Al Arabiya

Last updated

Al Arabiya
Launched3 March 2003 (2003-03-03)
Owned by MBC Group
Picture format 1080i HDTV
(downscaled to 16:9 576i for the SDTV feed)
CountryArab countries
Language Arabic
Broadcast areaMiddle East and North Africa
Headquarters Saudi Arabia
Sister channel(s) MBC 1
MBC Drama
MBC Action
MBC Persia
MBC Bollywood
Website (Arabic) (English) (Persian) (Urdu)
Nilesat 102 11470 V - 27500 - 5/6 [1]
Arabsat BADR-7 11270 V - 27500 - 5/6 [1]
Hot Bird 9 11747 H - 27500 - 3/4 [2]
Asiasat 53760 H - 27500 - 3/4 [3]
Sky Italia Channel 562
OSN (MENA)Channel 453 (SD)
beIN (MENA)Channel 203 (HD)
Numericable (France)Channel 656 (SD)
Naxoo (Switzerland)Channel 280
Ziggo (Netherlands)Channel 780
Fukushima TVChannel 50
Freebox TV (France)Channel 674 (SD)
Sunrise TV (Switzerland)Channel 201 (SD)
MT Box (Morocco)Channel 48 (SD)

Al Arabiya (Arabic : العربية, transliterated: al-ʿArabiyyah; meaning "The Arabic One" or "The Arab One" [lower-alpha 1] ) is a Saudi [4] free-to-air television news channel broadcast in Modern Standard Arabic. The channel is based in Dubai and broadcasts to a pan-Arab audience; it is regarded as a competitor to Al Jazeera.

Saudi Arabia Country in Western Asia

Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is a country in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula. With a land area of approximately 2,150,000 km2 (830,000 sq mi), Saudi Arabia is geographically the largest sovereign state in the Middle East, the second-largest in the Arab world, the fifth-largest in Asia, and the 12th-largest in the world. Saudi Arabia is bordered by Jordan and Iraq to the north, Kuwait to the northeast, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates to the east, Oman to the southeast and Yemen to the south; it is separated from Israel and Egypt by the Gulf of Aqaba. It is the only nation with both a Red Sea coast and a Persian Gulf coast, and most of its terrain consists of arid desert, lowland and mountains. As of October 2018, the Saudi economy was the largest in the Middle East and the 18th largest in the world. Saudi Arabia also enjoys one of the world's youngest populations; 50 percent of its 33.4 million people are under 25 years old.

Free-to-air (FTA) are television (TV) and radio services broadcast in clear (unencrypted) form, allowing any person with the appropriate receiving equipment to receive the signal and view or listen to the content without requiring a subscription, other ongoing cost or one-off fee. In the traditional sense, this is carried on terrestrial radio signals and received with an antenna.

Modern Standard Arabic the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech

Modern Standard Arabic, Standard Arabic or Literary Arabic, is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication. It is considered a pluricentric language.


History and profile

Launched on 3 March 2003, [5] [6] the channel is based in Dubai Media City, United Arab Emirates, and is owned by Saudi broadcaster Middle East Broadcasting Center (MBC).

Dubai Media City free economic zone

Dubai Media City (DMC), part of Dubai Holding, is a tax-free zone within Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

United Arab Emirates Country in Western Asia

The United Arab Emirates, sometimes simply called the Emirates, is a country in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north. The sovereign constitutional monarchy is a federation of seven emirates consisting of Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras Al Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm Al Quwain. Their boundaries are complex, with numerous enclaves within the various emirates. Each emirate is governed by a ruler; together, they jointly form the Federal Supreme Council. One of the rulers serves as the President of the United Arab Emirates. In 2013, the UAE's population was 9.2 million, of which 1.4 million are Emirati citizens and 7.8 million are expatriates.

Middle East Broadcasting Center Middle Eastern private free-to-air satellite broadcasting company

The Middle East Broadcasting Center is the first private free-to-air satellite broadcasting company in the Arab World. It was launched in London in 1991 and later moved to its headquarters in Dubai in 2002. MBC Group provides multiple channels of information, interaction and entertainment. MBC Group includes 18 television channels: MBC1, MBC2 and MBC MAX, MBC3, MBC4, MBC Action, MBC Persia, MBC Bollywood, Al Arabiya ; Wanasah and MBC Drama coinciding with the Group’s 20th anniversary, and offers 24/7 Arabic Drama. The Group also includes two radio stations: MBC FM, Panorama FM, and more ; as well as O3 productions, a specialized documentary production unit.

