Akwasi Afrifa

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Akwasi Amankwaa Afrifa
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Brigadier Akwasi Afrifa
3rd Head of state of Ghana
Military Head of state
In office
2 April 1969 7 August 1970
Preceded by Joseph Arthur Ankrah
Succeeded by Nii Amaa Ollennu
1st Chairman of Presidential Commission
Military Head of state
In office
September 1969 7 August 1970
Prime Minister Kofi Abrefa Busia
(1 October 1969 - 13 January 1972)
Preceded byPresidential Commission created
Succeeded by Nii Amaa Ollennu
Personal details
Born(1936-04-24)24 April 1936
Flag of the Gold Coast (1877-1957).svg   Mampong-Ashanti, Ashanti
Died26 June 1979(1979-06-26) (aged 43)
Flag of Ghana.svg   Accra, Ghana
Spouse(s)Mrs. Christine Afrifa
Profession Soldier
Military service
Branch/service Ghana Army
Years of service1957 - 1970
Rank Brigadier

Lt-General Akwasi Amankwaa Afrifa (24 April 1936 – 26 June 1979) was a Ghanaian soldier, farmer, a traditional ruler (king) and politician.

Ghana Republic in West Africa

Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a country located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa. Spanning a land mass of 238,535 km2 (92,099 sq mi), Ghana is bordered by the Ivory Coast in the west, Burkina Faso in the north, Togo in the east and the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean in the south. Ghana means "Warrior King" in the Soninke language.

Soldier one who fights as part of an organized armed force

A soldier is one who fights as part of an army. A soldier can be a conscripted or volunteer enlisted person, a non-commissioned officer, or an officer.

Farmer person that undertakes agriculture

A farmer is a person engaged in agriculture, raising living organisms for food or raw materials. The term usually applies to people who do some combination of raising field crops, orchards, vineyards, poultry, or other livestock. A farmer might own the farmed land or might work as a laborer on land owned by others, but in advanced economies, a farmer is usually a farm owner, while employees of the farm are known as farm workers, or farmhands. However, in the not so distant past, a farmer was a person who promotes or improves the growth of by labor and attention, land or crops or raises animals.

Contents

He was the head of state of Ghana and leader of the military government in 1969 and then Chairman of the Presidential Commission between 1969 and 1970. He continued as a farmer and political activist. He was elected Member of Parliament in 1979 but was executed before he could take his seat. He was executed together with two other former heads of state, General Kutu Acheampong and General Fred Akuffo, and five other Generals (Utuka, Felli, Boakye, Robert Kotei and Amedume), in June 1979. He was also popularly referred to by his title Okatakyie /ˈkætæ/ Akwasi Amankwaa Afrifa and was in addition the Abakomahene of Krobo in the Asante-Mampong Traditional Area of the Ashanti Region of Ghana.

Ignatius Kutu Acheampong Soldier and former military Head of state of Ghana

Ignatius Kutu Acheampong was a military head of state of Ghana who ruled from 13 January 1972 to 5 July 1978, when he was deposed in a palace coup. He was later executed by firing squad.

Fred Akuffo Soldier, politician, former Chief of Defence Staff and Head of state of Ghana

Lieutenant General Frederick William "Fred" Kwasi Akuffo was a soldier and politician. He was a Chief of Defence Staff of the Ghana Armed Forces and a Head of state and chairman of the ruling Supreme Military Council (SMC) in Ghana from 1978 to 1979. He came to power in a military coup, was overthrown in another military coup and executed three weeks later.

Major General Robert Ebenezer Abossey Kotei was a soldier, politician and track and field athlete. He was once the Chief of Defence Staff of the Ghana Armed Forces and also a member of the Supreme Military Council which ruled Ghana between 1975 and 1979. He was executed in 1979, following a military coup. He also held the Ghanaian high jump record for many years.

Education and training

Akwasi Afrifa was born at Mampong in the Sekyere West District of the Ashanti Region of Ghana. His basic education was at the Presbyterian Boys Boarding School at Mampong. He then continued with his secondary education at Adisadel College at Cape Coast in the Central Region, where he was between 1952 and 1957, during which he was expelled. This thwarted his original ambition to be a lawyer.[ citation needed ] He joined the Ghana Army in 1957 and was sent to the Regular Officer's Special Training School. From there, he attended the Mons Officer Cadet School, Aldershot, England in 1958. [1] He then completed officer training at the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst, England. In 1961, he was at the School of Infantry, Hythe, United Kingdom.

