Alappuzha

Last updated

Alappuzha
Alleppey
Alappuzha
Alappuzha Boat Beauty W.jpg
AC Road SH-11.JPG
Alleppey beach.jpg
Mullakkal Devi.jpg
Alappuzha loves Wikimedia IMG 7655.JPG
Jain-temple-alleppey.jpg
Our Lady of Mount Carmel Cathedral.jpg
Nickname: 
"Venice of the East"
Alappuzha
India Kerala location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Alappuzha
India location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Alappuzha
Coordinates: 9°29′N76°20′E / 9.49°N 76.33°E / 9.49; 76.33
CountryFlag of India.svg  India
State ..Kerala Flag(INDIA).png Kerala
District Alappuzha district
Government
  TypeMunicipality
  BodyAlappuzha Municipality
  Municipal ChairpersonSoumya raj (CPIM)
Area
  Total46.20 km2 (17.84 sq mi)
Population
 (2011) [1]
174,176
  Rank7th
Languages
  Official Malayalam, English [2]
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
688001
Telephone code0477
Vehicle registration
  • KL-04 Alappuzha,
  • KL-29 Kayamkulam
  • KL-30 Chengannur
  • KL-31 Mavelikkara
  • KL-32 Cherthala
  • KL-66 Kuttanad
Sex ratio 1079 /
Website alappuzha.gov.in

Alappuzha or Alleppey (Malayalam: [aːlɐpːuɻɐ] ) is the administrative headquarters of Alappuzha district in the state of Kerala, India. The Backwaters of Alappuzha are one of the most popular tourist attractions in India which attracts millions of domestic and international tourists. [3]

Contents

Alleppey is a city and a municipality in Kerala with an urban population of 174,164 [4] and ranks third among the districts in literacy rate in the state. In 2016, the Centre for Science and Environment rated Alappuzha as the cleanest town in India. [5] Alappuzha is considered to be the oldest planned city in this region and the lighthouse built on the coast of the city is the first of its kind along the Laccadive Sea coast. [6]

The city is 55 km from Kochi and 155 km north of Thiruvananthapuram. [7] A town with canals, backwaters, beaches, and lagoons, Alappuzha was described by George Curzon, Viceroy of India at the start of the 20th century, as the "Venice of the East." [8] Hence, it is known as the "Venetian Capital" of Kerala.

It is an important tourist destination in India. [9] It connects Kumarakom and Cochin to the North and Kollam to the South. It is also the access point for the annual Nehru Trophy Boat Race, held on the Punnamada Lake, near Alappuzha, on the second Saturday of August every year. This is amongst the most popular and competitive boat races in India. [10]

Alappuzha was home to the Punnapra-Vayalar uprising against the Separate American Model independent Travancore proposal and also the revolt against the Feudal raj. Over 200 Communist party members were killed by the army of the Diwan at Punnapra. [11] Coir is the most important commodity manufactured in Alappuzha. [12] The Coir Board was established by the Central Government under the provisions of the Coir Industry Act, 1955. A Central Coir Research Institute is located at Kalavoor. [13]

Etymology

Carved out of the erstwhile Kottayam and Kollam districts, Alappuzha district was formed on 17 August 1957 and consisted initially of seven taluks, namely Cherthala, Ambalappuzha, Kuttanad, Chengannur, Karthikappally and Mavelikkara. [14]

The name Ᾱlappuzha is a toponym. ‘Ᾱlayam’ means ‘home’ and ‘puzha’, according to Dr. Herman Gundert's dictionary, means ‘watercourse’ or ‘river’. The name refers to the network of waterways and backwaters in Alappuzha and its surrounding areas. The district is bounded on the north by Kochi and Kanayannur taluks of Ernakulam district, on the east by Vaikom, Kottayam and Changanassery taluks of Kottayam district and Thiruvalla, Kozhencherry and Adoor taluks of Pathanamthitta district, on the South by Kunnathur and Karunagappally taluks of Kollam district and on the west by Laccadive Sea. [15]

The present Alappuzha district comprises six taluks, namely Cherthala, Ambalappuzha, Kuttanad, Karthikappally, Chengannur and Mavelikkara. [16] The area of the district is 1,414 km2 (546 sq mi). Its headquarters is located at Alappuzha.

History

Stone Bridge in 1900. Stone bridge, Alleppey 1900.jpg
Stone Bridge in 1900.
Walkway in Commercial Canal Alleppey canal.jpg
Walkway in Commercial Canal

Kuttanad, the rice bowl of Kerala, with its paddy fields, small streams and canals with lush green coconut palms, was well known even from the early periods of the Sangam age. [17]

Literary works such as Unnuneeli Sandesam give some insight into the ancient period of this district. Archaeological antiquities, such as the stone inscriptions, historical monuments found in the temples, churches, and rock-cut caves, also emphasise the historic importance of Alappuzha District.

Christianity had a foothold in this district, even from the 1st century AD. The church located at Kokkamangalam was one of the seven churches founded by St Thomas,[ citation needed ] one of the twelve disciples of Jesus Christ. It is generally believed that he landed at Maliankara in Muziris Port, presently known as Cranganore or Kodungallur, in 52 AD and preached Christianity in South India.

