She Who Disputes
|Alternate titles (Ar.)||Al-Mujadalah|
|Other names||The Pleading Woman, She Who Pleaded, The Disputer (alternative translation for Al-Mujadilah), the Dialogue (for Al-Mujadalah)|
|No. of Rukus||3|
|No. of verses||22|
Sūrat al-Mujādilah (Arabic : سورة المجادلة, "She Who Disputes, The Pleading Woman") is the 58th chapter (sūrah) of the Qur'an with 22 verses ( ayat ). Revealed in Medina, the chapter first addresses the legality of pre-Islamic method of divorce called zihar . The name "she who disputes" refers to the woman who petitioned Muhammad about the unjustness of this method, and the chapter's first verses outlaws it and prescribes how to deal with past cases of zihar. The chapter also discusses public assemblies and prescribes manners associated with it. The chapter ends by contrasting what it calls "the confederates of God" and "the confederates of Satan" and promising rewards for the former.
According to the Islamic tradition, the chapter was revealed during the Medinan period of Muhammad's prophethood, therefore, a Medinan sura. A minority opinion says that only the first ten verses were from the Medinan period, and the rest were from the Meccan period. Another minority opinion says that verse 9 was from the Meccan period, and the rest Medinan.
Both traditional and modern scholars of the Quran date the revelation of the chapter to between 4 AH to 7 AH (roughly 625–628 CE), likely after the Battle of the Trench. The Muslim community was in Medina under the leadership of Muhammad, under threat from the Quraysh tribe in Mecca and from the intrigues of "the hypocrites" (munafiqun, those who were outwardly Muslim but secretly opposed the Muslims) and the Jewish tribes in Medina. The Constitution of Medina acts as a constitution for this community, and the Quran—regarded as divine revelations by the Muslims—provided the law, and Muhammad acts as the final authority in interpreting the law and adjudicating disputes among the members of the community.
The chapter is the first of ten Medinan suras which addresses legal issues in the nascent state led by Muhammad in Medina.The traditional Egyptian chronology puts the chapter as the 105th chapter by the order of revelation (after Al-Munafiqun), while the Nöldeke Chronology (by the orientalist Theodor Nöldeke) puts it as the 106th.
The first section (verses 1 to 6) was revealed in response to a juridical petition by a Muslim woman named Khaula bint Tha'laba, whom the chapter name refers to. Her husband, a Muslim man named Aws ibn al-Samit, divorced her using the pre-Islamic Arabian custom of zihar . According to the custom, when a husband invoked the declaration "You are to me as my mother's back", the husband would be free to remarry and released from his obligation towards his wife, while the wife could not remarry. This practice was not isolated and many new converts to Islam used it in Medina.
Khaula considered this practice unfair to woman and petitioned Muhammad, as ruler and judge in Medina, to revoke the divorce, using moral and legal arguments. Muhammad initially declined to rule in her favor, citing the existing social custom and the lack of Quranic revelation to the contrary. According to the Islamic tradition, Khaula prayed to God about her predicament, and then God revealed the first six verses of Al-Mujadila to Muhammad, stating that her prayer was heard, overruling Muhammad and effectively outlawing the practice of zihar.
The first six verses addresses the legal status of zihar , as petitioned by Khawla. The verses effectively declare that zihar is an unlawful method of divorce. The verses also address past cases of zihar, allowing them to be reversed by freeing a slave.After the revelation, Muhammad clarified that if freeing a slave was not possible, someone who committed zihar could also perform fasting ( sawm ) for two months, or feed sixty poor people. The chapter then portrays this direct involvement by God in early Muslim community as a sign of his omnipresence ("He is with you wheresoever you are and God sees whatsoever you do").
The next section, verses 7 to 13, discusses political debates, which are framed as between "the confederates of God" and "the confederates of Satan". They also contain teachings for Muslims about how to conduct public assemblies (al-majalis). While in principle all individuals are free to participate in such assemblies, the verses maintain the importance of contributions from experts ("those who are possessed of knowledge"). This section also warns against conspiratorial secret meetings that are done for "iniquity, hostility and disobedience to the messenger of God".
The last section, from 14 to 21, is the longest section (ruku') of the chapter. The section defines "the confederates of God" (hizb Allah) as those "who believe in God and the Last Day" and "the confederates of Satan" (hizb al-shaitan) as those who "forgets the remembrance of God", including those who openly oppose God and Muhammad as well as hypocrites.It closes by discussing the rewards that God will give—according to the Quran—to his confederates.
The chapter is named Al-Mujadila, "she who disputes", in reference to Khawla bint Tha'laba whose petition was the occasion of revelation for some of the chapter's verses.It is alternatively called Al-Mujadalah, a related word meaning "the dialogue", referring to the use of discourse and the dialectical method that is an important theme in the chapter.
A Surah is the term for a chapter of the Quran. There are 114 surahs in the Quran, each divided into Ayahs (verses). The chapters or surahs are of unequal length; the shortest chapter (Al-Kawthar) has only three verses while the longest (Al-Baqara) contains 286 verses. Of the 114 chapters in the Quran, 86 are classified as Meccan, while 28 are Medinan. This classification is only approximate in regard to the location of revelation; any chapter revealed after migration of Muhammad to Medina (Hijrah) is termed Medinan and any revealed before that event is termed Meccan. The Meccan chapters generally deal with faith and scenes of the Hereafter while the Medinan chapters are more concerned with organizing the social life of the nascent Muslim community and leading Muslims to the goal of Dar al-Islam by showing strength towards the unbelievers. Except for Surah At-Tawba, all chapters or surahs commence with 'In the Name of Allah, Ar-Rahman, Ar-Rahim '. This formula is known as the Bismillah and denotes the boundaries between chapters. The chapters are arranged in order of descending size in general. In fact, the arrangement of the Quran is neither chronological nor according to size. The Surahs are arranged divinely arranged;i.e. via directions from God to prophet Mohammad. After a long and deep search, the Surahs are arranged in the Mus-haf according to semantic coherence as explained in current text linguistics .Surahs (chapters) are recited during the standing portions (Qiyam) of Muslim prayers. Surah Al-Fatiha, the first chapter of the Quran, is recited in every unit of prayer and some units of prayer also involve recitation of all or part of any other surah.