Mampong Town and District Capital in Ashanti, Ghana

Mampong is a small town in the Mampong Municipal of Ashanti and serves as the administrative capital of Mampong Municipal. Mampong has a population of 42,037 people. Mampong is also the centre of the new Anglican Diocese of Asante Mampong, inaugurated in 2014.

According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), basic education comprises the two stages primary education and lower secondary education.

Secondary education education for most teenagers

Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education scale. Level 2 or lower secondary education is considered the second and final phase of basic education, and level 3 (upper) secondary education is the stage before tertiary education. Every country aims to provide basic education, but the systems and terminology remain unique to them. Secondary education typically takes place after six years of primary education and is followed by higher education, vocational education or employment. Like primary education, in most countries secondary education is compulsory, at least until the age of 16. Children typically enter the lower secondary phase around age 11. Compulsory education sometimes extends to age 19.

Career

In 1960, Afrifa was commissioned as second lieutenant in the Ghana Armed Forces. From 1962 up to 1964, he was a General Staff Officer in the army. He next attended the Defence College, at Teshie in Accra. Afrifa was one of the officers who served in the Ghana contingent of the United Nations Operation in the Congo. [2] Afrifa rose through the ranks to become a Major. He was also staff officer in charge of army training and operations by 1965. [3] [4] He was based at Kumasi, at the headquarters of the Second Infantry Brigade (now the Northern Command) of the Ghana Army. [5]

Second lieutenant is a junior commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces, comparable to NATO OF-1a rank.

Teshie Town in Greater Accra Region, Ghana

Teshie is a coastal town in the Ledzokuku-Krowor Municipal District, a district in the Greater Accra Region of southeastern Ghana. Teshie is the ninth most populous settlement in Ghana, with a population of 171,875 people. It is believed that the original Teshie people came from La, a town that lies to the west of Teshie. Its alternative definition refers to an individual devoted to the John Tesh radio program.

Accra Place in Ghana

Accra is the capital and largest city of Ghana, covering an area of 225.67 km2 (87.13 sq mi) with an estimated urban population of 2.27 million as of 2012. It is organized into 10 local government districts – 9 municipal districts and the Accra Metropolitan District, which is the only district within the capital to be granted city status. "Accra" usually refers to the Accra Metropolitan Area, which serves as the capital of Ghana, while the district within the jurisdiction of the Accra Metropolitan Assembly is distinguished from the rest of the capital as the "City of Accra". In common usage, however, the terms "Accra" and "City of Accra" are used interchangeably.

Politics

24 February 1966 coup

While at Kumasi, Afrifa became friends with Emmanuel Kwasi Kotoka, then a Colonel and the Commander of the Second Infantry Brigade. [6] At the time, Ghana had become a one-party state, political opposition was effectively removed with the Preventive Detention Act of 1958 and in 1964 Nkrumah declared himself President for Life. Simultaneously, the export price of Ghana's main foreign exchange earner, cocoa, plummeted. This, combined with ambitious domestic expenditure on much needed social infrastructure and on well documented white elephants[ citation needed ], led to the bankruptcy of Ghana. There was a lot of discontent among the general population as prices rocketed for basic consumer goods which were widely unavailable, and among the Ghana Armed Forces. [3] Kwame Nkrumah had asked the military at the time to prepare for a possible campaign in Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) against the racist régime that had been established there. Under the pretext of a training exercise, Kotoka, moved his troops from Kumasi to Accra for the coup. Afrifa was his right-hand man in the coup exercise. [7] It turned out later that, unhappy with Nkrumah's strengthening ties with Russia, China and other communist states[ citation needed ], the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States had been kept updated about preparations for this coup and may have helped create difficulties for the Nkrumah government to facilitate this. [8] [9] The coup plotters struck while Nkrumah was on a trip to Hanoi, then the capital of North Vietnam. [7] Afrifa's brief was to take the Broadcasting House, the base from which the national radio station broadcast its news and programmes. This succeeded after heavy fighting, allowing Kotoka to go on air to announce the coup d'état to the whole nation. [1]

Emmanuel Kwasi Kotoka Ghanian politician

Lieutenant General Emmanuel Kwasi Kotoka was a member of the ruling National Liberation Council which came to power in Ghana in a military coup d'état on 24 February 1966. This overthrew the government of Dr. Kwame Nkrumah, the first president of the republic.