The district flourished in religion and culture under the second Chera Empire, during 9th to 12th centuries AD. The literary work, `Ascharya Choodamani`, a Sanskrit drama written by Sakthibhadran, a scholar of Chengannur, enables us to know many pertinent facts. Further, the temple on Lord Ayyappan, in Mukkal vattam near Muhamma in Alappuzha District, is called Cheerappanchira, for the Kalari from which Lord Ayyappa learnt his martial arts. A recent album by P. Unni Krishnan on Lord Ayyappa, titled 'Sabarimalai Va Charanam Solli Va', has songs illustrating the history of this temple and Lord Ayyappa's stay here before he went to conquer the Mahishi Demon. [18]

Since landing in Calicut in 1498, the Portuguese started playing an influential role in Alappuzha. They began by spreading Catholicism and converting already existing Christians into Catholics. St Andrew's Basilica was built during this period. [19]

In the 17th century, as the Portuguese power declined, the Dutch gained a predominant position in the principalities of this district. They built many factories and warehouses for storing pepper and ginger, relying on several treaties signed between the Dutch and the Rajas of Purakkad, Kayamkulam and Karappuram. In course of time they also delved into the political and cultural affairs of the district. At that time Maharaja Marthanda Varma (1706–1758), who was the 'Maker of modern Travancore', intervened in the political affairs of those princedoms.

Travancore Dewan Ramayyan Dalawa (d. 1756) resided in Mavelikkara where he had a palace built by Marthanda Varma. After the death of his wife, Ramayyan consorted with a Nair lady from Mavelikkara of the Edassery family (PGN Unnithan, a member of this family, later became the last Dewan of Travancore in 1947). After his death Ramayyan's descendants left Travancore to settle in Pudukkottai in Tamil Nadu. His Nair consort was given gifts and presents and special allowances from the Travancore government in recognition of his services to the state while his own descendants were bestowed with the honorific title of Dalawa.

In the 19th century the district saw progress in many spheres. One of the five subordinate courts opened in the state in connection with the reorganization of the judicial system by Colonel George Monro was located at Mavelikkara. The first post office and first telegraph office in the former Travancore state were established in this district. The first manufacturing factory for the coir mats was established in 1859. In 1894 the city Improvement Committee was set up.

The district played a role in the freedom struggle of the country. The struggles of Punnapra and Vayalar in 1946 arrayed the people against Sir C. P. Ramaswami Iyer, who was Dewan of Travancore. This led to Ramaswami Iyer's exit from the political scene of Travancore. A popular Ministry was formed in Travancore on 24 March 1948 after India's independence. Travancore and Cochin states were integrated on 1 July 1949. This arrangement continued until the formation of Kerala State on 1 November 1956, under the States Reorganisation Act 1956. The district came into existence as a separate administrative unit on 1 August 1957.

Raja Kesavadas and Alappuzha

Raja Kesavadas, the Dewan of Travancore during the reign of Dharma Raja Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma in 18th century was well known for his planning skills and administrative acumen. He was the master mind in developing the Alappuzha town. [20]

He found Alappuzha as an ideal location and constructing a well planned port city in Travancore. Alappuzha was most suitable, because of the geographical and oceanic reasons. He constructed two parallel canals for bringing goods to port from backwaters and offered infrastructural facilities to merchants and traders from Surat, Mumbai and Kutch to start industrial enterprises, trading, and cargo centres. Alappuzha attained progress and became the financial nerve centre of Travancore during his time. [21] The port was opened in 1762, mainly for the export of coir-matting and coir-yarn. Kesavadas built three ships for trade with Calcutta and Bombay, and alleppey afforded a convenient depot for the storage and disposal of goods produce in the east. [22]

Geography

Alappuzha is located at 9°32′N76°24′E / 9.54°N 76.40°E / 9.54; 76.40 . [23] The average elevation is 1 metre (3.3 ft) [24] Alappuzha covers an area of 1,414 square kilometres (546 sq mi) and is flanked by 2,195 square kilometres (847 sq mi) of Vembanad Lake, where six major rivers spread out before joining the 80 km coast line of the district. The city of Alappuzha is crisscrossed by a system of canals, which is a part of the National Waterway 3. [25]

The district is a sandy strip of land intercepted by lagoons, rivers and canals. There are no mountains or hills in the district except some scattered hillocks lying between Bharanikkavu and Chengannur blocks in the eastern portion of the district. There are no forest area in this district.

Alappuzha is bounded by the Laccadive Sea on its west. The town has a network of lakes, lagoons and fresh water rivers. The richness of the coastal Alappuzha waters is expressed annually in the blooming and consequent deposit of a huge quantity of fishes and prawns on the Alappuzha coast called ‘[Chakara]’. This annual shifting of sandbank appears during the post-monsoon period and contributes to the local economy and is a festive season for the people of Kerala. The annual floods rejuvenate and cleanse the soil and water due to which there is abundance of marine life like prawns, lobsters, fishes, turtles and other flora in the sea.

