sq mi). [3]

Topography

The terrain of Akkaraipattu area rises from sea level to 39 m (128 ft) above sea level. The terrain has large areas that are generally level and covered with agriculture. Settlements are scattered throughout the area.[ citation needed ]

Soil types

The susceptibility of soil types to drought is a major concern in Akkaraipattu. The three main soil types in this area are: alluvial soil which has variable drainage and texture, reddish-brown soil, and Solonetz soil. The alluvial soil is generally found on flat flood plains. Poorly drained alluvial soil is grey in colour whilst soil with better drainage is coloured brown to yellowish brown. The reddish brown soil has a reddish-brown surface colour when dry and turns to a dark reddish-brown colour when wet. Solonetz soil is not a fertile soil because it has a pH value greater than 8.5.[ citation needed ]

Drought extended period when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply

A drought or drouth is a natural disaster of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water. A drought can last for months or years, or may be declared after as few as 15 days. It can have a substantial impact on the ecosystem and agriculture of the affected region and harm to the local economy. Annual dry seasons in the tropics significantly increase the chances of a drought developing and subsequent bush fires. Periods of heat can significantly worsen drought conditions by hastening evaporation of water vapour.

Alluvium Loose soil or sediment that is eroded and redeposited in a non-marine setting

Alluvium is loose, unconsolidated soil or sediment that has been eroded, reshaped by water in some form, and redeposited in a non-marine setting. Alluvium is typically made up of a variety of materials, including fine particles of silt and clay and larger particles of sand and gravel. When this loose alluvial material is deposited or cemented into a lithological unit, or lithified, it is called an alluvial deposit.

Solonetz is a Reference Soil Group of the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB). They have, within the upper 100 cm of the soil profile, a so-called "natric horizon". There is a subsurface horizon (subsoil), higher in clay content than the upper horizon, that has more than 15% exchangeable sodium. The name is based on the Russian соль. Ukrainian folk word "solontsi" means salty soil. In Ukraine there are many villages that are called Solontsі.

Hydrology

Akkaraipattu has three major water tanks: Ilukkuchchenai Tank, Neethai Tank, and Thillai Aru. [4] These tanks, combined with water catchment systems, assist in supporting the paddy cultivation in the area.

Climate

Akkaraipattu is located in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The northeast monsoon period (October–February) has the highest monthly rainfall. Conversely, the dry season months of June, July, and August have the lowest rainfall. The seasonal rain provides for the cultivation of crops during the maha [5] season. The average annual rainfall is 119 mm (4.7 in).[ citation needed ] The lowest number of thundering days[ clarification needed ] are recorded during the months of January and February whilst the highest number of days are recorded in September and October, prior to the commencement of the monsoon season.[ citation needed ]

Akkaraipattu
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
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50
 
 
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10
 
 
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25
 
 
30
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95
 
 
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345
 
 
27
20
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: commons:File:Akkaraipattu_Weather.JPG

An AusAID/UN-Habitat analysis of temperature records for the years 1950–2010 reports that the highest temperatures are experienced in May, June, and July (around 34 °C [93.2 °F]). The lowest temperatures are recorded in the months of January and December (around 23 °C [73.4 °F]). The mean annual temperature is 30 °C (86.0 °F). [1]

Demographics

As of 2017, the Akkaraipattu Divisional Secretariat reports that there are 46,807 people in 13,604 families living in the Akkaraipattu Grama Niladhari division. Of these inhabitants, 22,729 are male and 24,078 are female. [6]

Education

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References

  1. 1 2 "Akkaraipattu, Sri Lanka: Disaster risk reduction and preparedness plan - Towards a sustainable and resilient city." The United Nations Human Settlements Programme, UN-Habitat 2014 Chapter 2 p13 http://unhabitat.lk/publications/disaster-risk-reduction-and-preparedness-plans/ http://unhabitat.lk/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/DRRAkkaraipattu.pdf Accessed 28 July 2018
  2. Wijeratne, L (7 November 2017). "A nation energised with Gal Oya mission". dailynews.lk.
  3. 1 2 "Akkaraipattu". apecintl.org. Retrieved 2018-08-07.
  4. "Akkaraipattu Disaster Risk Reduction and Preparedness Plan" (PDF). www.unhabitat.lk. January 2015.
  5. "Paddy Statistics". www.statistics.gov.lk. Retrieved 2018-10-17.
  6. Pavithra. "Divisional Secretariat - Akkaraipaththu - Statistical Information". www.akkaraipattu.ds.gov.lk. Retrieved 2018-10-17.

Coordinates: 7°13′N81°51′E / 7.217°N 81.850°E / 7.217; 81.850