Al-Insaniyyah (Arabic : الإنسانية, 'Humanity') was a weekly Arabic-language newspaper circulated in Lebanon and Syria. It was issued as the organ of the Lebanese People's Party (the public front organization of the Syrian-Lebanese Communist Party). The newspaper was launched by the general secretary of the People's Party Yusuf Ibrahim Yazbak on May 15, 1925. Al-Insaniyyah was named after the French communist newspaper l'Humanité . Al-Insaniyyah was the first official Arabic-language communist newspaper. However, it was not a publicly communist newspaper. The first issue of the newspaper declared that it would speak on behalf of the interests of the poor and victims of injustice. The second issue presented the political line of the People's Party, advocating industrial and agricultural development, formation of labour unions, compulsory education and secularism.
Lebanon, officially known as the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea. Lebanon's location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland facilitated its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious and ethnic diversity. At just 10,452 km2, it is the smallest recognized sovereign state on the mainland Asian continent.
Syria, officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon to the southwest, the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest. A country of fertile plains, high mountains, and deserts, Syria is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including Syrian Arabs, Greeks, Armenians, Assyrians, Kurds, Circassians, Mandeans and Turks. Religious groups include Sunnis, Christians, Alawites, Druze, Isma'ilis, Mandeans, Shiites, Salafis, Yazidis, and Jews. Sunni make up the largest religious group in Syria.
The Lebanese People's Party was the first formally organized Communist party in the Arab world. It was established October 24, 1924 by nine people, prominent among them Joseph Berger-Barzilai, Yusuf Ibrahim Yazbak and Fuad Shamali. The LPP published the leftist weekly newspaper al-Insaniyyah, also the first of its kind in the Arab world. The first edition was published May 15, 1925, but it lasted only five issues as the French colonial authorities shut it down on June 16, 1925.
The third, fourth and fifth issues of al-Insaniyyah expressed more strident positions, attacking the French Mandate and calling for protection of workers rights.The Syrian-Lebanese People's Party published its manifesto in the fourth issue of al-Insaniyyah issued on June 7, 1925, calling on workers to participate in the upcoming elections to defend their class interests and struggle for independence against French colonial rule (a political position later reversed by the Communist Party, as the French authorities organized elections on sectarian basis).
The newspaper was shut down by the French authorities on 16 June, after only five issues were published. Arrest orders were issued on the editors of the newspapers and other members of the Communist Party leadership. Yazbak fled to France.
France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
Lebanon is a semi-presidential parliamentary democratic republic within the overall framework of confessionalism, a form of consociationalism in which the highest offices are proportionately reserved for representatives from certain religious communities. The constitution grants the people the right to change their government. However, from the mid-1970s until the parliamentary elections in 1992, civil war precluded the exercise of political rights. According to the constitution, direct elections must be held for the parliament every 4 years but after the parliamentary election in 2009 another election was not held until 2018. The Parliament, in turn, elects a President every 6 years to a single term. The President is not eligible for re-election. The last presidential election was in 2016. The president and parliament choose the Prime Minister. Political parties may be formed; most are based on sectarian interests. 2008 saw a new twist to Lebanese politics when the Doha Agreement set a new trend where the opposition is allowed a veto power in the Lebanese Council of Ministers and confirmed religious Confessionalism in the distribution of political power. The Economist Intelligence Unit classified Lebanon as a "hybrid regime" in 2016.
The Progressive Socialist Party or PSP is a political party in Lebanon. Its current leader is Walid Jumblatt. It is ideologically secular and officially non-sectarian, however, support for the party mainly comes from Lebanon's Druze community.
The Iraqi Communist Party is a communist party and the oldest active party in Iraq. Since its foundation in 1934, it has dominated the left in Iraqi politics. It played a prominent role in shaping the political history of Iraq between its foundation and the 1970s. The Party was involved in many of the most important national uprisings and demonstrations of the 1940s and 1950s. It suffered heavily under the Ba'ath Party and Saddam Hussein but remained an important element of the Iraqi opposition and was a vocal opponent of the United Nations sanctions imposed on Iraq after the Gulf War of 1991. It opposed the United States invasion of Iraq in 2003 but since then has participated in the new political institutions. It received little support in the Iraqi general elections of 2005. The party reportedly gained some seats in each province in which the 2013 Iraqi governorate elections were held. The party joined the newly established Sairoun Alliance in the 2018 parliamentary elections, who gained the highest number of votes and a total of 54 seats in the Iraqi parliament. A communist woman representing the alliance, Suhad al-Khateeb, was also elected in the elections to represent the city of Najaf, deemed to be one of the holiest religious and conservative cities in Iraq. Al-Khateeb, who is a teacher and an anti-poverty and women's rights activist, said upon her victory "the Communist party have a long history of honesty – we were not agents for foreign occupations. We want social justice, citizenship, and are against sectarianism, and this is also what Iraqis want."