The backwaters and wetlands host thousands of migrant common teal, ducks and cormorants every year who reach here from long distances. A major feature of the area is the region called Kuttanad, the 'granary of Kerala'. Kuttanad is also known as the rice bowl of Kerala and is one of the few places in the world where farming is done below sea level. The paddy fields lie about 0.6 to 2 m below mean sea level. [17]

Climate

Owing to its proximity to the sea, the climate of Alappuzha is humid and hot during the summer, although it remains fairly cool and pleasant during the months of October and November. The average monthly temperature is 27 degree Celsius. The district gets the benefit of two seasonal monsoons, as in other parts of the state. Alappuzha town experiences a long monsoon season with heavy showers as both the Southwest and Northeast monsoon influences the weather of Alappuzha. The South-west monsoon affects the climate in the months from June to September. On the other hand, the North-east monsoon brings rain from October to November. The average rainfall received by the region is 2763 mm. [26]

Climate data for Alappuzha (1981–2010, extremes 1944–2012)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)36.7
(98.1)
37.4
(99.3)
37.9
(100.2)
38.2
(100.8)
36.7
(98.1)
37.2
(99.0)
34.0
(93.2)
34.2
(93.6)
34.8
(94.6)
35.6
(96.1)
35.4
(95.7)
36.6
(97.9)
38.2
(100.8)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F)32.6
(90.7)
32.8
(91.0)
33.5
(92.3)
33.5
(92.3)
32.7
(90.9)
30.3
(86.5)
29.2
(84.6)
29.2
(84.6)
30.1
(86.2)
31.2
(88.2)
31.8
(89.2)
32.5
(90.5)
31.6
(88.9)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F)22.4
(72.3)
23.5
(74.3)
24.9
(76.8)
25.5
(77.9)
25.3
(77.5)
23.8
(74.8)
23.2
(73.8)
23.4
(74.1)
23.8
(74.8)
23.8
(74.8)
23.6
(74.5)
22.7
(72.9)
23.8
(74.8)
Record low °C (°F)17.3
(63.1)
18.7
(65.7)
18.8
(65.8)
19.2
(66.6)
20.0
(68.0)
19.5
(67.1)
19.9
(67.8)
19.4
(66.9)
20.4
(68.7)
19.3
(66.7)
20.0
(68.0)
17.8
(64.0)
17.3
(63.1)
Average rainfall mm (inches)19.2
(0.76)
41.1
(1.62)
54.8
(2.16)
136.1
(5.36)
260.3
(10.25)
613.0
(24.13)
481.2
(18.94)
343.9
(13.54)
301.5
(11.87)
342.5
(13.48)
194.5
(7.66)
38.0
(1.50)
2,826.1
(111.26)
Average rainy days1.11.93.26.711.221.921.117.113.314.18.92.4122.9
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST)68707375788687878381776978
Source: India Meteorological Department [27] [28]

Demographics

Religion in Alappuzha City (2011)
Percent
Hinduism
49.85%
Christianity
26.23%
Islam
23.62%
Others
0.30%
Jain Temple, Alappuzha JainTempleAlappuzhaFrontPrd.jpg
Jain Temple, Alappuzha

According to the 2011 census, Alappuzha Municipality+Outgrowths had a population of 240,991 with 116,439 men and 124,552 women. The City spreads over Alappuzha municipality and the outgrowths of Punnapra and Kalarcode villages with an area of 65.57 km2 (25.32 sq mi) and population density of 3,675 persons per square kilometre. There were 22,361 persons under six years of age. The literacy rate of Alappuzha city stands at 95.81% with 209,201 literates where 101,927 are males (97.3%) and 107,274 are females (94.43%). Alappuzha had a sex ratio of 1070. [30]

The population is predominantly Hindus, and there are sizeable numbers of Christians and Muslims. The most widely spoken language is Malayalam, although many people speak Konkani.

The standard dialect of Malayalam spoken is Central Travancore dialect. [31] Konkani is a language that is spoken in the Konkan region. During the Portuguese and Dutch invasions of the 16th and 18th centuries, many Konkanis migrated southwards to Thuravoor, Cherthala and Alappuzha in the state of Travancore as well as other places in Kerala like Cochin, Kodungalloor, and Kollam. A majority of these people got settled in Alappuzha. [32] [33] [34]

Economy

A Houseboat in Alleppey Alleppey Boat houses.jpg
A Houseboat in Alleppey

The economy of the district is based on agriculture and marine products. The agricultural activities predominantly revolve around the Kuttanad region, the rice bowl of Kerala. Though the district is industrially backward, some traditional industries based on coir and coir products, marine products, handlooms, different types of handicrafts, toddy tapping have been active from the very early times. The district is known as the traditional home of coir industry in Kerala. [35]

Alappuzha has extensive backwaters used for transportation and tourism purposes too. Coco Boat Allapphy Kerala.JPG
Alappuzha has extensive backwaters used for transportation and tourism purposes too.

The availability of raw materials and the existence of backwaters and canals suitable for the getting of green husk and accessibility of transportation are the main factors of the development of this industry. Arabs had carried on trade in coir products from very ancient period. The manufacture of mats and mattings were first introduced in 1859 by James Durragh. [36]

The Coir Board was established by the Central Government under the provisions of the Coir Industry Act in 1955. [37] A coir research institute functions at Kalavoor. [38] The National Coir Training and Designing Centre was established at Alappuzha in 1965.

