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from left to right: Boating centre, Government college of Nursing, Mullakkal Temple, Town Square, Alappuzha, Alappuzha District court, Roman Catholic Diocese of Alleppey(Latin Church), Jain temple, Alleppey, Alappuzha Beach,
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Coordinates: 9°29′N76°20′E / 9.49°N 76.33°E / 9.49; 76.33 Coordinates: 9°29′N76°20′E / 9.49°N 76.33°E / 9.49; 76.33
CountryFlag of India.svg  India
State Kerala
Region Central Travancore
District Alappuzha District
  Municipal Chairman Ellickal Kunjumon
  Total46.20 km2 (17.84 sq mi)
11 m (36 ft)
  Density3,800/km2 (9,800/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Venice of the East
  Official Malayalam, English
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
Telephone code0477
Vehicle registration KL-04
Sex ratio 1079 /

Alappuzha ( Loudspeaker.svg pronunciation  ), also known by its former name Alleppey, is the administrative headquarters of Alappuzha District in the Indian State of Kerala. Alappuzha is a city and a municipality in Kerala with an urban population of 174,164 [1] and ranks third among the districts in literacy rate in the State of Kerala. In 2016, the Centre for Science and Environment rated Alappuzha as the cleanest town in India. [2] Alappuzha is considered to be the oldest planned city in this region and the lighthouse built on the coast of the city is the first of its kind along the Laccadive Sea coast. [3]


The city is situated 28 km from Changanacherry, 46 km from Kottayam, 55 km from Kochi, 129.4 km from Thrissur and 155 km north of Trivandrum. [4] A town with canals, backwaters, beaches, and lagoons, Alappuzha was described by Lord Curzon as the "Venice of the East." [5] Hence, it is known as the "Venetian Capital" of Kerala. In Alappuzha, Malayalam is the most spoken language.

It is an important tourist destination in India. [6] The Backwaters of Alappuzha is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Kerala which attracts millions of domestic and international tourists to the district and employs vast number of locals in the private sector. A houseboat cruise in these backwaters can be booked. [7] It connects Kumarakom and Cochin to the North and Quilon to the South. Apart from houseboat services, the Kerala State Water Transport Department provides government boat services within the district and Quilon (Kollam) which considers the best and cheapest way to explore the Backwaters of Alleppey.

It is also the access point for the annual Nehru Trophy Boat Race, held on the Punnamada Lake, near Alappuzha, on the second Saturday of August every year. This is the most popular and competitive boat races in India. [8] Mullackal Chirap is the major Temple Festival of Alapuzha which is held for ten days every year at end of December.

Other attractions in and around Alappuzha are Alappuzha Beach, offering a view of the Laccadive Sea, Pathiramanal Island, Mullakkal Sree RajarajeswariTemple , Kalarkod Mahadeva Temple, Pazhaveed Bhagavathi Temple, Ambalappuzha Sri Krishna Temple, St. Andrew's Basilica, Arthunkal, Mannarasala Temple, Cheriyanad Sree Bhalasubhramanya Swamy Temple, Chettikulangara Devi Temple, Haripad Sree Subrahmanya Swamy tTemple Krishnapuram Palace, Thakazhy Sree Dharma Sastha Temple, Kidangamprambu Temple, Munnodi Temple, Valiya Kalavur Sreekrishna Temple, Mararikkulam Mahadeva Temple, Thiruvizha Sree Mahadevar Temple, Kanichukulangara Bhagavathi Temple, Cherthala Karthyayani Temple, Varanad Devi Temple, Cheriya Kalavur Ayyappa Temple, Padanilam Parabrahma Temple, Edathua Church, Alappuzha CSI Christ Church (oldest Anglican church in Central Kerala) and Champakulam Valia PalliVetticode Sree Nagaraja Seamy Temple(Vetticode-The first and old Nagaraja Temple).

Alappuzha is home to the Punnapra-Vayalar uprising against the Separate American Model independent Travancore proposal and also the revolt against the Feudal raj. Communist Party members were killed by the army of the Diwan, 200 people at Punnapra on 24 October 1946, and more than 150 at Vayalar on 27 October 1946. The total loss of life is allegedly estimated to be more than a thousand. [9] Coir is the most important commodity manufactured in Alappuzha. [10] The Coir Board was established by the Central Government under the provisions of the Coir Industry Act, 1955. A Central Coir Research Institute is located at Kalavoor. [11]


Alappuzha is the first planned city in Kerala. Buildiings in ALP MC.png
Alappuzha is the first planned city in Kerala.

