Al-Rifa'i Mosque (Arabic : مسجد الرفاعي, transliterated also as Al-Rifai, Al-Refai, Al-Refa'i, and named in English the Royal Mosque), located in Midan al-Qal'a, adjacent to the Cairo Citadel. It is the Khedival Mausoleum of the Royal Family of Muhammad Ali Pasha. The building is located opposite the Mosque-Madrassa of Sultan Hassan, which dates from around 1361, and was architecturally conceived as a complement to the older structure. This was part of a vast campaign by the 19th century rulers of Egypt to both associate themselves with the perceived glory of earlier periods in Egypt's Islamic history and modernize the city. The mosque was constructed next to two large public squares and off of several European style boulevards constructed around the same time.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and eventually became a global lingua franca. It is named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to the area of Great Britain that later took their name, as England. Both names derive from Anglia, a peninsula in the Baltic Sea. The language is closely related to Frisian and Low Saxon, and its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse, and to a greater extent by Latin and French.
The Citadel of Cairo or Citadel of Salah ad-Din is a medieval Islamic-era fortification in Cairo, Egypt, built by Salah ad-Din (Saladin) and further developed by subsequent Egyptian rulers. It was the seat of government in Egypt and the residence of its rulers for nearly 700 years from the 13th to the 19th centuries. Its location on a promontory of the Mokattam hills near the center of Cairo commands a strategic position overlooking the city and dominating its skyline. At the time of its construction, it was among the most impressive and ambitious military fortification projects of its time. It is now a preserved historic site, including mosques and museums.
The Mosque-Madrassa of Sultan Hassan is a monumental mosque and madrassa located in the historic district of Cairo, Egypt. It was built between 1356 and 1363 during the Bahri Mamluk period, commissioned by Sultan an-Nasir Hasan. The mosque was considered remarkable for its massive size and innovative architectural components, and is still considered one of the most impressive historic monuments in Cairo today.
The Al-Rifa'i Mosque was constructed in two phases over the period between 1869 and 1912 when it was finally completed.It was originally commissioned by Hoshiyar Qadin, the mother of the 19th century Khedive Isma'il Pasha to expand and replace the preexisting zawiya (shrine) of the medieval Islamic saint Ahmed al-Rifa'i. The zawiya was a pilgrimage site for locals who believed that the tomb had mystical healing properties. Hoshiyar envisioned a dual purpose for the new structure as a house for Sufi relics and a mausoleum for the royal family of Egypt. Over the course of its construction the architect, design, and purpose were changed.
Hoshiyar Qadin was a consort to Ibrahim Pasha and was Walida Pasha to their son Isma'il Pasha.
The term Khedive is a title largely equivalent to the English word "servicemen" or possibly viceroy. It was first used, without official recognition, by Muhammad Ali Pasha, the governor of Egypt and Sudan, and vassal of the Ottoman Empire. The initially self-declared title was officially recognized by the Ottoman government in 1867, and used subsequently by Ismail Pasha, and his dynastic successors until 1914.
Isma'il Pasha, known as Ismail the Magnificent, was the Khedive of Egypt and Sudan from 1863 to 1879, when he was removed at the behest of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Sharing the ambitious outlook of his grandfather, Muhammad Ali Pasha, he greatly modernized Egypt and Sudan during his reign, investing heavily in industrial and economic development, urbanisation, and the expansion of the country's boundaries in Africa.
The original architect was Hussein Fahri Pasha, a distant cousin in the dynasty founded by Muhammad Ali of Egypt in 1803.He died during the first phase of construction, and work was halted after Khedive Isma'il Pasha abdicated in 1880. Hoshiyar Qadin herself died in 1885, and work was not resumed until 1905 when the Khedive, Abbas II of Egypt, ordered its completion. Work was supervised by the Hungarian architect Max Herz, head of the Committee for the Conservation of Arab Monuments in Cairo.
Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha was the Ottoman governor of Egypt from 1805 to 1848. At the height of his rule, he controlled Lower Egypt, Upper Egypt, Sudan and, briefly, parts of Arabia and the Levant. Though not a modern nationalist, he is regarded as the founder of modern Egypt.