The current general manager of Al Arabiya is Adel Al Toraifi, who took over that post from Abdulrahman Al Rashed on 22 November 2014., [7] who had held the position since 2004 and was outspoken against Islamic extremism. [8]

Adel Al Toraifi Saudi journalist and a specialist in Middle Eastern affairs

Adel Al Toraifi is a Saudi journalist and a specialist in Middle Eastern affairs, focusing on Saudi-Iranian relations and foreign policy decision making in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf. He was the minister of culture and information of Saudi Arabia from January 2015 to April 2017.

A free-to-air channel, Al Arabiya broadcasts standard newscasts every hour as well as talk shows and documentaries. These programs cover current affairs, business, stock markets and sports. It is rated among the top pan-Arab stations by Middle East audiences. [9] The news organization's website is accessible in Arabic, English, Urdu and Persian. As of March 2018, the website's number one consumer by country was Saudi Arabia, with 20% of the entire viewership.

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is a Western Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

On 26 January 2009, American president Barack Obama gave his first formal interview as president to the television channel. [10]

President of the United States Head of state and of government of the United States

The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.

Barack Obama 44th president of the United States

Barack Hussein Obama II is an American attorney and politician who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, he was the first African American to be elected to the presidency. He previously served as a U.S. senator from Illinois from 2005 to 2008.

Content and Al-Jazeera rivalry

As a response to Al Jazeera's criticism of the Saudi royal family throughout the 1990s, relatives of the Saudi royal family established Al Arabiya in Dubai in 2002. [11] [12] [13] According to a 2008 profile in The New York Times of Al Arabiya director Abdul Rahman Al Rashed, the channel works "to cure Arab television of its penchant for radical politics and violence". Al Arabiya is said to be the second most frequently watched channel after Al Jazeera in Saudi Arabia. [14]

House of Saud the ruling royal family of Saudi Arabia

The House of Saud is the ruling royal family of Saudi Arabia. It is composed of the descendants of Muhammad bin Saud, founder of the Emirate of Diriyah, known as the First Saudi state (1744–1818), and his brothers, though the ruling faction of the family is primarily led by the descendants of Ibn Saud, the modern founder of Saudi Arabia. The most influential position of the royal family is the King of Saudi Arabia. King Salman, who reigns currently, chose first his nephew and then his son as the crown prince without consulting the Allegiance Council. The family is estimated to comprise 15,000 members, but the majority of the power and wealth is possessed by a group of about 2,000 of them.

<i>The New York Times</i> Daily broadsheet newspaper based in New York City

The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won 127 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper. The Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U.S.

Al Arabiya broadcast the email messages of Syrian president Bashar Assad in 2012 that were leaked by opposition hackers. [15] The channel's English language website also obtained emails which revealed [16] that PR agency BLJ were behind the infamous positive profile of the Syrian first lady, Asma Assad, in Vogue magazine while her husband's regime was responsible for the crushing of peaceful demonstrations in 2011. [17]


Al Arabiya reporter in Jerusalem Arabiya Reporter.jpg
Al Arabiya reporter in Jerusalem

Special Mission is Al Arabiya's longest-running investigative journalism/current affairs television program. [18] It broadcasts on the Al Arabiya Pan Arab Channel based in Dubai. Premiering on 19 October 2003, it is still running. The Special Mission team contributed in setting the tone of the program early on, and has since maintained it.

Based on the investigative Panorama concept, the program addresses a single issue in depth each week, showing either a locally produced program or a relevant documentary, in the form of stories from many areas around the world. The program has won many awards for investigative journalism, and broken many high-profile stories. A notable early example of this was the show's exposé on the appalling living conditions endured by many children living in rural Africa, East Asia etc. ... Issues like politics, economy, and religion are addressed.

