Al Smith

Last updated

1900;died 1944)
Al Smith
AlfredSmith.jpg
Smith c. 1920s
42nd Governor of New York
In office
January 1, 1923 December 31, 1928
Children5

Alfred Emanuel Smith (December 30, 1873 – October 4, 1944) was an American politician who served four terms as Governor of New York and was the Democratic Party's candidate for president in 1928.

Contents

The son of an Irish-American mother and a Civil War–veteran Italian-American father, Smith was raised on the Lower East Side of Manhattan near the Brooklyn Bridge. He resided in that neighborhood for his entire life. Although Smith remained personally untarnished by corruption, he—like many other New York politicians—was linked to the notorious Tammany Hall political machine that controlled New York City politics during his era. [1] Smith served in the New York State Assembly from 1904 to 1915 and held the position of Speaker of the Assembly in 1913. Smith also served as sheriff of New York County from 1916 to 1917. He was first elected governor of New York in 1918, lost his 1920 bid for re-election, and was elected governor again in 1922, 1924, and 1926. Smith was the foremost urban leader of the Efficiency Movement in the United States and was noted for achieving a wide range of reforms as New York governor in the 1920s.

Smith was the first Roman Catholic to be nominated for president of the United States by a major party. His 1928 presidential candidacy mobilized both Catholic and anti-Catholic voters. [2] Many Protestants (including German Lutherans and Southern Baptists) feared his candidacy, believing that the Pope in Rome would dictate his policies. Smith was also a committed "wet", which was a term used for opponents of Prohibition; as New York governor, he had repealed the state's prohibition law. As a "wet", Smith attracted voters who wanted beer, wine and liquor and did not like dealing with criminal bootleggers, along with voters who were outraged that new criminal gangs had taken over the streets in most large and medium-sized cities. [3] Incumbent Republican Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover was aided by national prosperity, the absence of American involvement in war and anti-Catholic bigotry, and he defeated Smith in a landslide in 1928.

Smith sought the 1932 Democratic presidential nomination but was defeated by Franklin D. Roosevelt, his former ally and successor as Governor of New York. Smith then entered business in New York City, became involved in the construction and promotion of the Empire State Building, and became an increasingly vocal opponent of Roosevelt's New Deal.

Early life

Al Smith attended St. James school through the eighth grade, his only formal education. St James School - New York.jpg
Al Smith attended St. James school through the eighth grade, his only formal education.

Smith was born at 174 South Street and raised in the Fourth Ward on the Lower East Side of Manhattan; he resided there for his entire life. [4] His mother, Catherine (née Mulvihill), was the daughter of Maria Marsh and Thomas Mulvihill, who were immigrants from County Westmeath, Ireland. [5] His father, baptised Joseph Alfred Smith in 1839, was the son of Emanuel Smith, an Italian marinaro.[ citation needed ] The elder Alfred Smith (Anglicized name for Alfredo Emanuele Ferraro) was the son of Italian and German [6] [7] immigrants. He served with the 11th New York Fire Zouaves in the opening months of the Civil War.

Smith grew up with his family struggling financially in the Gilded Age; New York City matured and completed major infrastructure projects. The Brooklyn Bridge was being constructed nearby. "The Brooklyn Bridge and I grew up together", Smith would later recall. [8] His four grandparents were Irish, German, Italian, and Anglo-Irish, [9] but Smith identified with the Irish-American community and became its leading spokesman in the 1920s.

His father Alfred owned a small trucking firm, but died when the boy was 13. Aged 14, Smith had to drop out of St. James parochial school to help support the family, and worked at a fish market for seven years. Prior to dropping out of school, he served as an altar boy, and was strongly influenced by the Catholic priests he worked with. [10] He never attended high school or college, and claimed he learned about people by studying them at the Fulton Fish Market, where he worked for $12 per week. His acting skills made him a success on the amateur theater circuit. He became widely known, and developed the smooth oratorical style that characterized his political career. On May 6, 1900, Al Smith married Catherine Ann Dunn, with whom he had five children. [1]

Political career

Charles F. Murphy and Smith in 1915 C.F. Murphy and A.E. Smith LCCN2014701930.jpg
Charles F. Murphy and Smith in 1915

In his political career, Smith built on his working-class beginnings, identifying himself with immigrants and campaigning as a man of the people. Although indebted to the Tammany Hall political machine (and particularly to its boss, "Silent" Charlie Murphy), he remained untarnished by corruption and worked for the passage of progressive legislation. [1] It was during his early unofficial jobs with Tammany Hall that he gained renown as an excellent speaker. [11] Smith's first political job was in 1895, as an investigator in the office of the Commissioner of Jurors as appointed by Tammany Hall.

