|Al-Hakam II (الحکم ثانی)|
|2nd Caliph of Córdoba|
|Reign||15 October 961 – 16 October 976|
|Born||January 13, 915|
|Died||October 16, 976 61) (aged|
Al-Hakam II, also known as Abū al-ʿĀṣ al-Mustanṣir bi-Llāh al-Hakam b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (أَبُو الْعَاصٍ الْمُسْتَنْصِرِ بِاللهِ الْحَكْمِ بْن عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ; January 13, 915 – October 16, 976), was the Caliph of Córdoba. He was the second Umayyad Caliph of Córdoba in Al-Andalus, and son of Abd-ar-Rahman III and Murjan. He ruled from 961 to 976.
Al-Hakam II succeeded to the Caliphate after the death of his father Abd-ar-Rahman III in 961. He secured peace with the Catholic kingdoms of northern Iberia, and made use of the stability to develop agriculture through the construction of irrigation works. Economic development was also encouraged through the widening of streets and the building of markets.
Hakam himself was very well versed in numerous sciences. He would have books purchased from Damascus, Baghdad, Constantinople, Cairo, Mecca, Medina, Kufa, and Basra. His status as a patron of knowledge brought him fame across the Muslim world to the point that even books written in Persia, which was under Arab Abbasid control, were dedicated to him. During his reign, a massive translation effort was undertaken, and many books were translated from Latin and Greek into Arabic. He formed a joint committee of Muwallad Muslims and Mozarab Catholics for this task.
His personal library was of enormous proportions. Some accounts speak of him having more than 600,000 books. However, Hitchcock (2014: 91–92) argues that any number in excess of 600 is "inconceivable".The catalogue of library books itself was claimed to be 44 volumes long. According to Hitchcock (ibid.), this may be because "volume" and "page" were confused. Of special importance to Al-Hakam was history, and he himself wrote a history of al-Andalus. Following his death, Hajib Almanzor had all "ancient science" books destroyed.
The mathematician Lubna of Córdoba was employed as Al-Hakam's private secretary. She was said to be "thoroughly versed in the exact sciences; her talents were equal to the solution of the most complex geometrical and algebraic problems".
The famous physician, scientist, and surgeon Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis) was also active in Al-Hakam's court during his reign, while the leading figures of the Translation movement during the reign of Hakam were Mutazilites and Ibn Masarra.
His building works included an expansion of the main mosque of Córdoba (962–966), the Mezquita, and the completion of the royal residence Medina Azahara (976), which his father had begun in 936.
Whilst the internal administration was left increasingly to vizir Al-Mushafi,general Ghālib ibn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān was gradually gaining influence as leader of the army in North Africa. He was chiefly preoccupied with repulsing the last Norman attacks (c. 970), and with the struggle against the Zirids and the Fatimids in northern Morocco. The Fatimids were defeated in Morocco in 974, while Al-Hakam II was able to maintain the supremacy of the caliphate over the Catholic states of Navarre, Castile and León.
Al-Hakam married Subh of Cordoba, a Basque concubine. She held sway and strong influence over the court. It is said that al-Hakam nicknamed her with the masculine name Ja'far.She bore him two sons, the first is Abd al-Rahman, who died young, and the second is Hisham II.
According to É. Lévi-Provençal, the phrase Ḥubb al-walad, as found in al-Maqqari's Nafḥ al-ṭayyib,is a reference to al-Hakam's homosexuality or "preference for boys". However, several historians render it as "paternal love", referring instead to him choosing his young son as a successor. The fact that he did not produce a suitable heir before the age of 46 has been ascribed either to him being more attracted to men, —although this is only reported euphemistically in the sources, —or because he was too absorbed with his books to care for sensual pleasures. Subh may have dressed as a ghulam or a young man to make herself more attractive to al-Hakam (adopting a short haircut and wearing trousers), although it is also possible she did this in order to gain better access to the male-dominated royal court.
Al-Hakam II suffered a stroke near the end of his life that curtailed his activities and may explain why he was unable to properly prepare his son for leadership.Modern scholars have speculated that, based on the historical descriptions of his death, it was another cerebrovascular stroke, possibly brought on by the cold weather, that claimed his life in October 976. He was succeeded by his son, Hisham II al-Mu'ayad, who was 11 years old at the time and was a nominal ruler under Almanzor.
Abd al-Rahman I, more fully Abd al-Rahman ibn Mu'awiya ibn Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (731–788) was the founder of the Arab dynasty that ruled the greater part of Iberia for nearly three centuries. Abd al-Rahman was a member of the Umayyad dynasty in Damascus, and his establishment of a government in Iberia represented a break with the Abbasids, who had overthrown the Umayyads in 750.
Abu ʿĀmir Muḥammad ibn ʿAbdullāh ibn Abi ʿĀmir al-Maʿafiri, nicknamed al-Manṣūr, usually simply called Almanzor, was a Muslim Arab Andalusi military leader, statesman. As the chancellor of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba and hajib (chamberlain) for the weak Caliph Hisham II, Almanzor was the de facto ruler of Islamic Iberia.