Carved out of the erstwhile Kottayam and Quilon districts, Alappuzha district was formed on 17 August 1957 and consisted initially of seven taluks, namely Cherthala, Ambalappuzha, Kuttanad, Thiruvalla, Chengannur, Karthikappally and Mavelikkara. [13]

The name Ᾱlappuzha is a toponym. ‘Ᾱlayam’ means ‘home’ and ‘puzha’ according to Dr. Herman Gundert's dictionary, means ‘watercourse’ or ‘river’. The name refers to the network of waterways and backwaters that Alappuzha and surrounding areas. The district is bounded on the north by Kochi and Kanayannur taluks of Ernakulam district, on the east by Vaikom, Kottayam and Changanassery taluks of Kottayam district and Thiruvalla and Kozhencherry taluks of Pathanamthitta district, on the South by Kunnathur and Karunagappally taluks of Kollam district and on the west by Laccadive Sea. [14]

The present Alappuzha district comprises six taluks, namely Cherthala, Ambalappuzha, Kuttanad, Karthikappally, Chengannur and Mavelikkara. [15] The area of the district is 1,414 km2 (546 sq mi). The district headquarters is located at Alappuzha.


Walkway in Commercial Canal Alleppey canal.jpg
Walkway in Commercial Canal

In the early first decade of the 20th century the Viceroy of the Indian Empire, Lord Curzon made a visit in the State to Alleppey, now Alappuzha. Fascinated by the scenic beauty of the place, he exclaimed,

Here nature has spent up on the land her richest bounties. Alleppey, the Venice of the East. [16]

Kuttanad, the rice bowl of Kerala, with its paddy fields, small streams and canals with lush green coconut palms, was well known even from the early periods of the Sangam age. [17] History says Alappuzha had trade relations with Greece and Rome in the Middle Ages.

The early Cheras, who had their home in Kuttanad, were called `Kuttuvans`, so named after this place. Pliny and Ptolemy of the 1st and 2nd centuries had mentioned places like Purakkad or Barace in their classical works.

Literary works like "Unnuneeli Sandesam" give some insight into the ancient period of this district. Archaeological antiquities, such as the stone inscriptions, historical monuments found in the temples, churches, and rock-cut caves, also emphasise the historic importance of Alappuzha District. Christianity had a foothold in this district, even from the 1st century AD. The church located at Kokkamangalam was one of the seven churches founded by St. Thomas,[ citation needed ] one of the twelve disciples of Jesus Christ. It is generally believed that he landed at Maliankara in Muziris Port, presently known as Cranganore or Kodungallur, in 52 AD and preached Christianity in South India.

The district flourished in religion and culture under the second Chera Empire, during 9th to 12th centuries AD. The literary work, `Ascharya Choodamani`, a Sanskrit drama written by Sakthibhadran, a scholar of Chengannur, enables us to know many pertinent facts. Further, the temple on Lord Ayyappan, in Mukkal vattam near Muhamma in Alappuzha District, is called Cheerappanchira, for the Kalari from which Lord Ayyappa learnt his martial arts. A recent album by P. Unni Krishnan on Lord Ayyappa, titled 'Sabarimalai Va Charanam Solli Va', has songs illustrating the history of this temple and Lord Ayyappa's stay here before he went to conquer the Mahishi Demon. [18]

Since landing in Calicut in 1498, the Portuguese started playing an influential role in Alappuzha. They began by spreading Catholicism and converting already existing Christians into Catholics. The famous St. Andrew's Basilica was built by them during this period. [19] In the 17th century, as the Portuguese power declined, the Dutch gained a predominant position in the principalities of this district. They built many factories and warehouses for storing pepper and ginger, relying on several treaties signed between the Dutch and the Rajas of Purakkad, Kayamkulam and Karappuram. In course of time they also delved into the political and cultural affairs of the district. At that time Maharaja Marthanda Varma (1706–1758), who was the 'Maker of modern Travancore', intervened in the political affairs of those princedoms.

Travancore Dewan Ramayyan Dalawa (d. 1756) resided in Mavelikkara where he had a palace built by Marthanda Varma. After the death of his wife, Ramayyan consorted with a Nair lady from Mavelikkara of the Edassery family (PGN Unnithan, a member of this family, later became the last Dewan of Travancore in 1947). After his death Ramayyan's descendants left Travancore to settle in Pudukkottai in Tamil Nadu. His Nair consort was given gifts and presents and special allowances from the Travancore government in recognition of his services to the state while his own descendants were bestowed with the honorific title of Dalawa.