Kwame Nkrumah Pan Africanist and First Prime Minister and President of Ghana

Kwame Nkrumah PC was a Ghanaian politician and revolutionary. He was the first Prime Minister and President of Ghana, having led the Gold Coast to independence from Britain in 1957. An influential advocate of pan-Africanism, Nkrumah was a founding member of the Organisation of African Unity and winner of the Lenin Peace Prize in 1962.

Allegations of atrocities

There have been allegations by members of Nkrumah's Presidential Detail Department (PDD) responsible for the personal protection of Nkrumah that they were physically tortured, some apparently in the presence of Kotoka, J. W. K. Harlley and Afrifa. Martin Okai, a member of the PDD, claimed at the National Reconciliation Commission hearings that his torture was supervised by Afrifa. [10]

John Willie Kofi Harlley was a Ghanaian senior police officer and politician. Harlley was a former foreign minister of Ghana. He was a member of the Presidential Commission that ruled Ghana during the military era of the National Liberation Council and the first year of the Second Republic. He was also a former Inspector General of Police in Ghana.

Time in government

Following the coup, Kotoka became one of the eight members of the National Liberation Council (NLC). Afrifa also went through a series of rapid promotions rising from Major to Lieutenant General in the three years his government was in power. [11] He was also appointed the Commissioner (Minister) for Finance and Trade. [1] [5] The Head of state of Ghana and Chairman of the NLC, Joseph Arthur Ankrah was forced to resign in April 1969 following a bribery scandal involving Francis Nzeribe, a Nigerian businessman. He was replaced by Afrifa as Head of state. Ankrah was accused of effecting payments to influence the results of a poll which showed him ahead of Afrifa and Kofi Abrefa Busia for the national elections due in August 1969. [12] [13] Afrifa was a supporter of Busia, the leader of the Progress Party who was a candidate in the forthcoming National Assembly elections. [2] Afrifa handed over to Busia who became the Prime Minister of Ghana on inauguration of the Second Republic. He continued as Chairman of the newly created Presidential Commission until August 1970 when he was replaced by Nii Amaa Ollennu, the Speaker of Parliament in the Second Republic.

Campaign for democracy

After the overthrow of the democratically elected Busia government by Acheampong and the National Redemption Council, Afrifa, a known supporter of Busia [2] was arrested two days later on 15 January 1972 and detained until December 1972. [5] Following his release, Afrifa restricted himself largely to farming at his home town of Mampong. In 1978, the Supreme Military Council (SMC) government sought to introduce a new and widely criticized political system called Union Government (UNIGOV) which was to be a military and civilian partnership rather than a return to a multi-party democracy. [14] A referendum was scheduled in March 1978, and Afrifa was one of the leaders of the Popular Movement for Freedom and Justice, which led the opposition to this UNIGOV concept. Joined by students and the intelligentsia among others, the PMFJ demanded a return to constitutional multi-party democracy. [5]

Elected Member of Parliament

Following the fall of Acheampong, the new SMC under General Fred Akuffo organized presidential and parliamentary elections on 18 June 1979 for a multi-party national assembly. The elections were, however, held under the government of the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC) as the SMC itself had been overthrown on 4 June 1979. Afrifa stood for and won the Mampong North constituency seat on the ticket of the United National Convention, whose roots were from the Progress Party of Kofi Abrefa Busia. On 26 June 1979, eight days after his election, Afrifa was executed and thus never had the opportunity to take his seat in the Parliament of the Third Republic of Ghana and was succeeded in parliament by Ebenezer Augustus Kwasi Akuoko.