Eda'at (Arabic : إضاءات, meaning "Spotlights"), hosted by Turki Al-Dakhil, airs every Thursday at 2:00 PM (Saudi Arabia time) and lasts one hour. [19] The show consists of one-on-one interviews with influential regional figures, such as journalists, writers, activists, politicians, etc. (the programme is currently off air)

Rawafed (Arabic : روافد, meaning "Affluents") is directed and hosted by Ahmad Ali El Zein, and broadcast once a week (Wednesday at 5:30 PM). [20] Rawafed is a series of documentaries/interviews devoted to the world of arts and culture. Guests have included writers Tahar Ben Jelloun, Gamal El-Ghitani, poets Adunis, Ahmed Fouad Negm, Joumana Haddad, musicians, Marcel Khalifa, Naseer Shamma. Many key principle artists, writers and politicians in the Arab world have also appeared on the show.

From Iraq is a socio-political, humanitarian program which strives to uncover the realities inside of Iraq. The program is broadcast Sundays and presented by Mayssoun Noueihed. [21]

Inside Iran is a series which focuses on investigative reporting, primarily on political, social, and economic issues facing Iran. [22]

Death Making is a weekly broadcast which airs Fridays, focusing on global terror. The show provides analysis on global terror attacks around the globe, shining a spotlight on religious, social, economic, and political factors. It also provides interviews with well-known figures. It is hosted by Mohammed Altoumaihi. [23]

Business Profiles is a monthly program which provides an in-depth portrait of regional business leaders. The program typically follows an influential business person, including outside of their office, in order to better understand their ways of thinking. It is presented by Fatima Zahra Daoui, and has been on air since June 2013. [24]

Point of Order is a weekly program, broadcast on Fridays, which conducts live interviews focusing on socio-political topics. It is known be hard-hitting and has also been known to invite controversial figures, such as Jean-Marie Le Pen, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, and others. It is hosted by Hasan Muawad. [25]

Political Memoirs is a weekly program which focuses on historical events, serving as a platform to discuss different views on single events, while comparing these different vantage points to recorded history. It is presented by Taher Barake, and is broadcast on Fridays. [26]

Diplomatic Avenues is a monthly program focusing on the United Nations. It is broadcast live from Al Arabiya's studios in the United Nations headquarters, and features interviews with high-level UN officials and diplomats. The program focuses on political, social, scientific, and humanitarian issues before the UN, with an emphasis on the Arab and Islamic worlds. It is hosted by Talal al-Haj, and broadcasts on the last Friday of each month. [27]

Studio Beirut is a weekly discussion program, broadcast on Sundays, which features prominent guests from the Arab world. it is hosted by Giselle Khoury. [28]

The Big Screen is a weekly program which focuses on the film industry, and serves as an entertainment show, focusing on celebrities and film. It provides coverage on industry news, upcoming films, film festivals, and interviews with industry leaders, as well as celebrities. It is hosted by Nadine Kirresh. [29]

Investment and ownership

According to unconfirmed reports, Al Arabiya was founded through investment by the Middle East Broadcasting Center, as well as other investors from Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and the Persian Gulf states. [9] Through MBC, Saudi Prince Abdulaziz bin Fahd and his maternal uncle Waleed bin Ibrahim al Ibrahim own and have control over Al Arabiya. [14]

In March 2012, the channel launched a new channel, Al-Hadath which focuses exclusively on prolonged extensive coverage of political news. [30]

Track record and controversies

Al Arabiya has been criticized for being an arm of Saudi foreign policy, or what the United States would term public diplomacy, as it is seen as being part of "a concerted Saudi attempt to dominate the world of cable and satellite television media in the Arab world and steal the thunder of Egypt". [31] [32]

On 14 February 2005, Al Arabiya was the first news satellite channel to air news of the assassination of Rafik Hariri, [33] one of its early investors. On 9 October 2008, the Al Arabiya website was hacked. [34]

In 2009, Courtney C. Radsch claimed to have lost her job the day after publishing an article about safety problems on Emirates airline, while Al Arabiya claimed it was restructuring the English department. [35]

In 2016, Al Arabiya dismissed 50 staff members, including journalists. Citing financial problems stemming from low oil prices, the dismissed individuals were offered salaries and benefits for six months as a severance package. [36]