Hisham II or Abu'l-Walid Hisham II al-Mu'ayyad bi-llah was the third Umayyad Caliph of Spain, in Al-Andalus from 976–1009, and 1010–13.
Sancho Garcés II, also known as Sancho II, was King of Pamplona and Count of Aragon from 970 until his death in 994. He was the eldest son of García Sánchez I of Pamplona and Andregoto Galíndez. He recognised the Kingdom of Viguera during his reign.
Abu l-Hasan 'Ali Ibn Nafi', better known as Ziryab/Zeryab or Zaryab ;, was a singer, oud player, composer, poet, and teacher who lived and worked in Iraq, Northern Africa, and Andalusia of the medieval Islamic period. He was also known as a polymath, with knowledge in astronomy, geography, meteorology, botanics, cosmetics, culinary art and fashion. His nickname Ziryab comes from the Persian word for jay-bird زرياب, pronounced "Zaryāb"; he is also known as Mirlo ('blackbird') in Spanish. He was active at the Umayyad court of Córdoba in Islamic Iberia. He first achieved fame at the Abbasid court in Baghdad, Iraq, his birthplace, as a performer and student of the great Persian musician and composer, Ibrahim al-Mawsili. The Mawsili family was originally from the city of Kufa, Iraq.
The Banu Tujib, the Tujibids or Banu al-Muhajir, were an Arab dynasty on the Upper March of Al-Andalus active from the ninth to the eleventh centuries. They were given control of Zaragoza and Calatayud by the Umayyads as a counterweight to the independence-minded Muwallad nobility of the region. In Zaragoza, they developed a degree of autonomy that served as the precursor to their establishment of an independent Taifa of Zaragoza after the collapse of the Caliphate of Córdoba. They ruled this taifa from 1018 until they were expelled by another Arab dynasty, the Banu Hud, in 1039. An exiled junior line of the family, known as the Banu Sumadih, established themselves as rulers of the Taifa of Almería, which they held for three generations, until 1090.
The Emirate of Córdoba was a medieval Islamic kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula. Its founding in the mid-eighth century would mark the beginning of seven hundred years of Muslim rule in what is now Spain and Portugal.
Abd al-Rahman al-Mahdi, nicknamed Sanchol, was the ʿĀmirid hajib of the Caliphate of Córdoba under Caliph Hisham II beginning October 1008, at a time when actual power in the caliphate was vested in the hajib. The Caliph nominated him as heir a month later, but he was deposed by a coup the following February. He was killed weeks later in a vain attempt to regain power. Though an unpopular and highly-flawed leader, his deposition led to the disintegration of the caliphate.
The Battle of Cervera took place near Espinosa de Cervera on 29 July 1000 between the Christian troops of counts Sancho García of Castile and García Gómez of Saldaña and the Muslim Caliphate of Córdoba under the hajib Almanzor. The battle, "tremendous and difficult to describe", was a victory for Almanzor. The battle is listed as the fifty-second of Almanzor's career in the Dikr bilad al-Andalus.
The Battle of Albesa was a follow-up to the Battle of Torà that took place 25 February 1003 at Al-Qaṣr al-Māša (Albesa), near Balagî (Balaguer), between the united Christian forces of the Catalan counties and the Islamic forces of the Caliphate of Córdoba. It was one of the border skirmishes associated with the interminable razzias of the Reconquista, described as "a simple encounter between local forces" and "a local action without overarching importance", though both these views are called into question by the assemblage of important Catalan nobles at the battle and the Muslim reprisal which followed.
The Caliphate of Córdoba was an Islamic state, ruled by the Umayyad dynasty from 929 to 1031. Its territory comprised Iberia and parts of North Africa, with its capital in Córdoba. It succeeded the Emirate of Córdoba upon the self-proclamation of Umayyad emir Abd ar-Rahman III as caliph in January 929. The period was characterized by an expansion of trade and culture, and saw the construction of masterpieces of al-Andalus architecture.
Subh, also known as Aurora in The Basque Country, Sobeya, Sobha, and Sabiha Malika Qurtuba, was the spouse of Caliph al-Hakam of Cordoba, and the regent of the Caliphate of Córdoba in Spanish Al-Andalus during the minority of her son, Caliph Hisham II al-Hakam.
The Fitna of al-Andalus (1009–1031) was a period of instability and civil war that preceded the ultimate collapse of the Caliphate of Córdoba. It began in the year 1009 with a coup d'état which led to the assassination of Abd al-Rahman Sanchuelo, the son of Almanzor, the deposition of the Caliph Hisham II al-Hakam, and the rise to power of Muhammad II of Córdoba, great-grandson of Abd-ar-Rahman III. The conflict would eventually divide all of Al-Andalus into a series of Taifa Kingdoms. The Fitna finally ended with the definitive abolition of the Cordoban Caliphate in 1031, although various successor kingdoms would continue to claim the caliphate for themselves. The added pressures of financial collapse were present due to the large tax burden placed on the populace to finance the continuous war.