Coir is the most important commodity manufactured in Alappuzha, Kayamkulam, Kokkothamangalam, Komalapuram, Mannancherry, Muhamma and Vayalar. [39] Coir products are available in Cherthala and Mannancherry, lime shell in Arookutty and Kodamthuruth, plywood in Chengannur, Keltron controls in Aroor, [40] potassium chloride in Mavelikkara, and coconuts and coconut oil in Thanneermukkom. Other important commodities manufactured in these towns are copra, glass, mats and matches. [41]

In recent times, tourism has become a major source of revenue. This is mainly due to the presence of houseboats that provide the tourists with a view of the scenic backwaters of the town. Another reason is the proximity to other tourist spots like Munnar, Varkala, Alappuzha and Wayanad. Furthermore, as per the Tourist Statistics by Kerala Tourism, there is a 74.55% increase in tourists arriving in Alleppey between 2021 and 2020 while the average for the entire state stands at 51.09%. [42]

Backwater paddy cultivation

Paddy fields in Kuttanad Kerala Kuttanad2.jpg
Paddy fields in Kuttanad

The major occupation in Alappuzha is farming. The Rice Bowl of Kerala, Kuttanadu is located in Alappuzha. Large farming areas near Vembanad Lake were reclaimed from the lake. In earlier times, the reclamation was done mainly from the shallow part of the Vembanad Lake or from the periphery of river Pamba. These reclamations constituted small areas of paddy fields called Padsekharam. The bailing out of water from those fields were done manually using water wheels (Chakram). Gradually the manual method used for bailing out of water gave way to steam engines.

Three stages can be identified in the reclamation of lands from the Vembanad Lake. In the first stage it was carried out by private entrepreneurs without any financial support from the part of the government. The Pattom Proclamation, made by the Travancore Kingdom in the year 1865, gave a great boost to the reclamation activities between 1865 and 1890. During this period de-watering of the polders were done manually, using waterwheels, restricting large-scale reclamations. Only about 250 hectares of land were reclaimed during this period. Venadu Lake and Madathil Lake that were reclaimed during this period are considered as the first Kayal Nilam (lake-reclaimed land) which were reclaimed from Vembanad Lake. [43] The pioneering reclamation activity of lake-reclamation and cultivation was made by Pallithanam Luca Matthai. [44] The period between 1865 and 1890 is usually considered as the first phase of lake-cultivation.

The introduction of kerosene engines for dewatering resulted in the reclamation of wider areas of the lake for cultivation. It made the farmers consider venturing into the deeper parts of the lake. During the period between 1898 and 1903, reclamation activity was led by Pallithanam Luca Mathai (alias Pallithanathu Mathaichen) who reclaimed the Cherukara and Pallithanam Moovayiram kayals.

The second phase (1890 to 1903) of reclamation activities came to a halt because of the ban on lake reclamation imposed by the Madras Government in 1903. Cherukali Kayal, Rama Rajapuram Kayal, Aarupanku Kayal, Pantharndu Panku Kayal, and Mathi Kayal were the other major reclamations during this period.

In 1912, the Madras Government approved a proposal from the Travencore Government for further reclamations in three stages. Under this reclamation scheme areas were notified for reclamation in blocks each named by an alphabet letter. Out of the total area of 19,500 acres of reclaimed land 12,000 acres were reclaimed between 1913 and 1920. The reclamations between 1914 and 1920 are known as new reclamations, which were carried out in three periods. In the first period Blocks A to G measuring 6300 Acres were reclaimed. C Block, D Block (Attumukham Aarayiram (Attumuttu Kayal), Thekke Aarayiram and Vadakke Aarayiram) and E Block (Erupathinalayiram Kayal) F Block (Judge's Aarayiram Kayal) and G Block (Kochu Kayal) are the major reclamations during this period. During the second period of new reclamation, blocks H to N measuring 3600 acres were reclaimed. During the third period of new reclamation, R Block measuring 1,400 acres were reclaimed.

Due to the steep decline in the price of rice during 1920 to 1940, the reclamation activities became sluggish, but they gained momentum again in the early 1940s. During this period, in order to increase the agricultural output, government initiated a Grow More Food campaign and provided incentives to encourage new reclamations. The advent of electric motors made the reclamation easier, cheaper and less risky as compared to the earlier periods. The last tract of the reclamations namely Q, S and T block were made during this period. [45]

Transport

Road

National highways

Nation Highway 66, connecting Panvel to Kanyakumari runs through the Alappuzha city centre. The Alappuzha Bypass was built to route the national highway around city centers between Kommady and Kalarkode. National Highway 66 connects Alappuzha city to other major cities like Mumbai, Udupi, Mangalore, Kannur, Kozhikode, Ernakulam, Kollam and Trivandrum. There is a plan to upgrade State Highway 11 to a national highway in order to help connect Alappuzha to Kodaikanal as part of promoting the coastal-hill tourism project. [46]

State highways

Alappuzha KSRTC bus station KSRTC Bus stand Alappuzha.jpg
Alappuzha KSRTC bus station
State Highway 11 AC Road SH-11.JPG
State Highway 11