State legislature

Smith at his desk in the New York Assembly in 1913 AlSmithDesk1913.jpg
Smith at his desk in the New York Assembly in 1913

Smith was first elected to the New York State Assembly (New York Co., 2nd D.) in 1904, and was repeatedly elected to office, serving through 1915. [10] After being approached by Frances Perkins, an activist to improve labor practices, Smith sought to improve the conditions of factory workers.

Smith served as vice chairman of the state commission appointed to investigate factory conditions after 146 workers died in the 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire. Meeting the families of the deceased Triangle factory workers left a strong impression on him. Together with Perkins and Robert F. Wagner, Smith crusaded against dangerous and unhealthy workplace conditions and championed corrective legislation. [11] [12]

The Commission, chaired by State Senator Robert F. Wagner, held a series of widely publicized investigations around the state, interviewing 222 witnesses and taking 3500 pages of testimony. They hired field agents to do on-site inspections of factories. Starting with the issue of fire safety, they studied broader issues of the risks of injury in the factory environment. Their findings led to thirty-eight new laws regulating labor in New York State, and gave each of them a reputation as leading progressive reformers working on behalf of the working class. In the process, they changed Tammany's reputation from mere corruption to progressive endeavors to help the workers. [13] New York City's Fire Chief John Kenlon told the investigators that his department had identified more than 200 factories where conditions resulted in risk of a fire like that at the Triangle Factory. [14]

The State Commission's reports led to the modernization of the state's labor laws, making New York State "one of the most progressive states in terms of labor reform." [15] [16] New laws mandated better building access and egress, fireproofing requirements, the availability of fire extinguishers, the installation of alarm systems and automatic sprinklers, better eating and toilet facilities for workers, and limited the number of hours that women and children could work. In the years from 1911 to 1913, sixty of the sixty-four new laws recommended by the Commission were legislated with the support of Governor William Sulzer. [17]

In 1911, the Democrats obtained a majority of seats in the State Assembly, and Smith became Majority Leader and Chairman of the Committee on Ways and Means. The following year, following the loss of the majority, he became the Minority Leader. When the Democrats reclaimed the majority after the next election, he was elected Speaker for the 1913 session. He became Minority Leader again in 1914 and 1915. In November 1915, he was elected Sheriff of New York County, New York. By now he was a leader of the Progressive movement in New York City and state. His campaign manager and top aide was Belle Moskowitz, a daughter of Jewish immigrants. [1]

Governor (1919–1920, 1923–1928)

Gubernatorial portrait of Al Smith by Douglas Volk Al Smith, governor of New York (portrait by Douglas Volk).png
Gubernatorial portrait of Al Smith by Douglas Volk

After serving in the patronage-rich job of Sheriff of New York County, Smith was elected President of the Board of Aldermen of the City of New York in 1917. Smith was elected Governor of New York at the New York State election of 1918 with the help of Murphy and James A. Farley, who brought Smith the upstate vote.[ citation needed ]

In 1919, Smith gave the famous speech "A man as low and mean as I can picture", [18] making a drastic break with publisher William Randolph Hearst. Hearst, known for his notoriously sensationalist and largely left-wing position in the state Democratic Party, was the leader of its populist wing in the city. He had combined with Tammany Hall in electing the local administration, and had attacked Smith for starving children by not reducing the cost of milk. [19]

Smith lost his bid for re-election in the 1920 New York gubernatorial election, but was again elected governor in 1922, 1924 and 1926, with Farley managing his campaign. In his 1922 re-election, he embraced his position as an anti-prohibitionist. Smith offered alcohol to guests at the Executive Mansion in Albany, and repealed the state's Prohibition enforcement statute, the Mullan-Gage law. [20]

As governor, Smith became known nationally as a progressive who sought to make government more efficient and more effective in meeting social needs. Smith's young assistant Robert Moses built the nation's first state park system and reformed the civil service, later gaining appointment as Secretary of State of New York. During Smith's time in office, New York strengthened laws governing workers' compensation, women's pensions and children and women's labor with the help of Frances Perkins, soon to be President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Labor Secretary.

