|Other names||The Town|
|No. of verses||20|
|No. of words||82|
|No. of letters||342|
Al-Balad (“The City”) is the 90th chapter of the Qur’an with 20 ayat.
Its subject matter and style resemble those of the earliest Surahs revealed at Mecca,but it contains a pointer which indicates that it was sent down in the period when the disbelievers of Makkah had resolved to oppose Muhammad, and made it lawful for themselves to commit tyranny and excess against him.
Mecca is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located 70 km (43 mi) inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of 277 m (909 ft) above sea level, and 340 kilometres (210 mi) south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah.
According to an interpretation expounded on in the tafsīr (commentary) written by Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi (d. 1979) entitled Tafhim al-Qur'an ,Its theme is to explain the true position of man in the world and of the world in relation to man and to tell that God has shown to man both the highways of good and evil, has also provided for him the means to judge and see and follow them, and now it rests upon mans own effort and judgment whether he chooses the path of virtue and reaches felicity or adopts the path of vice and meets with doom.
Tafsir is the Arabic word for exegesis, usually of the Qur'an. An author of a tafsir is a mufassir. A Qur'anic tafsir attempts to provide elucidation, explanation, interpretation, context or commentary for clear understanding and conviction of God's will.
First, the city of Makkah and the hardships being faced therein by Muhammad and the state of the children of Adam have been cited as a witness to the truth that this world is not a place of rest and ease for man, where he might have been born to enjoy life, but here he has been created into toil and struggle. If this theme is read with verse 39 of Surah An-Najm (Laisa lil insani illa ma saa: there is nothing for man but what he has striven for), it becomes plain that in this world the future of man depends on his toil and struggle, effort and striving.
Sūrat an-Najm is the 53rd chapter (surah) of the Qur'an with 62 verses (āyāt). The surah that opens with the oath of the Divine One swearing by every one of the stars, as they descend and disappear beneath the horizon, that Muḥammad is indeed God’s awaited Messenger. It takes its name from Ayat#1, which mentions “the stars” (najm). The surah confirms the divine source of the Prophet’s message and refers to his ascension to heaven during the Night Journey. The surah refutes the claims of the disbelievers about the goddesses and the angels, and lists several truths about God’s power. It closes with a warning of the imminent Day of Judgement.
After this, man's misunderstanding that he is all in all in this world and that there is no superior power to watch what he does and to call him to account, has been refuted.
Then, taking one of the many moral concepts of ignorance held by man, as an example, it has been pointed out what wrong criteria of merit and greatness he has proposed for himself in the world. The person who for ostentation and display squanders heaps of wealth, not only himself prides upon his extravagances but the people also admire him for it enthusiastically, whereas the Being Who is watching over his deeds, sees by what methods he obtained the wealth and in what ways and with what motives and intention he spent it.
Then Allah says: We have given man the means of knowledge and the faculties of thinking and understanding and opened up before him both the highways of virtue and vice: one way leads down to moral depravity, and it is an easy way pleasing for the self; the other way leads up to moral heights, which is steep like an uphill road, for scaling which man has to exercise self- restraint. It is man's weakness that he prefers slipping down into the abyss to scaling the cliff.
Then, Allah has explained what the steep road is by following which man can ascend to the heights. It is that he should give up spending for ostentation, display and pride and should spend his wealth to help the orphans and the needy, should believe in Allah and His Religion and joining the company of believers should participate in the construction of a society which should fulfill the demands of virtue and righteousness patiently and should be compassionate to the people. The end of those who follow this way is that they would become worthy of Allah's mercies. On the contrary, the end of those who follow the wrong way, is the fire of Hell from which there is no escape.
Sayyid Qutb (d. 1966), who was an Egyptian author, Islamist, and leading intellectual of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood, surmised the overall theme of Surat Al-Lail in the introduction to his extensive Quranic commentary, Fi Zilal al-Qur'an (In the shades of the Qur'an) by saying:
Sayyid Qutb Ibrahim Husayn Shadhili was an Egyptian author, educator, Islamic theorist, poet, and a leading member of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood in the 1950s and 1960s. In 1966, he was convicted of plotting the assassination of Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser and was executed by hanging.
Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, and across the Mediterranean lie Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt.
This short sūrah touches on a great many facts which are of central importance to human life. Its style is characterized by powerful allusions. Numerous facts of this nature are not easily combined in any form of concise writing except that of the Qur’ān, with its unique ability to hit the right chords with such swift and penetrating strokes.
—Sayid Qutb, Fi Zilal al-Qur'an
Fi Zilal al-Qur'an is a highly influential commentary of the Qur'an, written during 1951-1965 by the Egyptian Sayyid Qutb (1906-1966), a leader within the Muslim Brotherhood. He wrote most of the original 30 volumes while in prison following an attempted assassination of Egyptian dictator Gamal Abdel Nasser in 1954. The book outlines Qutb's vision of a Muslim state and society. It is considered by some to be a comprehensive and far-reaching commentary that takes a clear and lucid interpretation of the Qur'an. It has much influence throughout the Muslim world, especially amongst the ordinary lay practitioners of Islam in the Arab world.
Sūrat al-Qalam is the sixty-eighth sura of the Qur'an with 52 ayat. The Surat describes Allah's justice and the judgment day. Three important themes of this Surah are response to the opponents objections, warning and admonition to the disbelievers, and exhortation of patience to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Chronologically, this is the first appearance of any of the "disjointed" [i.e., single] letters (muqattaat) which precede a number of the surahs of the Qur'an while in Quranic Order this is the last surah to have the appearance of (muqattaat).