There are eight state highways in Alappuzha district, of which three of them originates from Alappuzha town. State Highway 11 starts from Kalarcode and ends at Perunna. This highway is locally known as AC road (Alappuzha-Changanassery road) and it covers a distance of 24.2 km. It is an important road which connects Alappuzha town with Kottayam district. Stateway High 40 is an interstate highway in Alappuzha district which connects Alappuzha town with Madurai in Tamil Nadu. It is the only interstate highway in Alappuzha district. State Highway 66 originates from Alappuzha town and terminates at Thoppumpady. [47]

There are two bus terminals are situated in Alappuzha town, one for KSRTC buses (situated near state water transport corporation headquarters, boat jetty road) and the V K soman memorial municipal bus stand for private buses and interstate bound contract carriage buses (situated near Vazhicherry). KSRTC buses connect Alappuzha with, among other places, Banglore, Mysore, Kollur, Mangalore, Chennai, Coimbatore, Trivandrum, and Thiruvalla. SETC and TNSTC ply many daily services to the city. Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation have two daily services originating from Alappuzha.[ citation needed ]

Water

The presence of a lot of backwaters and canals makes water transport a popular means of transport. National Waterway-3 passes through Alappuzha. There is a SWTD boat jetty in the city that lies opposite to the KSRTC bus stand. It is served by boat services to Kottayam and Kollam cities besides other small towns and jetties. Availing an SWTD boat is a cheaper alternative to houseboats for visiting tourists.

Public water transport organised by Kerala State Transport Agency for long-distance transport within the back waters of Kerala (India) The Public Transport Through Waters in Kerala.jpg
Public water transport organised by Kerala State Transport Agency for long-distance transport within the back waters of Kerala (India)

Rail

Alappuzha is linked by Ernakulam–Kayamkulam coastal railway line and connects to cities like Trivandrum, Kollam, Cochin, Coimbatore, Chennai, Delhi, Bokaro and Mumbai. The railway station is about 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) from the heart of the city. [48] A total of four trains originate from Alappuzha to cities like Kannur, Chennai, Dhanbad and Tatanagar. There are a lot of local trains running throughout the day, which connect Alappuzha to other towns near by. Since Alappuzha is a prime destination, trains from important cities like Delhi, Chandigarh, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Mangalore, Kozhikode and Amritsar pass through this station. [49]

Air

Cochin International Airport, which is 78 kilometres (48 mi) to the North, is the closest airport. Thiruvananthapuram International Airport, 159 kilometres (99 mi) to the South, is the other airport that links the district with other countries. International tourists use these airports to reach Alappuzha. The other nearest airports are Calicut (236 kilometres (147 mi)) and Coimbatore (254 kilometres (158 mi)) airports. A helipad in the town is reserved for government uses.

Administration and politics

Alappuzha city officials
District Collector John V Samuel IAS
Municipal chairperson(Mrs) Soumya Raj [50]
SP & District Police Chief Chaitra Teresa John IPS [51]
Alleppey Bar Association Alappuzha loves Wikimedia IMG 7599.JPG
Alleppey Bar Association

The two administrative systems prevailing in the district are revenue and local self-government. Under the revenue system, the district is divided into two revenue divisions, six taluks and 91 villages. The two revenue divisions are Alappuzha division comprising Cherthala, Ambalappuzha and Kuttanad taluks consisting of 47 villages and Chengannur division comprising Karthikapally, Chengannur and Mavelikkara taluks consisting of 44 villages. For census purposes, Aroor, Arookutty, Kodamthuruth, Thanneermukkom Vadakku, Thaneermukkam Thekku, Vayalar East and Kokkothamangalam village, except the portions included in Cherthala municipality are treated in the 1981 census as census towns based on the threefold criteria adopted for treating a place as census town.[ citation needed ]

Under the local self-government system, the district is divided into five statutory towns and development blocks consisting of 71 panchayats. The jurisdiction of a Development Block includes the areas falling in census towns also. [52]

There were nine legislative assembly segments in Alappuzha district for the 2011 Assembly elections. They are Aroor, Cherthala, Alappuzha, Kuttanad, Haripad, Kayamkulam, Mavelikkara and Chengannur. [53]

Alappuzha assembly constituency is part of Alappuzha (Lok Sabha constituency). The other Lok Sabha constituency of the district is Mavelikkara. [54]

Parliament representatives
NameLok-Sabha constituencyYearPolitical party
P. K. Vasudevan NairAlappuzha1962–1977Communist Party of India (as Ambalappuzha seat)
R.AchuthanMavelikara1962–1967Indian National Congress
G.P. MangalathumadomMavelikara1967–1971Samyukta Socialist Party
R. Balakrishna Pillai Mavelikara1971–1977Kerala Congress
B.K. NairMavelikara1977–1980Indian National Congress
Suseela GopalanAlappuzha1980–1984Communist Party of India (Marxist)
Prof. P.J. Kurien Mavelikara1980–1984,1989-1998Indian National Congress
Vakkom PurushothamAlappuzha1984–1991Indian National Congress
Thampan Thomas Mavelikara1984–1989Janata Party
T. J. AnjaloseAlappuzha1991–1996Communist Party of India (Marxist)
Ramesh Chennithala Mavelikara1999–2004Indian National Congress
C.S. Sujatha Mavelikara2004–2009Communist Party of India (Marxist)
V.M Sudheeran Alappuzha1977–1980, 1996–2004Indian National Congress
Dr. K.S Manoj Alappuzha2004–2009Communist Party Of India (Marxist)
K.C Venugopal MP Alappuzha2009- 2014Indian National Congress
Kodikunnil Suresh MPMavelikara2009-2014Indian National Congress
K.C Venugopal MP Alappuzha2009- 2014Indian National Congress
Kodikunnil Suresh MPMavelikara2009-2014Indian National Congress
K.C Venugopal MP Alappuzha2014- 2019Indian National Congress
Kodikunnil Suresh MPMavelikara2014-2019Indian National Congress
A. M. Ariff Alappuzha2019-Communist Party of India (Marxist)
Kodikunnil Suresh MPMavelikara2019-Indian National Congress