On 2 September 2008, Iran expelled Al Arabiya's Tehran bureau chief Hassan Fahs, the third Al Arabiya correspondent expelled from Iran since the network opened an Iran office. [37] On 14 June 2009, the Iranian government ordered the Al Arabiya office in Tehran to be closed for a week for "unfair reporting" of the Iranian presidential election. Seven days later, amid the 2009 Iranian election protests, the network's office was "closed indefinitely" by the government. [38]

In a column published[ citation needed ] on Al Arabiya's English website,[ citation needed ] Hassan Fahs set the record straight in his own words[ citation needed ] as to why he has left Iran, revealing that he has received direct threats of arrest and killing from senior Iranian officials as well as alarming attempts to censor and control the channel's coverage. [39]

In April 2017, Al Arabiya was censured by the UK broadcasting regulator, OFCOM, after it committed a "serious" breach of British broadcast rules in broadcasting an interview with an imprisoned Bahraini torture survivor. Ofcom found that it infringed on the privacy of imprisoned Bahraini opposition leader and torture survivor Hassan Mushaima, when it broadcast footage of him obtained during his arbitrary detention in Bahrain. [40]

Arab criticism

Al Arabiya had been banned from reporting from Iraq by the country's interim government in November 2004 after it broadcast an audio tape on 16 November purportedly made by the deposed Iraqi President Saddam Hussein. [9] The Iraqi government had also banned the channel on 7 September 2006 for one month for what it called "imprecise coverage". According to the station itself, Al Arabiya journalists and staff have come under constant pressure from Iraqi officials to allegedly “report stories as dictated to” and in 2014, PM Nouri Maliki threatened again to ban Al Arabiya in Iraq, shut down its offices and websites. For his part, Al Arabiya's General Manager at the time, Abdulrahman al-Rashed, vowed in a statement that the news channel and its sister channel al-Hadath will continue reporting the story in Iraq despite “Maliki's threats” as well as other threats from the likes of ISIS. [41] However, al-Arabiya is widely perceived in Iraq as a pro-Saudi and anti-Shia sectarian channel.

Due to post-coverage of assassination of Rafic Hariri, as of 2007, Syrian politicians on many occasions labeled al-Arabiya "al-Yahudiyya" ["the Jewish"] and "al-'Ibriyya" ["the Hebrew"], for anti-government and perceived pro-US and pro-Israeli bias. [42] However, the label “al-‘Ebriya” (“the Hebrew One”) itself is given by many Arabs to the station reaching all the way back to 2003, for what some perceive as relatively sympathetic coverage of Israel (Francis, 2007). [43]

In 2013, Saudi scholar Abdulaziz al-Tarefe tweeted: “If the channel ‘Al-Arabiya’ existed in the time of the Prophet [Muhammad, peace be upon him] the hypocrites would only have rallied behind it and the wealth of Banu Qurayza would only have been spent on it.” [44]

Slain reporters

In September 2003, Al Arabiya reporter Mazen al-Tumeizi was killed on camera in Iraq when a U.S. helicopter fired on a crowd in Haifa Street in Baghdad. [45]

In February 2006, three Al Arabiya reporters were abducted and murdered while covering the aftermath of the bombing of a mosque in Samarra, Iraq. Among them was correspondent Atwar Bahjat, an Iraqi national. [46]

In 2012, Al Arabiya's Asia correspondent Bakir Atyani was abducted in the Philippines by an armed militia. He was released [47] after 18 months. [48]

Appearance of US President Barack Obama

On 26 January 2009, President of the United States Barack Obama gave his first formal interview as president to Al Arabiya, [49] delivering the message to the Muslim world that "Americans are not your enemy", while also reiterating that "Israel is a strong ally of the United States" and that they "will not stop being a strong ally of the United States". [10] The White House contacted Al Arabiya's Washington Bureau chief, Hisham Melhem, directly just hours before the interview and asked him not to announce it until an official announcement was made by the administration. [49]


The Al Arabiya internet news service ( was launched in 2004 initially in Arabic, and was joined by an English-language service in 2007, and Persian and Urdu services in 2008. The channel also operates a business website that covers financial news and market data from the Middle East in Arabic ( The Al Arabiya News Channel is available live online on JumpTV and Livestation. The English website of Al Arabiya[ citation needed ] was relaunched in 2013 and now features automated subtitles of the news and programs that appear on the channel. [50]

The Al Arabiya website was plagued with numerous technical difficulties during the Egyptian protests at the end of January 2011. The site very often went offline with error messages as such as the following: "The website is down due to the heavy traffic to follow up with the Egyptian crisis and it will be back within three hours (Time of message: 11GMT)".


