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Al-Insaniyyah (Arabic : الإنسانية, 'Humanity') was a weekly Arabic-language newspaper circulated in Lebanon and Syria. It was issued as the organ of the Lebanese People's Party (the public front organization of the Syrian-Lebanese Communist Party). [1] [2] The newspaper was launched by the general secretary of the People's Party Yusuf Ibrahim Yazbak on May 15, 1925. [3] Al-Insaniyyah was named after the French communist newspaper l'Humanité . Al-Insaniyyah was the first official Arabic-language communist newspaper. [3] However, it was not a publicly communist newspaper. [1] The first issue of the newspaper declared that it would speak on behalf of the interests of the poor and victims of injustice. The second issue presented the political line of the People's Party, advocating industrial and agricultural development, formation of labour unions, compulsory education and secularism. [3]

Lebanon Country in Western Asia

Lebanon, officially known as the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea. Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity. At just 10,452 km2, it is the smallest recognized sovereign state on the mainland Asian continent.

Syria Country in Western Asia

Syria, officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon to the southwest, the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest. A country of fertile plains, high mountains, and deserts, Syria is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including Syrian Arabs, Greeks, Armenians, Assyrians, Kurds, Circassians, Mandeans and Turks. Religious groups include Sunnis, Christians, Alawites, Druze, Isma'ilis, Mandeans, Shiites, Salafis, Yazidis, and Jews. Sunni make up the largest religious group in Syria.

The Lebanese People's Party was the first formally organized Communist party in the Arab world. It was established October 24, 1924 by nine people, prominent among them Joseph Berger-Barzilai, Yusuf Ibrahim Yazbak and Fuad Shamali. The LPP published the leftist weekly newspaper al-Insaniyyah, also the first of its kind in the Arab world. The first edition was published May 15, 1925, but it lasted only five issues as the French colonial authorities shut it down on June 16, 1925.

The third, fourth and fifth issues of al-Insaniyyah expressed more strident positions, attacking the French Mandate and calling for protection of workers rights. [3] The Syrian-Lebanese People's Party published its manifesto in the fourth issue of al-Insaniyyah issued on June 7, 1925, calling on workers to participate in the upcoming elections to defend their class interests and struggle for independence against French colonial rule (a political position later reversed by the Communist Party, as the French authorities organized elections on sectarian basis). [2]

The newspaper was shut down by the French authorities on 16 June, after only five issues were published. Arrest orders were issued on the editors of the newspapers and other members of the Communist Party leadership. Yazbak fled to France. [3]

France Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories

France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

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Lebanon is a semi-presidential parliamentary democratic republic within the overall framework of confessionalism, a form of consociationalism in which the highest offices are proportionately reserved for representatives from certain religious communities. The constitution grants the people the right to change their government. However, from the mid-1970s until the parliamentary elections in 1992, civil war precluded the exercise of political rights. According to the constitution, direct elections must be held for the parliament every 4 years but after the parliamentary election in 2009 another election was not held until 2018. The Parliament, in turn, elects a President every 6 years to a single term. The President is not eligible for re-election. The last presidential election was in 2016. The president and parliament choose the Prime Minister. Political parties may be formed; most are based on sectarian interests. 2008 saw a new twist to Lebanese politics when the Doha Agreement set a new trend where the opposition is allowed a veto power in the Lebanese Council of Ministers and confirmed religious Confessionalism in the distribution of political power. The Economist Intelligence Unit classified Lebanon as a "hybrid regime" in 2016.

Progressive Socialist Party political party

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Iraqi Communist Party

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Syrian Communist Party 1944-1986 political party in Syria

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The Syrian–Lebanese Communist Party was a communist political party, operating in Syria and Lebanon, and founded in 1924 by the Lebanese Egyptian Fu'ad al-Shimali, the Lebanese Yusuf Yazbek and the Armenian Artin Madoyan. Its general secretary was Khalid Bakdash. It was the second communist party to be formed in the Levant, after the Communist Party of Palestine, but it was the first to be largely Arab, as the Palestinian party initially drew largely from the Jewish community.

Lebanese Communist Party political party

The Lebanese Communist Party – LCP or Parti communiste libanais (PCL) in French, is a communist party in Lebanon. It was founded in 1924 by the Lebanese intellectual, writer and reporter Youssef Ibrahim Yazbek and Fou'ad al-Shmeli, a tobacco worker from Bikfaya.

Syrian Democratic Peoples Party

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