Education

St. Joseph's College for Women, Alappuzha St. Joseph's College for Women Alappuzha.jpg
St. Joseph's College for Women, Alappuzha
Government T. D. Medical College, Alappuzha Alappuzha Medical College.jpg
Government T. D. Medical College, Alappuzha

There are schools, computer institutes and colleges all over the district, with nine training schools, 405 lower primary schools, 105 high schools and 87 higher secondary schools. [55]

The first school in Alappuzha, the Church Missionary Society (CMS) School, was established in 1816. The school was established by the Rev. Thomas Norton, the first CMS missionary to India. The school is run by the CSI Christ Church, Alappuzha. The first higher secondary school in Alappuzha was the Leo XIIIth Higher Secondary School, which was opened on 1 June 1889 by Portuguese Bishop John Gomes Pereira of Cochin. The first polytechnic college in Alappuzha was the Carmel Polytechnic College, established by Fr. Gilbert Palaekunnel and it is managed by CMI Congregation. Carmel is the academically top-ranked polytechnic in the state still. [56]

College of Engineering and Management, Punnapra Cemp2.jpg
College of Engineering and Management, Punnapra

Colleges in Alappuzha offer both graduate and postgraduate courses for their students. [57]

Major college institutes

Religious buildings and shrines

Mar Sleeva Forane Church Mar Sleeva Forane Church.jpg
Mar Sleeva Forane Church

Hindu temples in Alappuzha (Alleppey)

Christian churches in Alappuzha (Alleppey)

Muslim mosques in Alappuzha (Alleppey)

Sports

The Nehru Trophy Boat Race is a popular sport held in the Punnamada Lake near Alappuzha Nehru Trophy Boat Race 2012 7791.JPG
The Nehru Trophy Boat Race is a popular sport held in the Punnamada Lake near Alappuzha

Alappuzha is globally famous for snake boat races, especially the Nehru Trophy Boat Race held in the Punnamada Lake near Alappuzha. In 1952, when Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India, visited Kerala, the people of Alleppey decided to give a special entertainment for their prestigious guest and conducted a snake boat race. Nehru got so excited by this event and he jumped into 'Nadubhagam Chundan' (a snake boat), ignoring the security officials. By this excitement of sailing in a snake boat he donated a rolling trophy to be awarded to the winner of the race. Other than this snake boat race cricket, football, basketball and rowing are among the most popular sports in town. In 2015, the Kerala Cricket Association inaugurated the KCA Cricket Stadium Alappuzha, which is an A-class cricket stadium. [75] Another stadium named as EMS Stadium or municipal stadium is under construction as of 2021.

Notable people

Religion

Politics

Cinema

Sport

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alappuzha district</span> District in Kerala, India

Alappuzha district, is one of the 14 districts in the Indian state of Kerala. It was formed as Alleppey district on 17 August 1957, the name of the district being changed to Alappuzha in 1990. Alappuzha is the smallest district of Kerala. Alleppey town, the district headquarters, was renamed Alappuzha in 2012, even though the anglicised name is still commonly used to describe the town as well as the district.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kottayam district</span> District in Kerala, India

Kottayam is one of 14 districts in the Indian state of Kerala. Kottayam district comprises six municipal towns: Kottayam, Changanassery, Pala, Erattupetta, Ettumanoor, and Vaikom. It is the only district in Kerala that does not border the Arabian Sea or any other Indian state.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kerala backwaters</span> Lagoon network in India

The Kerala backwaters are a network of brackish lagoons and canals lying parallel to the Arabian Sea of the Malabar coast of Kerala state in south-western India. It also includes interconnected lakes, rivers, and inlets, a labyrinthine system formed by more than 900 km (560 mi) of waterways, and sometimes compared to bayous. The network includes five large lakes linked by canals, both man made and natural, fed by 38 rivers, and extending virtually half the length of Kerala state. The backwaters were formed by the action of waves and shore currents creating low barrier islands across the mouths of the many rivers flowing down from the Western Ghats range. In the midst of this landscape there are a number of towns and cities, which serve as the starting and end points of backwater cruises. There are 34 backwaters in Kerala. Out of it, 27 are located either closer to Arabian Sea or parallel to the sea. The remaining 7 are inland navigation routes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kuttanad</span> Region in Kerala, India