Time cover, July 13, 1925 TIMEMagazine13Jul1925.jpg
Time cover, July 13, 1925

In 1924, Smith unsuccessfully sought the Democratic nomination for president, advancing the cause of civil liberty by decrying lynching and racial violence. Roosevelt delivered the nominating speech for Smith at the 1924 Democratic National Convention in which he saluted Smith as "the Happy Warrior of the political battlefield." [1] Smith represented the urban, east coast wing of the party as an anti-prohibition "wet" candidate, while his main rival for the nomination, President Woodrow Wilson's son-in-law William Gibbs McAdoo, a former Secretary of the Treasury, stood for the more rural tradition and prohibition "dry" candidacy. [21] The party was hopelessly split between the two. An increasingly chaotic convention balloted 100 times before both men accepted that neither would be able to win the required two-thirds of the votes, and so each withdrew. On the 103rd ballot, the exhausted party nominated the little-known John W. Davis of West Virginia, a former congressman and United States Ambassador to Great Britain who had been a dark horse presidential candidate in 1920. Davis lost the election by a landslide to the Republican Calvin Coolidge, who won in part because of the prosperous times.

Undeterred, Smith returned to fight a determined campaign for the party's nomination in 1928.

1928 election

Reporter Frederick William Wile made the oft-repeated observation that Smith was defeated by "the three P's: Prohibition, Prejudice and Prosperity". [22] The Republican Party was still benefiting from an economic boom, as well as a failure to reapportion Congress and the electoral college following the 1920 census, [23] which had registered a 15 percent increase in the urban population. The party was biased toward small-town and rural areas. Its presidential candidate Herbert Hoover, who headed the Census of 1920, did little to alter these events.

Historians agree that prosperity, along with widespread anti-Catholic sentiment against Smith, made Hoover's election inevitable. [24] He defeated Smith by a landslide in the 1928 election, carrying five Southern states in crossover voting by conservative white Democrats. (Since the disenfranchisement of blacks in the South at the turn of the century, whites had dominated voting in that region.)

Political cartoon suggesting the Pope was the force behind Al Smith. The Good Citizen, November 1926. Publisher: Pillar of Fire Church, New Jersey. Goodcitizennovember1926.jpg
Political cartoon suggesting the Pope was the force behind Al Smith. The Good Citizen, November 1926. Publisher: Pillar of Fire Church, New Jersey.

The fact that Smith was Catholic and the descendant of Catholic immigrants was instrumental in his loss of the election of 1928. [10] Historical hostilities between Protestants and Catholics had been carried by national groups to the United States by immigrants, and centuries of Protestant domination allowed myths and superstitions about Catholicism to flourish. Long-established Protestants had viewed the waves of Catholic immigrants from Ireland, Italy and Eastern Europe since the mid-19th century with suspicion. In addition, many Protestants carried old fears related to extravagant claims of one religion against the other which dated back to the European wars of religion. They feared that Smith would answer to the Pope rather than the United States Constitution.

Scott Farris notes that the anti-Catholicism of the American society was the sole reason behind Smith's defeat, as even contemporary Prohibition activists would admit that their main problem with the Democratic candidate was his faith and not any political view - Bob Jones Sr., a prominent Protestant pastor in South Carolina, said: “I’ll tell you, brother, that the big issue we’ve got to face ain’t the liquor question. I’d rather see a saloon on every corner of the South than see the foreigners elect Al Smith president.” [25] A Methodist newspaper in Georgia called Catholicism “a degenerate type of Christianity,” while Southern Baptist churches ordered their followers to vote against Smith, claiming that he would close down Protestant churches, end freedom of worship and prohibit reading the Bible. Charles Hillman Fountain, a Protestant writer, insisted that Catholics should be barred from holding any office. Farris states that "More disturbing than the ridiculous and the dangerous was the respectable anti-Catholicism", as contemporary newspapers and Protestant churches tried to mask their anti-Catholicism as genuine concern. Protestant activists insisted that Catholicism represents alien culture and medieval mentality, claiming that there is Catholicism is incompatible with American democracy and institutions. Catholics were portrayed as reactionary despite being more left-wing than mainstream American Protestant congregations at the time. [25] William Allen White, a renowned newspaper editor, warned that Catholicism would erode the moral standards of America, saying that “the whole Puritan civilization which has built a sturdy, orderly nation is threatened by Smith.” While Herbert Hoover avoided raising the issue of Catholicism on the campaign trail, he defended the Protestant actions in a private letter:

There are many people of intense Protestant faith to whom Catholicism is a grievous sin, and they have as much right to vote against a man for public office because of that belief. That is not persecution. [25]

White rural conservatives in the South also believed that Smith's close association with Tammany Hall, the Democratic machine in Manhattan, showed that he tolerated corruption in government, while they overlooked their own brands of it. Another major controversial issue was the continuation of Prohibition, which was widely considered a problem to enforce. Smith was personally in favor of the relaxation or repeal of Prohibition laws, because they had given rise to more criminality. The Democratic Party split North and South on the issue, with the more rural South continuing to favor Prohibition. During the campaign, Smith tried to duck the issue with non-committal statements. [26]

Smith was an articulate proponent of good government and efficiency, as was Hoover. Smith swept the entire Catholic vote, which had been split in 1920 and 1924 between the parties; he attracted millions of Catholics, generally ethnic whites, to the polls for the first time, especially women, who were first allowed to vote in 1920. He lost important Democratic constituencies in the rural North as well as in Southern cities and suburbs. However, he did win votes in the Deep South, thanks in part to the appeal of his running mate, Senator Joseph Robinson from Arkansas, but he lost five states in that region to Hoover. Smith carried the ten most populous cities in the United States, an indication of the rising power of the urban areas and their new demographics.

Smith was not a very good campaigner. His campaign theme song, "The Sidewalks of New York", had little appeal among rural folks, and they found that his 'city' accent, when heard on radio, seemed slightly foreign. Smith narrowly lost New York State, whose electors were biased in favor of rural upstate and largely Protestant districts. However, in 1928 his fellow Democrat Roosevelt (a Protestant of Dutch old-line stock) was elected to replace him as governor of New York. [27] Farley left Smith's camp to run Franklin D. Roosevelt's successful campaign for governor in 1928, and then Roosevelt's successful campaigns for the Presidency in 1932 and 1936.

Al Smith giving a speech Al Smith - Bain News Service.jpg
Al Smith giving a speech

Voter realignment

Some political scientists believe that the 1928 election started a voter realignment that helped develop Roosevelt's New Deal coalition. [28] One political scientist said, "...not until 1928, with the nomination of Al Smith, a northeastern reformer, did Democrats make gains among the urban, blue-collar and Catholic voters who were later to become core components of the New Deal coalition and break the pattern of minimal class polarization that had characterized the Fourth Party System." [29] However, Allan Lichtman's quantitative analysis suggests that the 1928 results were based largely on religion and are not a useful barometer of the voting patterns of the New Deal era. [30]

Historian Allan Lichtman notes that the sole defining issue of the election was anti-Catholicism, which radically realigned states' voting patterns. States that have never voted Republican after Reconstruction such as Texas, Florida, North Carolina, and Virginia voted for Hoover, while Smith carried Massachusetts and Rhode Island - states that have never voted Democrat before save for 1912. Lichtman further proves this by pointing out that Smith and Hoover had very similar political views save for religion and Prohibition, and yet the 1928 election had a turnout of 57%, despite previous 1920s American elections having their turnouts below 50%. [25]

Finan (2003) says Smith is an underestimated symbol of the changing nature of American politics in the first half of the last century. He represented the rising ambitions of urban, industrial America at a time when the hegemony of rural, agrarian America was in decline, although many states had legislatures and congressional delegations biased toward rural areas because of lack of redistricting after censuses. Smith was connected to the hopes and aspirations of immigrants, especially Catholics and Jews from eastern and southern Europe. Smith was a devout Catholic, but his struggles against religious bigotry were often misinterpreted when he fought the religiously inspired Protestant morality imposed by prohibitionists.