In the 19th century the district saw progress in many spheres. One of the five subordinate courts opened in the state in connection with the reorganization of the judicial system by Colonel George Monro was located at Mavelikkara. The first post office and first telegraph office in the former Travancore state were established in this district. The first manufacturing factory for the coir mats was established in 1859. In 1894 the city Improvement Committee was set up.

The district played a role in the freedom struggle of the country. The struggles of Punnapra and Vayalar in 1946 arrayed the people against Sir C. P. Ramaswami Iyer, who was Dewan of Travancore. This led to Ramaswami Iyer's exit from the political scene of Travancore. A popular Ministry was formed in Travancore on 24 March 1948 after India's independence. Travancore and Cochin states were integrated on 1 July 1949. This arrangement continued until the formation of Kerala State on 1 November 1956, under the States Reorganisation Act 1956. The district came into existence as a separate administrative unit on 1 August 1957.

Raja Kesavadas and Alappuzha

Raja Kesavadas, the Dewan of Travancore during the reign of Dharma Raja Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma in 18th century was well known for his planning skills and administrative acumen. He was the master mind in developing the Alappuzha town.

He found Alappuzha as an ideal location and constructing a well planned port city in Travancore. Alappuzha was most suitable, because of the geographical and oceanic reasons. He constructed two parallel canals for bringing goods to port from backwaters and offered infrastructural facilities to merchants and traders from Surat, Mumbai and Kutch to start industrial enterprises, trading, and cargo centres. Alappuzha attained progress and became the financial nerve centre of Travancore during his time. [20] The port was opened in 1762, mainly for the export of coir-matting and coir-yarn. Kesavadas built three ships for trade with Calcutta and Bombay, and alleppey afforded a convenient depot for the storage and disposal of goods produce in the east. [21]


Boating center in Sea view canal Boating centre.jpg
Boating center in Sea view canal

Alappuzha is located at 9°32′N76°24′E / 9.54°N 76.40°E / 9.54; 76.40 . [22] The average elevation is 1 metre (3.3 ft) [23] Alappuzha covers an area of 1,414 square kilometres (546 sq mi) and is flanked by 2,195 square kilometres (847 sq mi) of Vembanad Lake, where six major rivers spread out before joining the 80 km coast line of the district. The city of Alappuzha is crisscrossed by a system of canals, which is a part of the National Waterway 3 (India). [24]

The district is a sandy strip of land intercepted by lagoons, rivers and canals. There are no mountains or hills in the district except some scattered hillocks lying between Bharanikkavu and Chengannur blocks in the eastern portion of the district. There are no forest area in this district.

Alappuzha is bounded by the Laccadive Sea on its west. The town has a network of lakes, lagoons and fresh water rivers. The richness of the coastal Alappuzha waters is expressed annually in the blooming and consequent deposit of a huge quantity of fishes and prawns on the Alappuzha coast called ‘[Chakara]’. This annual shifting of sandbank appears during the post-monsoon period and contributes to the local economy and is a festive season for the people of Kerala. The annual floods rejuvenate and cleanse the soil and water due to which there is abundance of marine life like prawns, lobsters, fishes, turtles, and other flora in the sea.

The backwaters and wetlands host thousands of migrant common teal, ducks and cormorants every year who reach here from long distances. A major feature of the area is the region called Kuttanad, the 'granary of Kerala'. Kuttanad is also known as the rice bowl of Kerala and is one of the few places in the world where farming is done below sea level. The paddy fields lie about 0.6 to 2 m below mean sea level. [25]


Owing to its proximity to the sea, the climate of Alappuzha is humid and hot during the summer, although it remains fairly cool and pleasant during the months of October and November. The average monthly temperature is 27 degree Celsius. The district gets the benefit of two seasonal monsoons, as in other parts of the state. Alappuzha town experiences a long monsoon season with heavy showers as both the Southwest monsoon and Northeast monsoon influences the weather of Alappuzha. The South-west monsoon affects the climate in the months from June to September. On the other hand, the North-east monsoon brings rain from October to November. The average rainfall received by the region is 2763 mm. [26]

Climate data for Alappuzha (1981–2010, extremes 1944–2012)
Record high °C (°F)36.7
Average high °C (°F)32.6
Average low °C (°F)22.4
Record low °C (°F)17.3
Average rainfall mm (inches)19.2
Average rainy days1.
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST)68707375788687878381776978
Source: India Meteorological Department [27] [28]


Religion in Alappuzha
Jain Temple, Alappuzha JainTempleAlappuzhaFrontPrd.jpg
Jain Temple, Alappuzha

According to 2011 census, Alappuzha district has a population of 21,21,943 with 10,10,252 men and 11,11,691 women [31] with a population density of 1492 persons per km2. [32] There are 1,86,022 persons under six years of age in Alappuzha district. The literacy rate of Alappuzha stands at 96.26% out of which 8,95,476 are males and 9,68,082 are females. Alappuzha has a decadal population growth of 0.61%. Alappuzha has a sex ratio of 1100 [33] and the urban agglomeration had a population of 282,675 in 2001. [30]

The population is predominantly Hindu and Christian, and there are sizeable numbers of Muslims. The most widely spoken language is Malayalam, although many people speak Konkani.