Al-Mu'awwidhatan, sometimes translated as "Verses of Refuge", is an Arabic term referring to the last two suras (chapters) of the Qur'an, viz. al-Falaq, and An-Nās, which are two consecutive short prayers both beginning with the verse "Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of...". Although these two suras are separate entities in the Qur'an and also are written in the Mushaf under separate names, they are so deeply related with their contents closely resembling each other's that they have been designated by the common name 'al-Mu'awwidhatayn'. Imam Baihaqi in 'Dala'il an-Nubuwwah' has written that these suras were revealed together, and hence their combined name of al-Mu'awwidhatayn. There is a Sunnah tradition from Muhammad of reading them over the sick or before sleeping and they are also considered a healing.
The Cow or al-Baqarah is the second and longest chapter (sūrah) of the Qur'an. It consists of 286 verses (āyāt), 6,201 words and 25,500 letters. It is a Medinan surah, that is to say that it was revealed at Medina after the Hijrah, with the exception of a few verses which Muslims believe was revealed during the Farewell Pilgrimage, the last Hajj of Muhammad.
Sūrat al-Fīl is the 105th chapter (surah) of the Quran. It is a Meccan sura consisting of 5 verses. The surah is written in the interrogative form.
āl ʿimrān is the third chapter (sūrah) of the Quran with two hundred verses (āyāt).
Al-Kahf is the 18th chapter (sūrah) of the Quran with 110 verses (āyāt). It is a chronologically earlier "Meccan surah".
Al-‘Aṣr is the 103rd chapter (sūrah) of the Qur’ān, the Muslim holy book. It contains three verses (āyāt). Surat al-‘Asr is the second shortest chapter after al-Kawthar.
Al-Mu’minūn is the 23rd chapter (sūrah) of the Qur'an with 118 verses (āyāt).
Sūrat at-Taghābun is the 64th sura of the Quran with 18 verses. This "Meccan" Chapter opens with the words of glorification of God, it is part of Al-Musabbihat group. The theme of this Surah is an invitation to the Faith, obedience and the teaching of good morals. The previous Surah Al-Munafiqun was about hypocrisy and the lack of Iman. This surah is discussing the opposite of that.
Sūrat aṭ-Talāq is the 65th sura of the Qur'an with 12 ayat. At-Talaq is not only the name of this Surah but also the title of its subject matter, as it contains commandments about Talaq (divorce) itself. Abdullah ibn Masud has described it as the shorter surah An-Nisa. The surah also defines the time period of Iddah to be three menstruation periods, three months if menstruation is not applicable, and in case of pregnancy it is the delivery of child After addressing the topic of divorce and a number of other resulting family issues in first 7 ayaat. The surah then strongly urges people to observe God’s regulations and guidance, and reminded the fate of earlier disobedient people that the apostate and disobedient were chastised for their sin. Then 11th ayah describe the required attitude of the true believers that they exhort to faith in messenger and the regarding bounties. Finally God’s power and knowledge are emphasized at the end.
Sūrat al-Maʻārij is the seventieth chapter (sūrah) of the Qur'an with 44 verses (āyāt). The Surah takes its name from the word dhil Ma'arij in 3rd ayah. The word appears twice in the Quran. Abdullah Yusuf Ali an Indian Islamic scholar introduces the surah as “This is another Islamic eschatology Surah closely connected in subject matter with the last one. Patience and the mystery of Time will show the ways that climb the Heaven. Sin and Goodness must each eventually come to its own.”
Sūrat al-Mursalāt is the 77th chapter (sura) of the Quran with 50 verses.
Sūrat ash-Shams is the 91st sura of the Qur'an with 15 ayat. It opens with a series of solemn oaths sworn on various astronomical phenomena, the first of which, "by the sun", gives the sura its name, then on the human soul itself. It then describes the fate of Thamud, a formerly prosperous extinct Arab tribe. The prophet Saleh urged them to worship God alone, and commanded them in God's name to preserve a certain she-camel; they disobeyed and continued to reject his message, and God destroyed them all except those who had followed Salih.
Sūrat al-Layl is the ninety-second sūrah (chapter) of the Qur'an, containing twenty-one āyāt (verses). This sūrah is one of the first ten to be revealed in Mecca. It contrasts two types of people, the charitable and the miserly, and describes each of their characteristics.
Sūrat aḍ-Ḍuḥā is the ninety-third sura of the Qur'an with 11 ayat. The Surah takes its name Aḍ-Ḍuḥā from the very first word.
Sūrat al-Inshirāḥ is the ninety-fourth sura of the Qur'an with eight ayat and is a Meccan surah.
Al-Masad is the 111th chapter (sūrah) of the Quran with 5 verses (āyāt). Verse 1 mentions one of Muhammad's adversaries named Abū Lahab. This surah takes its name from verse 5 in which the phrase “ḥablun min masad” occurs that mentions the palm fibre rope that in hellfire shall be twisted around the neck of the wife of Muhammad’s uncle, who bitterly opposed Islam; for she took great pride in wearing an ostentatious necklace she became known for and would slip by night to strew thorns and prickly plants in Muhammad’s path to injure his feet.
Sūrat al-Humazah is the 104th sura of the Qur'an, with 9 ayat. The Surah takes its name from the word humazah occurring in the first verse. The Main statement in this Surah [Humazah] is the Consequences of man in loss. It condemns those who slander others, whether by speech or action, and imagine that their own wealth will keep them immune from death, and describes the doom of Hell which awaits them.
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