  1. العربيةal-ʻarabīyah/alʕarabijja/ is the feminine for العربيal-ʻarabī/alʕarabiː/, both mean "the Arab [one]" or "the Arabic [one]", the first Arabic word form is the feminine form while the latter Arabic form is the masculine form.

Related Research Articles

CNBC Arabiya

CNBC Arabiya is an Arab free-to-air television channel. It covers regional and international affairs from an Arab economic perspective.

Saad Hariri Lebanese politician

Saad El-Din Rafik Al-Hariri is a Lebanese politician who has been the Prime Minister of Lebanon since December 2016. He was also the Prime Minister from November 2009 to June 2011. He is the second son of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri, who was assassinated in 2005. Hariri has also been the leader of the Future Movement party since 2005. He is seen as "the strongest figurehead" of the March 14 Alliance. After three years living overseas, he returned to Lebanon on 8 August 2014 and was designated Prime Minister on 3 November 2016. Hariri's surprise announcement of an intent to resign, broadcast on 4 November 2017 on Saudi state TV, has widely been seen as part of the Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict in Lebanon, and triggered a dispute between Lebanon and Saudi Arabia. The resignation was later suspended, following President Michel Aoun's request to "put it on hold ahead of further consultations".

Turki al-Hamad is a Saudi Arabian political analyst, journalist, and novelist, best known for his trilogy about the coming-of-age of Hisham al-Abir, a Saudi Arabian teenager, the first installment of which, Adama, was published in 1998. Although banned in Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, and Kuwait, the Arabic edition of the trilogy — called in Arabic Atyaf al-Aziqah al-Mahjurah — has sold 20,000 copies.

Walid Muallem Syrian politician

Walid Mohi Edine al Muallem is a Syrian diplomat and Ba'ath Party member who has served as Foreign Minister since 21 February 2006.

Arab League–Iran relations

Arab League–Iran relations refer to political, economic and cultural relations between the mostly Shia Muslim and the ethnically Aryan (Persian) country of Iran and the mostly Sunni and Arab organization Arab League.

Najwa Barakat is a Lebanese Arab novelist, journalist and film director.

Talal Al-Haj Iraqi journalist

Talal Al-Haj is an award-winning Iraqi Journalist. He is the current New York/United Nations Bureau Chief for the Al-Arabiya news network.

Ahmad Ali El Zein writer

Ahmad Ali El Zein is a Lebanese novelist, documentary film maker and television journalist. He is best known for his trilogy of novels, The Edge of Oblivion (2007), Suhbat al-Tayer (2010) and Barid al-Ghouroub (2014). He lives between Europe and the Middle East, where he shoots Rawafed, a series of documentaries on Arab intellectuals and artists broadcast on Al Arabiya News Channel

Elie Nakouzi Lebanese television presenter

Elie Nakouzi is a television broadcaster and presenter in the Middle East with over 20 years of experience in Middle East broadcasting. He has interviewed on Arabic television U.S. President George W. Bush, UK Prime Ministers Tony Blair and Gordon Brown, Israeli Foreign Minister Tzipi Livni, Pakistani General Pervez Musharaf, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmedinejad, and Sudanese President Omar Al-Bashir. Nakouzi was one of the founding journalists of MurrTV, which was closed in Lebanon for 7 years by the Syrian occupying authorities before re-launching in 2009. He is currently the Washington, D.C. bureau chief for MurrTV.

Adnan Mohammed al-Aroor is a Salafi cleric from Hama, Syria.