The standard dialect of Malayalam spoken is Central Travancore dialect. [34] Konkani is a language that is spoken in the Konkan region. During the Portuguese and Dutch invasions of the 16th and 18th centuries, many Konkanis migrated southwards to Thuravoor, Cherthala and Alappuzha in the state of Travancore as well as other places in Kerala like Cochin, Kodungalloor, and Kollam. A majority of these people got settled in Alappuzha. [35] [36] [37]


A Houseboat in Alleppey Alleppey Boat houses.jpg
A Houseboat in Alleppey

The economy of the district is based on agriculture and marine products. The agricultural activities predominantly revolve around Kuttanad region, the rice bowl of Kerala. Though the district is industrially backward, some traditional industries based on coir and coir products, marine products, handlooms, different types of handicrafts, toddy tapping have been active from the very early times. The district is known as the traditional home of coir industry in Kerala. [38]

The availability of raw materials and the existence of backwaters and canals suitable for the getting of green husk and accessibility of transportation are the main factors of the development of this industry. Arabs had carried on trade in coir products from very ancient period. The manufacture of mats and mattings were first introduced in 1859 by Mr. James Durragh. [39]

The Coir Board was established by the Central Government under the provisions of the Coir Industry Act, 1955. [40] A coir research institute functions at Kalavoor. [41] The National Coir Training and Designing Centre was established at Alappuzha in 1965. [42]

Coir is the most important commodity manufactured in Alappuzha, Kayamkulam, Kokkothamangalam, Komalapuram, Mannancherry, Muhamma and Vayalar, [43] Coir products are available in Cherthala and Mannancherry, Lime shell in Arookutty and Kodamthuruth, Plywood in Chengannur, Keltron controls in Aroor, [44] Potassium Chloride in Mavelikkara and coconut in Thanneermukkom. The other important commodities manufactured in these towns are copra, coconut oil, glass, mats and matches. [45]

In recent times, tourism has become a major source of revenue. This is mainly due to the presence of houseboats that provide the tourists with a view of the scenic backwaters of the town. Another reason is the proximity to other tourist spots like Munnar, Varkala, Alappuzha and Wayanad.

Backwater paddy cultivation

Paddy fields in Kuttanad Kerala Kuttanad2.jpg
Paddy fields in Kuttanad

The major occupation in Alappuzha is farming. The Rice Bowl of Kerala, Kuttanadu is located in Alappuzha. Large farming areas near Vembanad Lake were reclaimed from the lake. In earlier times, the reclamation was done mainly from the shallow part of the Vembanad Lake or from the periphery of river Pamba. These reclamations constituted small areas of paddy fields called Padsekharam. The bailing out of water from those fields were done manually using water wheels (Chakram). Gradually the manual method used for bailing out of water gave way to steam engines.

Three stages can be identified in the reclamation of lands from the Vembanad Lake. In the first stage it was carried out by private entrepreneurs without any financial support from the part of the government. The Pattom Proclamation, made by the Travancore Kingdom in the year 1865, gave a great boost to the reclamation activities between 1865 and 1890. During this period de-watering of the polders were done manually, using waterwheels, restricting large-scale reclamations. Only about 250 hectares of land were reclaimed during this period. Venadu Lake and Madathil Lake that were reclaimed during this period are considered as the first Kayal Nilam (lake-reclaimed land) which were reclaimed from Vembanad Lake. [46] The pioneering reclamation activity of lake-reclamation and cultivation was made by two brothers Pallithanam Luca Matthai and Ouseph Luka Pallithanam belonging to Kainady village in Kuttanadu. [47] The period between 1865 and 1890 is usually considered as the first phase of lake-cultivation.

The introduction of kerosene engines for dewatering resulted in the reclamation of wider areas of the lake for cultivation. It made the farmers consider venturing into the deeper parts of the lake. During the period between 1898 and 1903, reclamation activity was led by Pallithanam Luca Mathai (alias Pallithanathu Mathaichen) who reclaimed the Cherukara Kayal and Pallithanam Moovayiram Kayal.