The Syrian Social Nationalist Party (SSNP), is a nationalist political party operating in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Iraq and Palestine. It advocates the establishment of a Syrian nation state spanning the Fertile Crescent, including present day Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Kuwait, Jordan, Palestine, Israel, Cyprus, Sinai, southeastern Turkey, based on geographical boundaries and the common history people within the boundaries share.
The Syrian Communist Party was a political party in Syria founded in 1924. It became a member of the National Progressive Front in 1972. The party split in two in 1986 with two separate parties claiming to represent the original Syrian Communist Party; the Syrian Communist Party (Unified) and the Syrian Communist Party (Bakdash).
The Syrian–Lebanese Communist Party was a communist political party, operating in Syria and Lebanon, and founded in 1924 by the Lebanese Egyptian Fu'ad al-Shimali, the Lebanese Yusuf Yazbek and the Armenian Artin Madoyan. Its general secretary was Khalid Bakdash. It was the second communist party to be formed in the Levant, after the Communist Party of Palestine, but it was the first to be largely Arab, as the Palestinian party initially drew largely from the Jewish community.
The Lebanese Communist Party – LCP or Parti communiste libanais (PCL) in French, is a communist party in Lebanon. It was founded in 1924 by the Lebanese intellectual, writer and reporter Youssef Ibrahim Yazbek and Fou'ad al-Shmeli, a tobacco worker from Bikfaya.
The Syrian Democratic People's Party is a left-wing, democratic opposition party in Syria that is banned by the Syrian government. It is a part of several Syrian opposition alliances which are aimed at overthrowing the Syrian government, the National Democratic Rally, and the Damascus Declaration.
As-Safir, meaning The Ambassador, was a leading Arabic-language daily newspaper in Lebanon. The headquarters of the daily is in Beirut. It has been in circulation from March 1974 until December 2016. The last issue of the paper was published on 31 December 2016.
The People's Council is Syria's legislative authority. It has 250 members elected for a four-year term in 15 multi-seat constituencies. There are two main political fronts; the National Progressive Front and Popular Front for Change and Liberation. The 2012 elections, held on 7 May, resulted in a new parliament that, for the first time in four decades, is based on a multi-party system. In 2016 Hadiya Khalaf Abbas, Ph.D., representing Deir Ezzor since 2003, became the first woman elected to be the Speaker. In 2017, Hammouda Sabbagh became the first Orthodox Christian to have held the post.
Bouthaina Shaaban is a Syrian politician and is currently the political and media adviser to the President of Syria. Shaaban served as the first Minister of Expatriates for the Syrian Arab Republic, between 2003 and 2008, and has been described as the Syrian government's face to the outside world.
Joghovourti Tsayn was an Armenian language weekly newspaper, issued as an organ of the Syrian–Lebanese Communist Party. The first issue appeared on February 6, 1938 in Beirut, Lebanon. It was the first Armenian-language organ of the party. Artin (Haroutiun) Madoyan was the editor of the newspaper. As of the 1950s, Ohannes Aghbashian was the editor of Joghovourti Tsayn.
Maurice Salibi, a Syrian communist politician, who served as general secretary of the Syrian Communist Party for a brief period in 1968.
The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party, also referred to as the pro-Iraqi Ba'ath movement, is a Ba'athist political party which was headquartered in Baghdad, Iraq until 2003. It is one of two parties which emerged from the 1966 split of the original Ba'ath Party.
The Arab Liberation Movement was a Syrian political party founded on 25 August 1952 by the President of Syria Adib Shishakli, during his government was the only legal party in Syria until 1954.
Artin Madoyan was a Lebanese-Armenian communist politician. He was the most prominent Armenian leader of the Lebanese Communist Party. He was seen as the 'right hand' of Syrian communist leader Khalid Bakdash.
Farajallah Estephan el-Helou or Farjallah Helou was a Lebanese communist militant, a popular Lebanese political figure and head of the Lebanese Communist Party.
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