Abbas II Helmy Bey was the last Khedive of Egypt and Sudan, ruling from 8 January 1892 to 19 December 1914. In 1914, after the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers in World War I, the nationalist Khedive was removed by the British, then ruling Egypt, in favor of his more pro-British uncle, Hussein Kamel, marking the de jure end of Egypt's four-century era as a province of the Ottoman Empire, which had begun in 1517.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars, are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and language. Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family. There are an estimated 14.2–14.5 million ethnic Hungarians and their descendants worldwide, of whom 9.6 million live in today's Hungary. About 2.2 million Hungarians live in areas that were part of the Kingdom of Hungary before the Treaty of Trianon and are now parts of Hungary's seven neighbouring countries, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia and Austria. Significant groups of people with Hungarian ancestry live in various other parts of the world, most of them in the United States, Canada, Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Brazil, Australia, and Argentina.
The building itself is a melange of styles taken primarily from the Mamluk period of Egyptian history, including its dome and minaret. The building contains a large prayer hall as well as the shrines of al-Rifa'i and two other local saints, Ali Abi-Shubbak and Yahya al-Ansari.
Mamluk is an Arabic designation for slaves. The term is most commonly used to refer to non-muslim slave soldiers and Muslim rulers of slave origin.
The history of Egypt has been long and wealthy, due to the flow of the Nile River with its fertile banks and delta, as well as the accomplishments of Egypt's native inhabitants and outside influence. Much of Egypt's ancient history was a mystery until the secrets of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs were deciphered with the discovery and help of the Rosetta Stone. Among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, is the Great Pyramid of Giza. The Library of Alexandria was the only one of its kind for centuries.
A dome is an architectural element that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere. The precise definition has been a matter of controversy. There are also a wide variety of forms and specialized terms to describe them. A dome can rest upon a rotunda or drum, and can be supported by columns or piers that transition to the dome through squinches or pendentives. A lantern may cover an oculus and may itself have another dome.
The mosque is the resting place of Hoshiyar Qadin and her son Isma'il Pasha, as well as other members of Egypt's royal family, including Sultan Hussein Kamel, Sultan and King Fuad I, and King Farouk, whose body was interred here after his death in Rome in 1965. Khedive Tewfik and Khedive Abbas II Hilmi, however, are buried in Qubbat Afandina, a mausoleum built in 1894 in Cairo's Eastern Cemetery, together with other late members of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty.
Sultan Hussein Kamel was the Sultan of Egypt from 19 December 1914 to 9 October 1917, during the British protectorate over Egypt.
Fuad I was the Sultan and later King of Egypt and Sudan, Sovereign of Nubia, Kordofan, and Darfur. The ninth ruler of Egypt and Sudan from the Muhammad Ali dynasty, he became Sultan of Egypt and Sudan in 1917, succeeding his elder brother Sultan Hussein Kamel. He substituted the title of King for Sultan when the United Kingdom recognised Egyptian independence in 1922. His name is sometimes spelled Fouad.
Farouk I was the tenth ruler of Egypt from the Muhammad Ali dynasty and the penultimate King of Egypt and the Sudan, succeeding his father, Fuad I, in 1936.
The mosque served briefly as the resting place of Reza Shah of Iran, who died in exile in the Union of South Africa in 1944, and was returned to Iran after World War II. He was buried in Cairo following the Iranian Revolution of 1979.Part of the burial chamber is currently occupied by Reza Shah's son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who died in Cairo in July 1980.
Reza Shah Pahlavi, commonly known as Reza Shah, was the Shah of Iran from 15 December 1925 until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on 16 September 1941.
Iran, also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With 82 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Its territory spans 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), making it the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. Its central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the political and economic center of Iran, and the largest and most populous city in Western Asia with more than 8.8 million residents in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area.
The Union of South Africa is the historical predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa. It came into being on 31 May 1910 with the unification of the Cape Colony, the Natal Colony, the Transvaal, and the Orange River Colony. It included the territories that were formerly a part of the South African Republic and the Orange Free State.
Sultan of Egypt was the status held by the rulers of Egypt after the establishment of the Ayyubid dynasty of Saladin in 1174 until the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517. Though the extent of the Egyptian Sultanate ebbed and flowed, it generally included Sham and Hejaz, with the consequence that the Ayyubid and later Mamluk sultans were also regarded as the Sultans of Syria. From 1914, the title was once again used by the heads of the Muhammad Ali dynasty of Egypt and Sudan, later being replaced by the title of King of Egypt and Sudan in 1922.