Turki Aldakhil journalist

Turki bin Abdullah Aldakhil is a Saudi diplomat and journalist, and the current Saudi ambassador to the United Arab Emirates. He is the former General Manager of Al Arabiya Television News Network in Dubai, the owner of Al Mesbar Studies and Research Centre and Madarek Publishing House in Dubai, and was previously a political correspondent for Radio MBC FM in Dubai and Radio Monte Carlo in Saudi Arabia. In February 2019, Al-Dakheel took the oath to become ambassador to the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

<i>Al Eqtisadiah</i>

Al Eqtisadiah is a Saudi daily newspaper, published by Saudi Research and Publishing Company. It is published in Arabic.

Waleed bin Ibrahim Al Ibrahim, better known as Waleed Al Ibrahim, is a Saudi Arabian businessman, and founder and chairman of Middle East Broadcasting Center, known as MBC Group. He is the first commercially successful TV channel owner in the Middle East.

Al Mayadeen

Al Mayadeen is a pan-Arabist satellite television channel launched on 11 June 2012 in Beirut, Lebanon. Its programming is predominantly news. It has news reporters in most Arab countries. In the pan-Arab TV news market it competes against Al Jazeera and Al Arabiya, and also against Sky News Arabia and BBC Arabic Television. At its founding in 2012, many of Al Mayadeen's senior staff were formerly correspondents and editors at Al Jazeera. Al Mayadeen is viewed as pro-Hezbollah and pro-Syrian government.

Television in Saudi Arabia was introduced in 1954, however, dominated by just five major companies: Dubai TV, Middle East Broadcasting Center,SM Enterprise TV, Lebanese Broadcasting Corporation, Rotana and Saudi TV. Together, they control 80% of the pan-Arabee ENJ broadcasting market. Though private television stations cannot operate from Saudi soil, the country is a major market for pan-Arab satellite and pay-TV. Saudi investors are behind the major networks MBC, which is based in Dubai, and Emirates based OSN. Although satellite dishes have been officially banned since 1990, Saudi Arabia has the second highest satellite TV penetration in the Arab Region, at 97%, and there are 85 free-to-air satellite channels headquartered in Saudi Arabia.

Saudi Arabia–Syria relations Diplomatic relations between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Syria

Saudi Arabia–Syria relations refer to diplomatic and economic relations between Saudi Arabia and Syria. Diplomatic ties between these two countries of the Middle East have long been strained by the major events in the region. Relations between Saudi Arabia and Syria deteriorated further following the Syrian Civil War and Saudi Arabia's numerous calls for Bashar al-Assad to be removed from power. Saudi Arabia cut off relations with Syria after they decided to close its embassy in Damascus and expel the Syrian ambassador in 2012.

Orient News is a Syrian media group owned by Syrian businessman, journalist and opposition figure Ghassan Aboud, based in Dubai, providing news service to the Middle East with a focus on Syria.

Al Jazeera, is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network. Initially launched as an Arabic news and current-affairs satellite TV channel, Al Jazeera has since expanded into a network with several outlets, including the Internet and specialty television channels in multiple languages.

Al Arabiya English is the English language service of the Dubai-based regional Arab newscaster, Al-Arabiya News Channel. Its main audiences reside in the United States and the United Kingdom.