The Madni Surahs or Madani chapters of the Quran are the latest 24 Surahs that, according to Islamic tradition, were revealed at Medina after Muhammad's hijrat from Mecca. Community was larger and more developed, as opposed to their minority position in Mecca.
The Meccan surahs are, according to the timing and contextual background of supposed revelation, the chronologically earlier chapters of the Qur'an that were revealed anytime before the migration of the Islamic prophet Muhammed and his followers from Mecca to Medina (Hijra). The Medinan surahs are those supposed revelations that occurred after the move.
Al-Baqarah is the second and longest chapter (sūrah) of the Quran. It consists of 286 verses (āyāt), 6,201 words and 25,500 letters.
An-Nisa' is the fourth chapter (sūrah) of the Quran, with 176 verses (āyāt). The title derives from the numerous references to women throughout the chapter, including verses 4:34 and 4:127-130.
Ṭā Hā is the 20th chapter (sūrah) of the Qur'an with 135 verses (āyāt). It is named "Ṭā Hā" because the chapter starts with the Arabic letters: طه (Taha) which is believed one of the names of the prophet Muhammed. Luxenberg's perspective is that the letters Ta-Ha could mean "marvel" or "be amazed!" in Aramaic.
Al-Anbiyāʼ, properly pronounced: Al-Ambiyāʼ is the 21st chapter (sūrah) of the Quran with 112 verses (āyāt). Regarding the timing and contextual background of the supposed revelation, it is an earlier "Meccan surah", which means it is believed to have been revealed in Mecca, instead of later in Medina. Its principal subject matter is prophets of the past, who also preached the same faith as Muhammad.
Al-Aḥzāb is the 33rd chapter (sūrah) of the Quran (Q33) with 73 verses (āyāt). The sūrah takes its name from the mention of the parties (al-aḥzāb), or confederates, who fought the Muslims at the Battle of the Trench (5/627), also known as the Battle of the Parties and as the Siege of Madinah.
Yā Sīn is the 36th sūrah of the Quran. It has 83 verses (āyāt). Regarding the timing and contextual background of the supposed revelation, it is an earlier "Meccan surah", which means it is believed to have been revealed in Mecca, instead of later in Medina. Some scholars maintain that verse 12 is from the Medinan period.
Sūrat al-Jāthiyah is the 45th sura (chapter) of the Qur'an with 37 ayat (verses). It is a Meccan chapter, revealed according to the Islamic tradition during the Meccan phase of Muhammad's prophethood. This is one of the seven chapters in the Qur'an that start with the Muqattaʿat Hāʼ Mīm. It contains discussions of "signs of God" for humankind to reflect on, and describes punishments for those who deny God despite the signs. It also contains the only Quranic verse mentioning sharia, a term which Muslims later use to refer to the Islamic law.
Al-Aḥqāf is the 46th chapter (surah) of the Qur'an with 35 verses (ayat). This is the seventh and last chapter starting with the letters ha-mim. Regarding the timing and contextual background of the supposed revelation, it is one of the late Meccan chapters, except for verse 10 and possibly a few others which Muslims believe were revealed in Medina.
Al-Ḥujurāt is the 49th chapter (surah) of the Qur'an with 18 verses (āyāt). The chapter contains etiquette and norms to be observed in the Muslim community, including the proper conduct towards the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, an injunction against acting on news without verification, a call for peace and reconciliation, as well injunctions against defamation, suspicion, and backbiting. The chapter also declares a universal brotherhood among Muslims. The thirteenth verse, one of the most famous in the Quran, is understood by Muslim scholars to establish equality with regards to race and origin; only God can determine one's nobility based on his piety.
Sūrat al-Qamar is the 54th surah of the Quran with 55 ayat. Some verses refer to the Splitting of the moon. "Qamar" (قمر), meaning "Moon" in Arabic, is also a common name among Muslims.
Al-Waqi'a is the 56th surah (chapter) of the Quran. Muslims believe it was revealed in Mecca, specifically around 7 years before the Hegira (622), the migration of Muhammad to Medina. The total number of verses in this surah are 96. It mainly discusses the afterlife according to Islam, and the different fates people will face in it.
Al-Mumtaḥanah is the 60th chapter (sūrah) of the Quran, a Medinan sura with 13 verses.
Sūrat al-Munāfiqūn is the 63rd chapter (surah) of the Qur'an with 11 verses.
Sūrat at-Taghābun is the 64th sura of the Quran with 18 verses. This "Medinan" Chapter opens with the words of glorification of God, it is part of Al-Musabbihat group. The theme of this Surah is an invitation to the Faith, obedience and the teaching of good morals. The previous Surah Al-Munafiqun was about hypocrisy and the lack of Iman. This surah is discussing the opposite of that.
al-Muzzammil is the seventy-third chapter (sūrah) of the Qur'an, containing 20 verses (āyāt), which are recognized by Muslims as the word of God (Allah).
Zihar is a term used in Islamic Jurisprudence, which literally means “you are like my mother”. It is a form of divorce and if a husband says these words to his wife, it is not lawful for him to have intercourse with her unless he recompense by freeing a slave or fasting for two successive months or feeding sixty poor people.