The second phase (1890 to 1903) of reclamation activities came to a halt because of the ban on lake reclamation imposed by the Madras Government in 1903. Cherukali Kayal, Rama Rajapuram Kayal, Aarupanku Kayal, Pantharndu Panku kayal and Mathi Kayal were the other major reclamations during this period.

In 1912, the Madras Government approved a proposal from the Travencore Government for further reclamations in three stages. Under this reclamation scheme areas were notified for reclamation in blocks each named by an alphabet letter. Out of the total area of 19,500 acres of reclaimed land 12,000 acres were reclaimed between 1913 and 1920. The reclamations between 1914 and 1920 are known as new reclamations, which were carried out in three periods. In the first period Blocks A to G measuring 6300 Acres were reclaimed. C Block, D Block (Attumukham Aarayiram (Attumuttu Kayal), Thekke Aarayiram and Vadakke Aarayiram) and E Block (Erupathinalayiram Kayal) F Block (Judge's Aarayiram Kayal) and G Block (Kochu Kayal) are the major reclamations during this period.

During the second period of new reclamation, blocks H to N measuring 3600 acres were reclaimed. During the third period of new reclamation, R Block measuring 1,400 acres were reclaimed.

Due to the steep decline in the price of rice during 1920 to 1940, the reclamation activities became sluggish, but they gained momentum again in the early 1940s. During this period, in order to increase the agricultural output, government initiated a Grow More Food campaign and provided incentives to encourage new reclamations. The advent of electric motors made the reclamation easier, cheaper and less risky as compared to the earlier periods. The last tract of the reclamations namely Q, S and T block were made during this period.[ citation needed ] [48]



National Highways

National Highway 66 (India) is one of the longest national highway in India. It connects Panvel to Kanyakumari and criss-crosses through Alappuzha city centre. The construction of the Alappuzha Bypass, to route the national highway around city centers between Kommady and Kalarkode, is underway. NH 66 connects Alappuzha city to other major cities like Mumbai, Udupi, Mangalore, Kannur, Kozhikode, Ernakulam, Kollam, and Trivandrum. There is a plan to upgrade SH 11 to national highway to help connect Alappuzha to Kodaikanal as part of promoting coastal-hill tourism project. [49]

State Highways

State Highway 11 (Kerala) AC Road SH-11.JPG
State Highway 11 (Kerala)

There are eight state highways in Alappuzha district, of which three of them originates from Alappuzha town. State Highway 11 (Kerala) starts from Kalarcode and ends at Perunna. This highway is locally known as AC road (Alappuzha-Changanassery road) and it covers a distance of 24.2 km. State Highway 11 (Kerala) is an important road which connects Alappuzha town with Kottayam district. State Highway 40 (Kerala) is an interstate highway in Alappuzha district which connects Alappuzha town with Madurai in Tamil Nadu. State Highway 40 (Kerala) is the only interstate highway in Alappuzha district. State Highway 66 (Kerala) originates from Alappuzha town and terminates at Thoppumpady. [50]

There are two bus terminals are situated in Alappuzha town, one for KSRTC buses (situated near state water transport corporation headquarters, boat jetty road) and the municipal bus stand for private buses (situated near Vazhicherry). KSRTC buses connect Alappuzha with cities like Kochi, Trivandrum. City buses are green and white colored (formally white and brown). City buses connect Alappuzha with places like Mannancherry, Kalavoor, Erattakulangara, Kanjippadam, and Aspinwal. Some buses connects Alappuzha to Cherthala through coastal highway and Kanichukulangara route.


The presence of a lot of backwaters and canals makes water transport a popular means of transport. National Waterway-3 passes through Alappuzha. There is a SWTD boat jetty in the city that lies opposite to the KSRTC bus stand. It is served by boat services to Changanassery town and Kottayam, Kollam cities besides other small towns and jetties. Availing an SWTD boat is a cheaper alternative to houseboats for visiting tourists.[ citation needed ]

Public water transport organised by Kerala State Transport Agency for long-distance transport within the back waters of Kerala (India) The Public Transport Through Waters in Kerala.jpg
Public water transport organised by Kerala State Transport Agency for long-distance transport within the back waters of Kerala (India)


Alappuzha is linked by Ernakulam–Kayamkulam coastal railway line and connects to cities like Trivandrum, Kollam, Cochin, Coimbatore, Chennai, Delhi, Bokaro and Mumbai. The railway station is about 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) from the heart of the city. [51] A total of four trains originate from Alappuzha to cities like Kannur, Chennai, Dhanbad and Tatanagar. There are a lot of local trains running throughout the day, which connect Alappuzha to other towns near by. Since Alappuzha is a prime destination, trains from important cities like Delhi, Chandigarh, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Mangalore, Kozhikode and Amritsar pass through this station. [52]


Cochin International Airport, which is 78 kilometres (48 mi) to the North, is the closest airport. Thiruvananthapuram International Airport, 159 kilometres (99 mi) to the South, is the other airport that links the district with other countries. International tourists use these airports to reach Alappuzha. The other nearest airports are located at Kozhikode (236 kilometres (147 mi)) and Coimbatore (254 kilometres (158 mi)). A helipad in the town is reserved for government uses.