Other roles

The late Asantehene (Asante king), Otumfuo Opoku Ware II, honoured Afrifa with the title "Okatakyie" (meaning "hero" in Asante) after the NLC had returned power to the civilian Busia government. Afrifa was also the Abakomahene of Krobo in the Asante-Mampong Sekyere Traditional Area in the Ashanti Region. Afrifa is also credited with initiating the Krobo Rehabilitation Project, raising funds leading to the rebuilding of the entire village. [15]

Family

Afrifa was the son of Opanin Kwaku Amankwa and Ama Serwaa Amaniampong, both from Krobo, near Mampong, in the Ashanti Region. At the time of his execution, he was married to Christine Afrifa, with whom he had nine children. His first Ama Serwa Afrifa, Seven with Christine Afrifa; Baffour Afrifa, Baffour Anokye Afrifa, Maame Drowaa Afrifa, Serwaa Amaniampong Afrifa, Ayowa Afrifa, Sophia Afrifa and Akos Afrifa. His last son Henry Afrifa was born after his death.

Execution

Premonitions

Afrifa had written a letter to Acheampong expressing fears about the future execution of soldiers as a deterrent against the staging of military coups in Ghana, due to the prevailing corruption and indiscipline in the military. This was around the period of the UNIGOV campaign and before Acheampong was removed in a palace coup on 5 July 1978.

I feel greatly disturbed about the future after the government....

In order to discourage the military from staging coups in the future, how about if they line all of us up and shot us one by one? I do not certainly want to be arrested, given some sort of trial and shot. But I would be a stupid General if I sit in the comfort of my farm and await the VENGEANCE that is about to be unleashed on us.... I will pray to take away the fear and confusion weighing on my mind now. [16]

Execution

After the overthrow of the SMC by the AFRC led by Jerry Rawlings, Afrifa was again arrested on his farm at Mampong. [1] Together with other arrested senior military officers, they were tried to varied extents in camera. They were apparently found guilty of corruption, embezzlement, and using their positions to amass wealth. [17] The investigations carried out were apparently incomplete. [18] Evidence gathered by the National Reconciliation Commission in 2004 also suggests that the others executed were not properly tried. [19] Previously, Afrifa had personally had his assets probed by the independent Sowah Assets Commission without any adverse findings.[ citation needed ] There also appears to have been a delay to the executions as no one including Rawlings appears to have been ready to sign the death warrants. [20] Lieutenant General Joshua Hamidu, a former Chief of the Defence Staff at the time of the AFRC regime, stated that he and Rawlings were the only soldiers at the center of government who opposed the executions of the former heads of state. He is quoted as saying in response to an accusation of calling for Afrifa's execution that:

That is ridiculous. It is a lie. I had nothing to do with the executions. For three weeks after the 4 June event, questions were constantly raised about executing people. I always stood against it. Surprisingly, the only person who also stood against it was Rawlings. The young boys wanted blood and I used to tell "you cannot resurrect the man once you've killed him. If you have any case against people, try them. Let everybody hear what they have done wrong against the country." And that even, they could not do. [21]

On 26 June 1979, Afrifa was executed by firing squad, together with General Fred Akuffo, also a former Head of state and Major General Robert Kotei, Colonel Roger Felli, Air Vice Marshal George Yaw Boakye and Rear Admiral Joy Amedume. Reports suggest that Afrifa did not die immediately and had to be shot again. [22] The bodies of the executed officers were buried without ceremony at the Nsawam Prisons Cemetery at Adoagyiri, near Nsawam in the Eastern Region. [18]

Reburial

Following a petition by the widows of the executed generals, President John Kufuor decided that their bodies be returned to their respective families as part of a national reconciliation. [23] On 27 December 2001, the bodies were returned to their respective families in Accra. [24] Afrifa's remains were finally laid to rest at his hometown of Krobo on 28 January 2002. [25]

Publications

See also

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Timeline of Ghanaian history