Kuttanad is a region covering the Alappuzha, Kottayam and Pathanamthitta Districts, in the state of Kerala, India, well known for its vast paddy fields and geographical peculiarities. The region has the lowest altitude in India, and is one of the few places in the world where farming is carried on around 1.2 to 3.0 metres below sea level. Kuttanad is historically important in the ancient history of South India and is the major rice producer in the state. Farmers of Kuttanad are famous for Biosaline Farming. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has declared the Kuttanad Farming System as a Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System (GIAHS) in 2013.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mavelikkara</span> Town in Kerala, India

Mavelikara is a taluk and municipality in the Onattukara region of Alappuzha district in the Indian state of Kerala. Located in the southern part of the district on the banks of the Achankovil River.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kollam district</span> District in Kerala, India

Kollam district, is one of 14 districts of the state of Kerala, India. The district has a cross-section of Kerala's natural attributes; it is endowed with a long coastline, a major Laccadive Sea seaport and an inland lake. The district has many water bodies. Kallada River is one among them, and land on the east bank of the river is East Kallada and that on the west bank is West Kallada.

Cherthala, IPA:[t͡ʃeːrt̪ːɐlɐ], is a Municipal town and a Taluk located at National highway 66 in the district of Alappuzha, in the state of Kerala, India. Cherthala is the satellite town and industrial hub of Kochi.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chengannur</span> Municipal Town in Kerala, India

Chengannur is a municipality and Town in Alappuzha district, Kerala, India. It is also the headquarters of the Chengannur Taluk. Chengannur is located in the south-eastern part of the district, in the region known as Odanad, along the banks of Pamba River. Chengannur is 36 kilometres (22 mi) southeast of the district headquarters Alappuzha and 117 kilometres (73 mi) north of the state capital Thiruvananthapuram. Both the NH 183 and Main Central Road pass through the town.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kallissery</span> Town in Kerala, India

Kallissery is a small town in Chengannur Taluk of Alappuzha district of Kerala, India.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vayalar</span> Village in Kerala, India

Vayalar is a village in Cherthala taluk, Alapuzha district, Kerala state, India.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Punnapra-Vayalar uprising</span> 1949 communist uprising in British India

The Punnapra-Vayalar uprising was a militant communist movement in the Princely State of Travancore, British India against the Prime Minister, C. P. Ramaswami Iyer and the state. The revolt is named after the two places in which it took place; beginning in Punnapra and ending in Vayalar.

Chennithala is a census town in Mavelikkara taluk of Alappuzha district, Kerala state, India. This village consists mainly of paddy fields and coconut groves.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thakazhy</span> Village in Kerala, India

Thakazhy is a village in Alappuzha district in the Indian state of Kerala. It is part of the Kuttanad region bound by the backwaters and is located on the banks of the River Pamba. It is the birthplace of the famous writer Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai, who was popularly known just by his village name. There is a small temple called Ennavalyachan to the back side of the famous Dharma sastha temple which is the second famous ayyappa temple after sabarimala.

Punnapra is a village in Alappuzha district of Kerala, India. It is a coastal area of the Arabian Sea and lies west to Kuttanad, popularly known as The rice bowl of Kerala.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Outline of Kerala</span> Overview of and topical guide to Kerala

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Kerala:

Parayakad, Alappuzha is a village in Kuthiathode gram panchayat, India. in Cherthala Taluk in Alappuzha district in the Indian state of Kerala. There is another place known as Parayakad or Parayad in Ernakulum District. This is a small area / block (muri) in Chittattukara Village in North Paravoor. Parayakad Village in Alleppey district is listed in the Central Government Indian Village Directory. Kuthiathode comes under the Pattanakad Block in Aroor Assembly constituency.

Alleppy Coir refers to the Coir products made in Ambalappuzha and Cherthala Taluks of Alappuzha district, in the state of Kerala, India. Coir production of this region dates back to as early as 1859. The World Trade Organization (WTO) granted Geographical Indication status to "Alleppey Coir" in 2007.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Administration of Alappuzha district</span>

Alappuzha District has four types of administrative hierarchies:

References

  1. "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 16 June 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2008.
  2. "The Kerala Official Language (Legislation) Act, 1969" (PDF).
  3. "Alappuzha". Archived from the original on 21 May 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
  4. "Table" (PDF). www.censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  5. "Alappuzha, Panaji and Mysuru cleanest cities in India: CSE survey". The Times of India . 12 July 2016.
  6. Encyclopedia of Kerala in Malayalam language
  7. "all about Alappuzha "All About Alappuzha ::::". Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-05."
  8. "History | District Alappuzha, Government of Kerala | India" . Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  9. "Tourist Places in India, Best Places to Visit in India". Maps of India.
  10. "Nehru Trophy Boat Race. "The History of NTBR ::::". Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-05."
  11. "Struggles". Archived from the original on 13 September 2016. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
  12. "coir industry ":: About Coir ::". Archived from the original on 13 August 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-05."
  13. "Central Coir Research Institute". www.ccriindia.org. Archived from the original on 28 December 2012.
  14. "taluks in Alappuzha 1957". Alleppeyonline.com. Archived from the original on 18 November 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  15. "boundaries". Alleppeyonline.com. Archived from the original on 18 November 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  16. "taluks in Alappuzha". Alleppeyonline.com. Archived from the original on 18 November 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  17. 1 2 "Kuttanad". www.alappuzha.com.
  18. Shivpprasadh, S. (29 November 2012). "'Swamiyae… Saranam Aiyappa'". The Hindu via thehindu.com.
  19. "Arthunkal Church history". Arthunkal Church.
  20. "Alappuzha: A detailed Study for PSC | PSC Arivukal". www.pscarivukal.com. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
  21. "isbn:8170990262 - Google Search". www.google.com.
  22. "Alappuzha - A brief history". Archived from the original on 30 September 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  23. "Maps, Weather, Videos, and Airports for Alappuzha, India". Fallingrain.com. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
  24. elevation Archived 16 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  25. "Account Suspended". ecohouseboat.com.
  26. "Annual Rainfall Map of India, Rainfall in India". Maps of India.
  27. "Station: Alleppy (Alappuzha) Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 33–34. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
  28. "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M105. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
  29. "Cities and towns in Alappuzha district". citypopulation.de.
  30. Census India 2011
  31. "dialect". Jaimalayalam.com. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  32. "migration of konkanis". Gosripuram.org.in. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
  33. "migration of konkanis". Gsbkonkani.net. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
  34. "migration of konkanis
  35. "Final Body". Scribd.
  36. "mats "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 April 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-06.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)"
  37. "coir board". Archived from the original on 19 November 2010. Retrieved 8 September 2017.
  38. "coir research "Central Coir Research Institute". Archived from the original on 12 September 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-05."
  39. "coir". Scribd.com. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
  40. "Keltron Controls "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2011.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)"
  41. "coir mat "Resources". Archived from the original on 13 August 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2011."
  42. Tourism, Kerala. "Kerala Statistics – 2021 - Highlights" (PDF). Kerala Tourism: Official Website. Retrieved 12 January 2023.
  43. M.S. Swaminathan, FRS (May 2013). "The Kuttanadu Below Sea Level Farming System, India" (PDF). FAO Website. p. 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 June 2015. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
  44. G S Unnikrishanan Nair (September 2013). "Kuttanad; Our Heritage Our wealth" (PDF). KERALA CALLING. pp. 16–20. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 26 September 2013.
  45. Studies Society, Thiruvananthapuram Economic (August 2017). "Agricultural Development of Kerala From 1800 AD to 1980 AD: A Survey of Studies" (PDF). keralaeconomy.com.
  46. "Jawahar Thayankari lifts Nehru trophy". Deccan Chronicle . 9 August 2015.
  47. "PWD Public Site". Archived from the original on 1 December 2010. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
  48. "Trains from Alappuzha "Indian Trains: ALLEPPEY (ALLP) Railway Station Details". Archived from the original on 6 September 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-07."
  49. "Trains passing through Alappuzha "Indian Trains: ALLEPPEY (ALLP) Railway Station Details". Archived from the original on 6 September 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-07."
  50. "Official Web Site of Alappuzha, Kerala, India". Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-09.
  51. "Election 2009 - Alappuzha District, Kerala State, India - Observers". Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 22 April 2012.
  52. "Official Web Site of Alappuzha, Kerala, India". Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-09.
  53. Kerala Legislature. "Niyamsabha official site". Niyamasabha.org. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  54. "constituency" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 9 June 2011.
  55. "education in Alappuzha "Official WEBSITE of Alappuzha, Kerala, India - Education Department". Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-10."
  56. "Leo 13 school "Higher Secondary Schools". Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 2011-06-10."
  57. "colleges in Alappuzha "Official WEBSITE of Alappuzha, Kerala, India - Colleges of Alappuzha". Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-10."
  58. "College of Engineering, Cherthala". Cectl.ac.in. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
  59. "Official website of Cochin University of Science and Technology". Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 14 February 2016.
  60. "Welcome - Sanatana Dharma College" . Retrieved 26 February 2023.
  61. "Welcome: S. D. V. College of Arts and Applied Science" . Retrieved 26 February 2023.
  62. "SN COLLEGE CHERTHALA". Archived from the original on 22 February 2016. Retrieved 26 February 2023.
  63. "NSS Alappuzha". Grotal.com. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
  64. "Government College, Ambalapuzha" . Retrieved 26 February 2023.
  65. "CEM Punnapra" . Retrieved 26 February 2023.
  66. "Mar Gregorios College". Archived from the original on 19 October 2015. Retrieved 7 October 2018.
  67. "College of Engineering (Chengannur)". Ceconline.edu. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
  68. "Profile of the College - College of Applied Sciences, Mavelikkara" . Retrieved 26 February 2023.
  69. "Carmel College of Engineering and Technology".
  70. "Government TD Medical College Alappuzha, Kerala".
  71. "SJCW". Archived from the original on 9 January 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2011.
  72. SMC "St. Michael's College, Cherthala". Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
  73. "T.K. Madhava Memorial College, Nangiarkulangara". Archived from the original on 26 September 2011. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
  74. "St Aloysius". Aloysiuscollege.org. Archived from the original on 29 August 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
  75. "SD College- KCA Cricket Ground- Alapuzha".
  76. S., Narayanan (7 September 2020). "More sports news". The Times of India . Retrieved 14 February 2021.
  77. "From Alappuzha to Team India set-up, Midhun's hard work pays off". OnManorama. Retrieved 15 November 2023.