Nehru Trophy Boat Race is a popular sport held in the Punnamada Lake near Alappuzha Nehru Trophy Boat Race 2012 7791.JPG
Nehru Trophy Boat Race is a popular sport held in the Punnamada Lake near Alappuzha

Alappuzha is globally famous for snake boat races, especially Nehru Trophy Boat Race held in the Punnamada Lake near Alappuzha. In 1952, when Jawaharlal Nehru the first prime minister of India visited Kerala, the people of Alleppey decided to give a special entertainment for their prestigious guest and conducted a snake boat race. Jawaharlal Nehru got so excited by this event and he jumped into 'Nadubhagam Chundan' (a snake boat), ignoring the security officials. By this excitement of sailing in a snake boat he donated a rolling trophy to be awarded to the winner of the race. Other than Snake boat race Cricket, football, basketball and Rowing are among the most popular sports in town. In 2015, Kerala Cricket Association inaugurated KCA Cricket Stadium Alappuzha which is an A-class cricket stadium. [53] Another stadium named as EMS Stadium or municipal stadium is under construction in Alappuzha.

Notable people

Administration and politics

Alappuzha city officials
District CollectorDr Adeela Abdullah IAS
Municipal chairmanMr.Ellickal Kunjumon [54]
Superintendent of Police Mr.E.Divakaran [55]
Alleppey Bar Association Alappuzha loves Wikimedia IMG 7599.JPG
Alleppey Bar Association

The two administrative systems prevailing in the district are revenue and local self-government. Under the revenue system, the district is divided into two revenue divisions, six taluks and 91 villages. The two revenue divisions are Alappuzha division comprising Cherthala, Ambalapuzha and Kuttanad taluks consisting of 47 villages and Chengannur division comprising Karthikapally, Chengannur and Mavelikkara taluks consisting of 44 villages. For census purposes, Aroor, Arookutty, Kodamthuruth, Thanneermukkom Vadakku, Thaneermukkam Thekku, Vayalar East and Kokkothamangalam village, except the portions included in Cherthala municipality are treated in the 1981 census as census towns based on the threefold criteria adopted for treating a place as census town.

Under the local self-government system, the district is divided into five statutory towns and development blocks consisting of 71 panchayats. The jurisdiction of a Development Block includes the areas falling in census towns also. [56]

There were nine legislative assembly segments in Alappuzha district for the 2011 Assembly elections. They are Aroor, Cherthala, Alappuzha, Kuttanad, Haripad, Kayamkulam, Mavelikkara and Chengannur. [57]

Alappuzha assembly constituency is part of Alappuzha (Lok Sabha constituency). The other Lok Sabha constituency of the district is Mavelikkara. [58]

Parliament Representatives
NameLok-Sabha ConstituencyYearPolitical Party
P. K. Vasudevan NairAlappuzha1962–1977Communist Party of India (as Ambalapuzha seat)
R.AchuthanMavelikara1962–1967Indian National Congress
G.P. MangalathumadomMavelikara1967–1971Samyukta Socialist Party
R. Balakrishna Pillai Mavelikara1971–1977Kerala Congress
B.K. NairMavelikara1977–1980Indian National Congress
Suseela GopalanAlappuzha1980–1984Communist Party of India (Marxist)
Prof. P.J. Kurien Mavelikara1980–1984,1989-1998Indian National Congress
Vakkom PurushothamAlappuzha1984–1991Indian National Congress
Thampan Thomas Mavelikara1984–1989Janata Party
T. J. AnjaloseAlappuzha1991–1996Communist Party of India (Marxist)
Ramesh Chennithala Mavelikara1999–2004Indian National Congress
C.S. Sujatha Mavelikara2004–2009Communist Party of India (Marxist)
V.M Sudheeran Alappuzha1977–1980, 1996–2004Indian National Congress
Dr. K.S Manoj Alappuzha2004–2009Communist Party Of India (Marxist)
K.C Venugopal MP Alappuzha2009- 2014Indian National Congress
Kodikunnil Suresh MPMavelikara2009-2014Indian National Congress
K.C Venugopal MP Alappuzha2009- 2014Indian National Congress
Kodikunnil Suresh MPMavelikara2009-2014Indian National Congress
K.C Venugopal MP Alappuzha2014- 2019Indian National Congress
Kodikunnil Suresh MPMavelikara2014-2019Indian National Congress
A. M. Ariff Alappuzha2019-Communist Party of India (Marxist)
Kodikunnil Suresh MPMavelikara2019-Indian National Congress