A Hungarian raid in Spain took place in July 942. This was the furthest west the Hungarians raided during the period of their migration into central Europe; although, in a great raid of 924–25, the Hungarians sacked Nîmes and may have got as far as the Pyrenees.
The Upper March was an administrative and military division in northeast Al-Andalus, roughly corresponding to the Ebro valley and adjacent Mediterranean coast, from the 8th century to the early 11th century. It was established as a frontier province, or march, of the Emirate, later Caliphate of Córdoba, facing the Christian lands of the Carolingian Empire's Marca Hispanica, the Asturo-Leonese marches of Castile and Alava, and the nascent autonomous Pyrenean principalities. In 1018, the decline of the central Cordoban state allowed the lords of the Upper March to establish in its place the Taifa of Zaragoza.
The Alcázar of the Caliphs or Caliphal Alcázar, also known as the Umayyad Alcázar and the Andalusian Alcazar of Cordoba, was a fortress-palace (alcázar) located in Córdoba, in present-day Spain. It was the seat of the government of Al-Andalus and the residence of the emirs and caliphs of Córdoba from the 8th century until the 11th century and the residence of local Muslim governors from the 11th century until the Christian conquest in 1236. The site was composed of heterogeneous constructions ranging from the private residences of the rulers and their households to the government offices and administrative areas. Today, only minor remains of the palace have survived, including the Caliphal Baths which have been converted into a museum. The rest of the site is occupied by later structures including the Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos, the Episcopal Palace, the Seminary of San Pelagio, and the Campo Santos de los Mártires public square.
Ghālib ibn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Nāṣirī, called al-Ṣiḳlabī, was a military commander in the ʿUmayyad caliphate of Córdoba, serving the caliphs ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III al-Nāṣir, al-Ḥakam II and Hishām II on both land and sea. For his military prowess, he was granted the honorific Dhu ʾl-Sayfayn.
ʿĪsā ibn Aḥmad al-Rāzī was a Muslim historian who wrote a continuation of the chronicle Akhbār mulūk al-Andalus, the first narrative history of Islamic rule in Spain, which was written by his father, Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Mūsa al-Rāzī.
A bronze bust of Abd al-Rahman III, the first Caliph of Córdoba, was unveiled in June 2016 in the small Spanish town of Cadrete near Zaragoza in Aragon. Three years later, it was removed by the right-wing new local government. The removal prompted debate on how Spain should interpret the legacy of Al-Andalus, the Muslim realms of the Middle Ages.
Hay, indudablemente, algo de verdad en la alusién que un cronista musulmán (apud Maqqari, Analectes, II, 59) hace a la «paidofilias» (hubb al-walad) de al-Hakam II, antes de su accesién al trono. En todo caso es evidente que sólo después de su adveni- miento fué cuando se preocupó de tener un hijo susceptible de sucederle. ¿Habrá que creer, según el mismo cronista, que fué la practica de este vicio, tan corriente en la España musulmana en todas las épocas, el que occasionó la paternidad tan tardía de al-Hakam II? Véase, sin embargo, Ibn Hazm, Tawg al-hamama, pág. 6, a propósito de la pasión que sentía el califa por su concubina Subh.
Ibn Bessam, copying Ibn Hayyan, says, "Among other virtues Al-hakem possessed that of paternal love in such a degree that it blinded his prudence and induced him to appoint a son of his, who was then a child, to be his successor, in preference to any of his brothers or nephews, all men of mature age, well versed in the management of affairs and in the command of the armies, capable of making their mandates obeyed, and of maintaining themselves in power.
Cabe señalar, por último, que sería bastante difícil dar credibilidad a la cuestión de la "paidofilia" de al-Hakam II en un pasaje de Ibn Hayyān tomado por al-Maqqarī -y viene más claro en el Dajīra -, en el cual figura ḥubb al-walad en el contexto de una crítica de Ibn Ḥayyān dirigida a al-Ḥakam II por haberse dejado llevar por el amor al hijo (ḥubb al-walad) que le impulsó a nombrar y tomar juramento de fidelidad a su hijo menor en calidad de presunto heredero del califato, acto que tuvo lugar el 1 de Jumāda II del 365 (=5 febrero 975) en el Alcázar de Córdoba, La misma crítica basada en dicho argumento, la hace también Ibn al-Jaṭīb en sus Aʿmāl. Y no vamos a insistir in la evidencia de que el término waled significa "hijo", empleado en muchas ocasiones en los textos andalusíes para referirse a un infante Omeya, y no "efebo/s" (gulam/gilmān), y éste precedido por "hubb" indicaría lo que se ha dicho antes.
Ibn Hayyan, quien no duda en condenar la actuación de al-Hakam sobre su sucesión, acusándolo de haberse dejado llevar en exceso por el amor hacia el hijo (kāna mimman istahwā-hu ḥubb al-walad wa-afraṭa fī-hī) y descartando así como heredero a algún adulto, bien fuese alguno de sus hermanos u otro miembro del linaje Omeya que pudiese haber desempeñado el imamato «sin favoritismos» (bi-lā muḥābā).
| Wikisource has original works written by or about:|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Al-Hakam II, Caliph of Cordoba .|