The Muhammad Ali dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Egypt and Sudan from the 19th to the mid-20th century. It is named after its progenitor, Muhammad Ali Pasha, regarded as the founder of modern Egypt. It was also more formally known as the Alawiyya dynasty. Because a majority of the rulers from this dynasty bore the title khedive, it was often referred to by contemporaries as the Khedival dynasty.
The City of the Dead, or Cairo Necropolis, also referred to as theQarafa, is a series of vast Islamic-era necropolises and cemeteries on the edges of historic Cairo, in Egypt. They extend to the north and to the south of the Cairo Citadel, below the Mokattam Hills and outside the historic city walls, covering an area roughly 4 miles long.
Al-Muizz li-Din Allah al-Fatimi Street is one of the oldest streets in Islamic Cairo, Egypt. It is also one of the longest at approximately one kilometer long. A United Nations study found it to have the greatest concentration of medieval architectural treasures in the Islamic world. The street is named after Al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah, the fourth caliph of the Fatimid dynasty. It stretches from Bab Al-Futuh in the north to Bab Zuweila in the south. Starting in 1997, the national government carried out extensive renovations to the historical buildings, modern buildings, paving, and sewerage to turn the street into an "open-air museum". On April 24, 2008, Al-Muizz Street was rededicated as a pedestrian only zone between 8:00 am and 11:00 pm; cargo traffic will be allowed outside of these hours.
The Madrassa of Al-Nasir Muhammad is a madrassa and mausoleum located in the Bayn al-Qasrayn area of al-Muizz street in Cairo, Egypt. It was built in the name of the Mamluk sultan Al-Nasir Muhammad ibn Qalawun, but its construction began in 1296 under the reign of Sultan Al-Adil Kitbugha, who was sultan in between Al-Nasir Muhammad's first and seconds reigns. When Al-Nasir Muhammad returned to the throne in 1299 he oversaw its construction until its completion in 1303. It is adjacent to the earlier hospital and funerary complex of Sultan Qalawun and the later Madrassa of Sultan Barquq.
Ayn-al-Hayat Rifa'at was an Egyptian princess and a member of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty. She was the first wife of Sultan Hussein Kamel of Egypt.
Emina Ilhamy, also Amina Ilhami, was an Egyptian princess, and a member of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty. She was the first Khediva of Egypt from 1879 to 1892 as the wife of Khedive Tewfik Pasha, and Walida Pasha to their son Khedive Abbas Hilmi II Pasha from 1892 to 1914.
Neshedil Qadin (Arabic: نشئة دل قادین)(c. 1857 - 30 January 1924), meaning "Gay-Hearted", "Joy of Soul", was a consort to Khedive Isma'il Pasha of Egypt.
Jeshm Afet Hanim Effendi was the Princess consort of Khedive Isma'il Pasha of Egypt. She was the adoptive mother of the future Sultana of Egypt Melek Tourhan.
Shafaq Nur Hanim was the Princess consort of Khedive Isma'il Pasha and was Walida Pasha to their son Tewfik Pasha, the next Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.
Jamal Nur Qadin was a consort to Khedive Isma'il Pasha of Egypt.
Under the Muhammad Ali dynasty, the line of succession to the former Egyptian throne was subject to a number of changes during its history. From its founding in 1805 until 1866, the dynasty followed the imperial Ottoman practice of agnatic seniority, whereby the eldest male in any generation would succeed to the throne. In 1866, however, the then Khedive of Egypt Isma'il Pasha obtained a firman from the Ottoman Emperor which restricted the succession to the male-line descendants of Isma'il Pasha. The resulting succession remained in force until the abolition of the Egyptian monarchy in 1953, following the 1952 Egyptian Revolution.
Ferial Qadin was a Princess consort to Ismail Pasha, and mother to their son Fuad I of Egypt.
Bamba Qadin, meaning "Pink", was an Egyptian princess, and a member of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty. She is known also with the name of Umm Abbas. She was the wife of Tusun Pasha (1794–1816) the second son of Muhammad Ali Pasha and the Walida Pasha to their son Abbas Hilmi Pasha (1812–1854).
Qubbat Afandina, the Mausoleum of Khedive Tawfiq, is located in Afifi area, on the eastern edge of the Northern Cemetery of Mamluk Necropoli of Cairo, Egypt.
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