There are schools, computer institutes and colleges all over the district, with nine training schools, 405 lower primary schools, 105 high schools and 87 higher secondary schools. [59]

The first school in Alappuzha, the Church Missionary Society (CMS) School, was established in 1816. The school was established by the Rev. Thomas Norton, the first CMS missionary to India. The school is run by the CSI Christ Church, Alappuzha. The first higher secondary school in Alappuzha was the Leo XIIIth Higher Secondary School, which was opened on 1 June 1889 by Portuguese Bishop John Gomes Pereira of Cochin. The first polytechnic college in Alappuzha was the Carmel Polytechnic College, established by Fr. Gilbert Palaekunnel and it's managed by CMI Congregation. Carmel is the academically top-ranked polytechnic in the state still. [60]

College of Engineering and Management, Punnapra Cemp2.jpg
College of Engineering and Management, Punnapra

Colleges in Alappuzha offer both graduate and postgraduate courses for their students. [61]

St. Joseph's College for Women, Alappuzha St. Joseph's College for Women Alappuzha.jpg
St. Joseph's College for Women, Alappuzha

Major College Institutes

Carmel Ploytechnic College, Punnapra CarmelPolytechnicCollege.jpg
Carmel Ploytechnic College, Punnapra

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Alappuzha district District in Kerala, India

Alappuzha is one of the 14 districts in the state of Kerala in India.It is the smallest district in Kerala. It was formed as Alleppey District on 17 August 1957. The name of the district was officially changed to Alappuzha in 1990. Alleppey town was renamed Alappuzha in 2012, even though the anglicised name is still commonly used to describe the town as well as the district. The district is best known for its picturesque backwaters.

Kottayam district District in Kerala, India

Kottayam is one of fourteen districts in the state of Kerala, India. Kottayam district comprises of six municipal towns: Kottayam, Changanassery, Pala, Erattupetta, Ettumanoor, and Vaikom. It is the only district in Kerala that does not border the Arabian Sea or any other states.

Changanassery Town in Kerala, India

Changanassery is a municipal town in Kottayam district in the state of Kerala, India. Changanassery is the gateway to the Western Ghats and Kuttanad. It is one of the major educational and religious centres of Kerala, with nearly 100% literacy. There are five colleges, eight higher secondary schools, one vocational higher secondary school and ten high schools within a four-kilometre radius of the town.

Kerala backwaters

The Kerala backwaters are a network of brackish lagoons and lakes lying parallel to the Arabian Sea coast of Kerala state in southern India, as well as interconnected canals, rivers, and inlets, a labyrinthine system formed by more than 900 kilometres (560 mi) of waterways, and sometimes compared to American bayous. The network includes five large lakes linked by canals, both man made and natural, fed by 38 rivers, and extending virtually half the length of Kerala state. The backwaters were formed by the action of waves and shore currents creating low barrier islands across the mouths of the many rivers flowing down from the Western Ghats range. In the midst of this landscape there are a number of towns and cities, which serve as the starting and end points of backwater cruises.

Kuttanad Taluk in Kerala, India

Kuttanad is a region covering the Alappuzha, Kottayam and Pathanamthitta Districts, in the state of Kerala, India, well known for its vast paddy fields and geographical peculiarities. The region has the lowest altitude in India, and is one of the few places in the world where farming is carried on around 1.2 to 3.0 metres below sea level. Kuttanadu is historically important in the ancient history of South India and is the major rice producer in the state. Farmers of Kuttanad are famous for Biosaline Farming. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has declared the Kuttanad Farming System as a Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System (GIAHS).