Opposition to Roosevelt and the New Deal

Smith felt slighted by Roosevelt during the latter's governorship. They became rivals in the 1932 Democratic Party presidential primaries after Smith decided to run for the nomination against Roosevelt, the presumed favorite. At the convention, Smith's animosity toward Roosevelt was so great that he put aside longstanding rivalries to work with McAdoo and Hearst to block FDR's nomination for several ballots. That coalition fell apart when Smith refused to work on finding a compromise candidate; instead, he maneuvered to become the nominee. After losing the nomination, Smith eventually campaigned for Roosevelt in 1932, giving a particularly important speech on behalf of the Democratic nominee at Boston on October 27 in which he "pulled out all the stops." [31]

Franklin D. Roosevelt (left) and Al Smith (right) in Albany, New York Governor Roosevelt and Al Smith.jpg
Franklin D. Roosevelt (left) and Al Smith (right) in Albany, New York

Smith became highly critical of Roosevelt's New Deal policies, which he deemed a betrayal of good-government progressive ideals and ran counter to the goal of close cooperation with business. Smith joined the American Liberty League, an organization founded by conservative Democrats who disapproved of Roosevelt's New Deal measures and tried to rally public opinion against the New Deal. The League published pamphlets and sponsored radio programs, arguing that the New Deal was destroying personal liberty. However, the League failed to gain support in the 1934 or 1936 elections and rapidly declined in influence. It was officially dissolved in 1940. [32] [33] Smith's antipathy to Roosevelt and his policies was so great that he supported Republican presidential nominees Alfred M. Landon in the 1936 election and Wendell Willkie in the 1940 election. [1]

Although personal resentment was one factor in Smith's break with Roosevelt and the New Deal, Christopher Finan (2003) argues that Smith was consistent in his beliefs and politics—suggesting that Smith always believed in social mobility, economic opportunity, religious tolerance, and individualism. Despite the break between the men, Smith and Eleanor Roosevelt remained close. In 1936, while Smith was in Washington making a vehement radio attack on the President, she invited him to stay at the White House. To avoid embarrassing the Roosevelts, he declined. Historian Robert Slayton notes that Smith and Franklin Roosevelt did not reconcile until a brief meeting in June 1941, and he also suggests that during the early 1940s the antipathy which Smith held toward his former ally had waned. [34] Upon the death of Smith's wife Katie in May 1944, FDR sent Smith a note of personal condolence. Smith's grandchildren later recalled that Smith was greatly touched by it. [35]

Business life and later years

Smith golfing with baseball great Babe Ruth in Coral Gables, Florida, in 1930. Babe Ruth Gov.jpg
Smith golfing with baseball great Babe Ruth in Coral Gables, Florida, in 1930.

After the 1928 election, Smith became the president of Empire State, Inc., the corporation that built and operated the Empire State Building. Construction for the building symbolically began on March 17, 1930, St. Patrick's Day, per Smith's instructions. Smith's grandchildren cut the ribbon when the world's tallest skyscraper opened on May 1, 1931, which was May Day, an international labor celebration. Its construction had been completed in only 13 months, a record for such a large project.

As with the Brooklyn Bridge, which Smith had seen being built from his Lower East Side boyhood home, the Empire State Building was both a vision and an achievement that had been constructed by combining the interests of all, rather than being divided by the interests of a few. Smith continued to promote the Empire State Building, which was derided as the "Empty State Building" due to a lack of tenants, in the years following its construction. [36] [37]

In 1929, Smith was awarded the Laetare Medal by the University of Notre Dame, considered the most prestigious award for American Catholics. [38]

Al Smith (right) in December 1929 during his time as director of Empire State, Inc. Al Smith and Charles Francis Adams III.jpg
Al Smith (right) in December 1929 during his time as director of Empire State, Inc.

In 1929 Smith was elected President of the Board of Trustees of the New York State College of Forestry at Syracuse University. [39] Knowing his fondness for animals, in 1934 Robert Moses made Al Smith the Honorary Night Zookeeper of the newly-renovated Central Park Zoo. Though a ceremonial title, Smith was given keys to the zoo and often took guests to see the animals after hours. [40]

Smith was an early and vocal critic of the Nazi regime in Germany. He supported the Anti-Nazi boycott of 1933 and addressed a mass-meeting at Madison Square Garden against Nazism that March. [41] His speech was included in the 1934 anthology Nazism: An Assault on Civilization. [42] In 1938, Smith took to the airwaves to denounce Nazi brutality in the wake of Kristallnacht . His words were published in The New York Times article "Text of the Catholic Protest Broadcast" of November 17, 1938. [43] [44]

Like most New York City businessmen, Smith enthusiastically supported American military involvement in World War II. Although he was not asked by Roosevelt to play any role in the war effort, Smith was an active and vocal proponent of FDR's attempts to amend the Neutrality Act in order to allow "Cash and Carry" sales of war equipment to be made to the British. Smith spoke on behalf of the policy in October 1939, to which FDR responded directly: "Very many thanks. You were grand." [45]

In 1939 Smith was appointed a Papal Chamberlain of the Sword and Cape, one of the highest honors which the Papacy bestowed on a layman.