  1. 1 2 "الترددات الجديدة لقنوات MBC -". . Retrieved 7 March 2017.
  2. "Hot Bird 13B / Hot Bird 13C / Hot Bird 13D (13°E) - All transmissions - frequencies - KingOfSat".
  3. "AsiaSat 5 at 100.5°E - LyngSat".
  4. "Four dead in bomb attack on al-Arabiya TV in Baghdad". BBC News . 26 July 2010.
  5. "About Al Arabiya TV". Al Arabiya. Archived from the original on 10 February 2010. Retrieved 4 September 2009.
  6. Erik C. Nisbet; Teresa A. Myers (2011). "Anti-American Sentiment as a Media Effect? Arab Media, Political Identity, and Public Opinion in the Middle East" (PDF). Communication Research. 38 (5): 684–709. doi:10.1177/0093650211405648 . Retrieved 2 October 2014.
  7. "Dr. Adel Altoraifi appointed new GM at Al Arabiya News Channel". Al Arabiya. 22 November 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
  8. Al Arabiya director general resigns,, 16 September 2010
  9. 1 2 3 Peter Feuilherade (25 November 2003). "Profile: Al-Arabiya TV". BBC Monitoring . Retrieved 4 September 2009.
  10. 1 2 "Obama tells Al Arabiya peace talks should resume Archived 10 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine ". Al Arabiya 27 January 2009.
  11. "Kraidy, Marwan".
  12. (2006). "Hypermedia and governance in Saudi Arabia". First Monday. Special Issue No. 7. p. 10.
  13. Departmental Papers (ASC). University of Pennsylvania. 22 September 2010. Retrieved 1 June 2011.
  14. 1 2 "Ideological And Ownership Trends In The Saudi Media". Cablegate. 11 May 2009. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2012.
  15. Al Abdeh, Malik (4 October 2012). "The Media War in Syria". The Majalla. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
  16. "Syria Leaks: Al Arabiya English Reports On Assad's PR Firm". The Huffington Post. 25 July 2012.
  17. "Syria Leaks: Al Arabiya English Reports on Assad's PR Firm". The Huffington Post. 25 July 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
  18. "Al Arabiya TV : Popular Programs on Al Arabiya TV: Arabic News Channel - Middle Eastern News - Arab Political Show". Retrieved 27 December 2017.
  19. "Al Arabiya Programs". 15 September 2009. Archived from the original on 26 May 2011. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
  20. "Rawafed Website".
  21. From Iraq,
  22. Inside Iran,
  23. Death Making,
  24. Business Profiles,
  25. Point of Order,
  26. Political Memoirs,
  27. Diplomatic Avenue,
  28. Studio Beirut,
  29. The Big Screen,
  30. "Al Arabiya launches Al Hadath channel". Al Arabiya. 4 March 2012. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
  31. Andrew Hammond (October 2006). "Saudi Arabia's Media Empire: keeping the masses at home". International Communication Gazette .
  32. Zayani, M.; Ayish, M. (2008). "Arab Satellite Television and Crisis Reporting". Journalism Practice. 2 (3): 15–26. doi:10.1080/17512780701768485.
  33. "Major industry award and dynamic programming mark Al Arabiya's third anniversary Archived 14 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine ". 4 March 2006.
  34. "Arabiya TV Website Hacked Archived 13 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine ". Kuwait Times . 11 October 2008.
  35. Reporters Without Borders (29 October 2009). "Laid off for Implicating Emirates".
  36. Al Arabiya News sacks 50 staff, including veteran journalists,, 25 May 2016
  37. "IRAN: Al-Arabiya reporter banned from working". Menassat. 3 September 2008.
  38. "Al Arabiya's Tehran bureau closed indefinitely". Al Arabiya. 21 June 2009. Retrieved 21 June 2009.
  39. Fahs, Hassan (18 September 2012). "Al Arabiya's Tehran correspondent: this is why I was kicked out of Iran" . Retrieved 6 January 2015.
  40. Merrill, Jamie (17 April 2017). "Al Arabiya faces UK ban for interview with tortured Bahraini" . Retrieved 17 April 2017.
  41. "Maliki threatens to ban Al Arabiya News in Iraq". Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  42. Itamar Radai (2007). “On the road to Damascus: Bashar al-Asad, Israel, and the Jews”, Issue 9 of Posen papers in contemporary antisemitism. Vidal Sasson International Center for the Study of Antisemitism, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 2007
  43. Joe F. Khalil, Marwan M. Kraidy (2017). “Arab Television Industries”, Bloomsbury Publishing, page 86.
  44. Hammuda, Ahmed (29 January 2018). "Is Al-Arabiya Network really a refreshing alternative?". Middle East Monitor. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  45. "U.S. army defends helicopter attack in Baghdad Archived 2 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine ". Reuters. 15 September 2004.
  47. "Baker Atyani describes 'mental torture' of kidnap". Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  48. Flanagan, Ben (11 December 2013). "Baker Atyani describes 'mental torture' of kidnap". Al Arabiya English. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
  49. 1 2 "Al Arabiya anchor: how we got Obama exclusive". Al Arabiya. 28 January 2009.
  50. "Al Arabiya News Global Discussion: Princess Rym of Jordan calls on Arab world to fight discrimination". Al Arabiya. 1 December 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2015.

Further reading