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 "Lt. Gen Akwasi Amankwa Afrifa Profile". GhanaWeb. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  2. 1 2 3 "Reformer removed". Time Magazine articles archive. Time Inc. 1969-04-11. Retrieved 2007-06-25.
  3. 1 2 "The Military and the Government". Library of Congress Country Studies. Library of Congress. November 2004. Retrieved 2007-06-25.
  4. Jon Kraus (April 1966). "Ghana Without Nkrumah - The Men In Charge". Africa Report. Koranteng Ofosu-Amaah. Archived from the original on 19 June 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-25.
  5. 1 2 3 4 "Leaders of Ghana". Official Ghana@50 website. Ghana government. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-06-25.
  6. "Lt-Gen Emmanuel Kwasi Kotoka Profile". GhanaWeb. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  7. 1 2 "The Security Services" (PDF). National Reconciliation Commission Report Volume 4, Chapter 1. Ghana Government. October 2004. pp. 24, 30. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 16, 2006. Retrieved 2007-06-25.
  8. "253. Memorandum From Robert W. Komer of the National Security Council Staff to the President's Special Assistant for National Security Affairs (Bundy)/1/". FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES 1964-1968, Volume XXIV, Africa. Department of State, USA. 1999. Archived from the original on 2001-06-17. Retrieved 2007-06-25. The plotters are keeping us briefed," .... "and the State Department thinks we're more on the inside than the British. While we're not directly involved (I'm told), we and other Western countries (including France) have been helping to set up the situation by ignoring Nkrumah's pleas for economic aid. All in all, it looks good.
  9. Paul Lee (2002-06-07). "Documents Expose U.S. Role in Nkrumah Overthrow". SeeingBlack.com. Archived from the original on 5 July 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-25.
  10. "Review of Petitions" (PDF). National Reconciliation Commission Report Volume 2, Chapter 5. Ghana Government. October 2004. pp. 127–129. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 16, 2006. Retrieved 2007-06-25.
  11. "Review of Petitions" (PDF). National Reconciliation Commission Report Volume 2, Chapter 5. Ghana Government. October 2004. p. 144. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 16, 2006. Retrieved 2007-06-25.
  12. "Lt. General Joseph A. Ankrah Profile". GhanaWeb. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  13. "Our Leaders-Lt. General Joseph A. Ankrah". Official Website for the 50th Independence Anniversary Celebrations of Ghana. Ghana government. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-06-25.
  14. "History of Ghana - Post Independence Ghana". Ghana government. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-06-25.
  15. "General Afrifa to be re-buried". Ghana Review International Newsreel. Micromedia Consultants Ltd. 2002-01-17. Retrieved 2007-06-25.
  16. "Review of petitions" (PDF). National Reconciliation Commission Report Volume 2, Part 1, Chapter 6. Ghana government. October 2004. p. 180. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 16, 2006. Retrieved 2007-06-25.
  17. "Open Letter To Lance Corporal Fred Ansah Atiemo". GhanaWeb. 29 January 2004. Retrieved 2007-06-25.
  18. 1 2 "Rawlings To Defend Executions At NRC". GhanaWeb. 11 April 2003. Archived from the original on 6 November 2003. Retrieved 25 June 2007.
  19. "The Social Context" (PDF). National Reconciliation Commission Report Volume 2, Part 1, Chapter 4. Ghana Government. October 2004. p. 91. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 8, 2006. Retrieved 2007-06-25.
  20. "Review of Petitions" (PDF). National Reconciliation Commission Report Volume 2, Part 1, Chapter 6. Ghana Government. October 2004. p. 179. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 16, 2006. Retrieved 2007-06-25.
  21. "'JJ opposed Afrifa's execution' - Hamidu". GhanaWeb. 31 December 2001. Archived from the original on 9 June 2007. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  22. "Review of Petitions" (PDF). National Reconciliation Commission Report, Volume 2, Part 1, Chapter 6. Ghana Government. October 2004. pp. 176–180. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 16, 2006. Retrieved 2007-06-25.
  23. Kwaku Sakyi-Addo (2001-04-30). "Resolving Ghana's violent past". African News. BBC. Retrieved 2007-06-25.
  24. "Ghana reburies past in quest for reconciliation". GhanaWeb. 28 December 2001. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  25. ""I have no regrets for 1966 coup" - Afrifa's son". GhanaWeb. 31 January 2002. Retrieved 7 September 2015.

Further reading

Political offices
Preceded by
?
Commissioner for Finance
196669
Succeeded by
Joseph Henry Mensah
Preceded by
Kwesi Armah
Commissioner for Trade
? ?
Succeeded by
?
Preceded by
Joseph Arthur Ankrah
Military Head of state
Head of state of Ghana
Military regime

196970
Succeeded by
Nii Amaa Ollennu
Chairman of Presidential Commission
Succeeded by
Kofi Busia
Prime Minister 1969