Smith died at the Rockefeller Institute Hospital on October 4, 1944, of a heart attack, at the age of 70. He had been broken-hearted over the death of his wife from cancer five months earlier, on May 4, 1944. [46] He is interred at Calvary Cemetery. [47]

Legacy

Buildings and other landmarks named after Smith include the following:

Landmarks named after Al Smith
Nymedicalcollege.jpg
Alfred E. Smith Memorial Building at St. Vincent's Hospital Manhattan
PS 163 Al Smith jeh.jpg
The Alfred Smith School, PS 163
Alfred E Smith HS 151 E151 St jeh.jpg
Alfred E. Smith Career and Technical Education High School in the South Bronx
Alfred E. Smith Building Night.jpg
The Alfred E. Smith Building in Albany, New York
Sunken Meadow State Park-Beach.JPG
Governor Alfred E. Smith Sunken Meadow State Park in Suffolk County

Electoral history

New York gubernatorial elections, 1918–1926

1918 General election results [51]
Governor candidate Running Mate PartyPopular Vote
Alfred E. Smith Harry C. Walker Democratic 1,009,936(47.37%)
Charles S. Whitman Edward Schoeneck (Republican),
Mamie W. Colvin (Prohibition)
Republican,
Prohibition
995,094(46.68%)
Charles Wesley Ervin Ella Reeve Bloor Socialist 121,705(5.71%)
Olive M. Johnson August Gillhaus Socialist Labor 5,183(0.24%)

1920 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate PartyPopular Vote
Nathan L. Miller Jeremiah Wood Republican 1,335,878(46.58%)
Alfred E. Smith George R. Fitts Democratic 1,261,812(44.00%)
Joseph D. Cannon Jessie Wallace Hughan Socialist 159,804(5.57%)
Dudley Field Malone Farmer-Labor 69,908(2.44%)
George F. ThompsonEdward G. Deltrich Prohibition 35,509(1.24%)
John P. Quinn Socialist Labor 5,015(0.17%)

1922 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate PartyPopular Vote
Alfred E. Smith George R. Lunn Democratic 1,397,670(55.21%)
Nathan L. Miller William J. Donovan Republican 1,011,725(39.97%)
Edward F. CassidyTheresa B. Wiley Socialist,
Farmer-Labor
109,119(4.31%)
George K. HindsWilliam C. Ramsdell Prohibition 9,499(0.38%)
Jeremiah D. CrowleyJohn E. DeLee Socialist Labor 9,499(0.38%)

1924 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate PartyPopular Vote
Alfred E. Smith George R. Lunn Democratic 1,627,111(49.96%)
Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. Seymour Lowman Republican 1,518,552(46.63%)
Norman Mattoon Thomas Charles Solomon Socialist 99,854(3.07%)
James P. Cannon Franklin P. Brill Workers 6,395(0.20%)
Frank E. PassonnoMilton Weinberger Socialist Labor 4,931(0.15%)

1926 General election results
Governor candidate Running Mate PartyPopular Vote
Alfred E. Smith Edwin Corning Democratic 1,523,813(52.13%)
Ogden L. Mills Seymour Lowman Republican 1,276,137(43.80%)
Jacob Panken August Claessens Socialist 83,481(2.87%)
Charles E. ManierreElla McCarthy Prohibition 21,285(0.73%)
Benjamin Gitlow Franklin P. Brill Workers 5,507(0.19%)
Jeremiah D. CrowleyJohn E. DeLee Socialist Labor 3,553(0.12%)

