Al-Walid II

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Al-Walid ibn Yazid
الوليد بن يزيد
Khalīfah
Amir al-Mu'minin
Umayyad fresco of Prince (future caliph) Walid bin Yazid.jpg
Fresco of Prince (future caliph) Walid bin Yazid from Qusayr 'Amra
11th Caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate
Reign6 February 743 – 17 April 744
Predecessor Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik
Successor Yazid ibn al-Walid
Born709
al-Sham, Umayyad Caliphate
Died17 April 744 (aged 35)
al-Sham, Umayyad Caliphate (present-day Jordan)
Cause of death: Assassination
Issue
  • Al-Hakam ibn Al-Walid ibn Yazid,
  • Uthman ibn Al-Walid ibn Yazid
Full name
Walid ibn Yazid ibn Abd al-Malik
Dynasty Umayyad
Father Yazid II
MotherUmm al-Hajjaj, daughter of Muhammad ibn Yusuf al-Thaqafi
Religion Islam

Walid bin Yazid or Walid II (709 – 17 April 744) (Arabic : الوليد بن يزيد) was an Umayyad Caliph who ruled from 743 until his assassination in the year 744. He succeeded his uncle, Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik.

Contents

Life

As al-Walid grew older, Hisham became increasingly displeased with his nephew's behaviour (including an excessive love for poetry and sex) and considered passing the succession to Hisham's son instead. He spoke to al-Walid about his drinking of alcohol and commanded al-Walid to send away his best drinking companion. He also cut off funds to his heir and strongly encouraged him to be more respectful in religious matters.

Caliphate

Al-Walid succeeded to the throne on the death of Hisham on 6 February 743. As heir, al-Walid was known for his open-handedness. As caliph, he took special care of the crippled and blind, increasing their stipend. He named his two sons, al-Hakam and Uthman, to succeed him in that order as documented by a letter dated 21 May 743 in al-Tabari. [1] Tabari also quotes a number of al-Walid's poems.

Gold dinar of Caliph al-Walid II, AH 125-126. Gold dinar of al-Walid II ibn Yazid, AH 125-126.jpg
Gold dinar of Caliph al-Walid II, AH 125-126.

Al-Walid at first confirmed Nasr ibn Sayyar as governor of Khurasan. However, bribed by Yusuf ibn Umar, the caliph dismissed him. Al-Walid appointed his uncle Yusuf ibn Muhammad governor of Medina. At the same time, Yahya ibn Zayd, the son of Zayd ibn Ali, was found in Khurasan. Nasr urged him to present himself to the caliph, to maintain Islamic unity. However, Yahya chose another path and after initial victory was slain.

Al-Walid put Sulayman ibn Hisham in prison. Such a deed, as well as his reputed drinking, singing and immorality aroused opposition. Al-Walid was fond of versifying and he arranged horse races. The upright Yazid ibn al-Walid spoke against the new ruler's moral laxity. A group began plotting his assassination. When approached, Khalid ibn Abdallah al-Qasri declined to join in and even cautioned al-Walid. However, his vague warning aroused al-Walid's ire. He imprisoned Khalid and then gave him to Yusuf ibn Umar for fifty million dirhams. Yusuf tortured and killed Khalid. This intensely angered many of al-Walid's own relatives.

Hearing of the plot, Marwan ibn Muhammad wrote from Armenia urging a more prudent course of action, one more promising for the stability of the state and the preservation of the Umayyad house. This was disregarded and many armed men moved into Damascus. The caliph was besieged in a castle outside the city. He fought well, but on April 16, 744, at Al-Aghdaf, in modern Jordan, he was defeated and killed by the forces of Sulayman ibn Hisham. He was succeeded by his cousin Yazid III.

See also

Bibliography

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References

  1. al-Tabari (pp. 106–115)
Al-Walid II
Born: 709 Died: 17 April 744
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik
Caliph of Islam
Umayyad Caliph

6 February 743 – 17 April 744
Succeeded by
Yazid ibn al-Walid