Mavelikkara Town in Kerala, India

Mavelikara is a taluk and municipality in the Alappuzha district of the Indian state of Kerala. Located in the southern part of the district on the banks of the Achankovil River. The name Mavelikara is believed to be turned out from the words Maveli or Mahabali, the mythical king of Kerala, and Kara means land. This land is believed to be the place where king Mahabali knelt before Vamana, offering his head for Vamana to keep his feet. The town boasts about a rich historical and cultural background. The Chettikulangara Devi Temple, known for the Kumbha Bharani festival is located near the municipality.The place is home to one of the 108 Shiva temples of Kerala created by Lord Parashurama, the Kandiyoor Mahadeva Temple. It was also a major centre of trade and commerce in ancient Kerala and the erstwhile capital of the rulers of Onattukara. As a result of the close association with the Travancore Royal Family, Mavelikkara gained modern facilities well ahead of other places in the state. It is one of the oldest municipalities of the state. Even before India attained independence, Mavelikara had a super express transport service to Trivandrum.

Kollam district is one of 14 districts of the state of Kerala, India. The district has a cross-section of Kerala's natural attributes; it is endowed with a long coastline, a major Laccadive Sea seaport and an inland lake. The district has many water bodies. Kallada River is one among them, and the east side land of river is East Kallada and the west side land is West Kallada.

Cherthala Taluk/Municipality in Kerala, India

Cherthala is a Municipal town and a Taluk located in the district of Alappuzha, in the state of Kerala, India. Town is 31 km to Kochi and Kottayam and 22 km north of Alappuzha town, on the Kochi-Alappuzha National Highway NH 66, as well as the coastal rail route. The coastal town is also about 20 kilometers from the historical town of Vaikom Via Ullala -Chempakassery house and the popular tourism destination Kumarakom.

Chengannur Municipal Town in Kerala, India

Chengannur is one of the closest developing municipal towns in the Alappuzha district of the state of Kerala in South India. It is located in the extreme eastern part of the Alappuzha district, on the banks of Pamba River.

Vayalar village in Kerala, India

Vayalar is a village in Cherthala taluk, Alapuzha district, Kerala state, India.

Cheriyanad Gramapanchayath in Kerala, India

Cheriyanad is a village in Kerala state of India. It lies in the Central Travancore Region, and specifically comes under Chengannur taluk in Alappuzha District.

Punnapra-Vayalar uprising 1949 communist uprising in British India

The Punnapra-Vayalar uprising was a communist uprising in the Princely State of Travancore, British India against the Prime Minister, C. P. Ramaswami Iyer and the state. Communist Party members were killed by the army of the Diwan, 470 people at Punnapra on 27 October and more than 150 at Vayalar on 28 October. The total loss of life is allegedly estimated to be more than a thousand.

Thakazhy village in Kerala, India

Thakazhy is a village in Alappuzha district in the Indian state of Kerala. It is part of the Kuttanad region bound by the backwaters and is located on the banks of the River Pamba. It is the birthplace of the famous writer Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai, who was popularly known just by his village name. There is a small temple called Ennavalyachan to the back side of the famous Dharma sastha temple which is the second famous ayyappa temple after sabarimala.

Venmony Village in Kerala, India

Venmony is a village in Chengannur taluk of Alappuzha district of Central Travancore area in Kerala state, India. Venmoney is 18 km south of Thiruvalla, 11 km east of Mavelikkara and 9 km northwest of Pandalam. 12 km from Chengannur. It is located 55 km towards East from District headquarters Alappuzha. 107 km from State capital Thiruvananthapuram and 138 km from Cochin International Airport.This Place is in the border of the Alappuzha District and Pathanamthitta District.The Achenkovil river flows on its southern boundary and is spanned by the Pulakadavu bridge.

Thanneermukkom Bund Dam in Kuttanad, Kerala

The Thanneermukkom Bund was constructed as a part of the Kuttanad Development Scheme to prevent tidal action and intrusion of salt water into the Kuttanad low-lands across Vembanad Lake between Thannermukkom on west and Vechur on east. Thanneermukkom Bund was constructed in 1974 and is functional since 1976. It is the largest mud regulator in India. This barrier essentially divides the lake into two parts - one with brackish water perennially and the other half with fresh water fed by the rivers draining into the lake.

Kudassanad village in Kerala, India

Kudassanad is a village near Pandalam in the State of Kerala in India. Geographically it is situated in the eastern ending of Alappuzha District and western part of Pathanamthitta District. The southern end of Kudassanad is on the verge of Kollam District. Part of Palamel Panchayat and Mavelikara Taluk, Kudassanad comes under the Mavelikara Parliamentary and Mavelikara Assembly Constituencies.

Punnapra Village in Kerala, India

Punnapra is a village in Alappuzha district of Kerala, India. It is a coastal area of the Arabian Sea and lies west to Kuttanad, popularly known as The rice bowl of Kerala.

Outline of Kerala Overview of and topical guide to Kerala

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Kerala:

Administration of Alappuzha district

Alappuzha District has four types of administrative hierarchies:


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