United States presidential election, 1928

Electoral results
Presidential candidatePartyHome statePopular voteElectoral
vote
Running mate
CountPercentageVice-presidential candidateHome stateElectoral vote
Herbert Hoover Republican California21,427,12358.2%444 Charles Curtis Kansas 444
Alfred E. Smith Democratic New York15,015,46440.8%87 Joseph Taylor Robinson Arkansas 87
Norman Thomas Socialist New York267,4780.7%0 James H. Maurer Pennsylvania 0
William Z. Foster Communist Illinois 48,5510.1%0 Benjamin Gitlow New York0
Other48,3960.1%Other
Total36,807,012100%531531
Needed to win266266

Works

See also

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Al Smith 1928 presidential campaign</span>

Al Smith, Governor of New York, was a candidate for President of the United States in the 1928 election. His run was notable in that he was the first Catholic nominee of a major party, he opposed Prohibition, and he enjoyed broad appeal among women, who had won the right of suffrage in 1920.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1928 United States presidential election in Texas</span> Election in Texas

The 1928 United States presidential election in Texas took place on November 6, 1928, as part of the 1928 United States presidential election which was held throughout all contemporary forty-eight states. Voters chose 20 representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1928 United States presidential election in Georgia</span> Election in Georgia

The 1928 United States presidential election in Georgia took place on November 6, 1928, as part of the wider United States presidential election. Voters chose 14 representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. Georgia used the congressional district method of distributing electoral votes rather than the traditional winner-take-all system, with 12 electors elected by every one of the 12 congressional districts and 2 electors elected in the State at-large.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1928 United States presidential election in Arkansas</span> Election in Arkansas

The 1928 United States presidential election in Arkansas was held on November 6, 1928 as part of the 1928 United States presidential election. State voters chose nine electors, or representatives to the United States Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice-President.

Al Smith, Governor of New York, was a candidate for Democratic nomination for President of the United States in the 1924 election.

Al Smith, former governor of New York and the 1928 Democratic presidential nominee, ran an unsuccessful campaign for the party's 1932 presidential nomination. He ultimately lost to Franklin Delano Roosevelt, his one-time political ally, who would go on to win the general election.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1928 United States presidential election in North Carolina</span>

The 1928 United States presidential election in North Carolina was held on November 6, 1928. North Carolina voters chose twelve electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1928 United States presidential election in Oklahoma</span> Election in Oklahoma

The 1928 United States presidential election in Oklahoma took place on November 6, 1928, as part of the 1928 United States presidential election which was held throughout all contemporary 48 states. Voters chose ten representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

References

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  41. Staff. "35,000 JAM STREETS OUTSIDE THE GARDEN; Solid Lines of Police Hard Pressed to Keep Overflow Crowds From Hall. AREA BARRED TO TRAFFIC Mulrooney Takes Command to Avoid Roughness – 3,000 at Columbus Circle Meeting. 35,000 IN STREETS OUTSIDE GARDEN", The New York Times , March 28, 1933. Accessed June 7, 2017.
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  46. "Alfred E. Smith Dies Here at 70; 4 Times Governor — End Comes After a Sudden Relapse Following Earlier Turn for the Better — Ran For President in '28 — His Rise From Newsboy and Fishmonger Had No Exact Parallel in U.S. History". New York Times. October 4, 1944. p. 1. Retrieved July 28, 2011.
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  49. Lewis, Sinclair (1928). The Man who Knew Coolidge: Being the Soul of Lowell Schmaltz, Constructive and Nordic Citizen . Harcourt, Brace. pp.  269.
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  51. "Election result", The New York Times, 31 December 1918

Further reading

New York State Assembly
Preceded by Member of the New York Assembly
from New York County's 2nd district

1904–1915
Succeeded by
Preceded by Majority Leader of the New York Assembly
1912
Succeeded by
Minority Leader of the New York Assembly
1912
Succeeded by
Preceded by Minority Leader of the New York Assembly
1914–1915
Succeeded by
Political offices
Preceded by Speaker of the New York Assembly
1913
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Frank Dowling
President of the New York City Board of Aldermen
1917–1918
Succeeded by
Preceded by Governor of New York
1919–1920
Succeeded by
Preceded by Governor of New York
1923–1928
Succeeded by
Party political offices
Preceded by Democratic nominee for Governor of New York
1918, 1920, 1922, 1924, 1926
Succeeded by
Preceded by Democratic nominee for President of the United States
1928