Alappuzha

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Alappuzha
Alleppey
Alappuzha
Alappuzha Boat Beauty W.jpg
Govt.College of Nursing, Alappuzha.jpg
Alleppey beach.jpg
Mullakkal Devi.jpg
Alappuzha - Boating centre.jpg
Jain-temple-alleppey.jpg
Our Lady of Mount Carmel Cathedral.jpg
Clockwise from top left: Alappuzha houseboat, Alappuzha Beach, Boat Jetty, Roman Catholic Diocese of Alleppey, Jain temple, Mullakkal Temple, Government college of Nursing
Nickname: 
Venice of the Eastern world King of Backwater
Alappuzha
India Kerala location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Alappuzha
India location map.svg
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Alappuzha
Coordinates: 9°29′N76°20′E / 9.49°N 76.33°E / 9.49; 76.33 Coordinates: 9°29′N76°20′E / 9.49°N 76.33°E / 9.49; 76.33
CountryFlag of India.svg  India
State ..Kerala Flag(INDIA).png Kerala
District Alappuzha district
Government
  TypeMunicipality
  BodyAlappuzha Municipality
  Municipal ChairpersonSoumya raj (CPIM)
Area
  Total46.20 km2 (17.84 sq mi)
Population
 (2011) [1]
174,176
  Rank7th
Languages
  Official Malayalam, English [2]
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
688001
Telephone code0477
Vehicle registration
  • KL-04 Alappuzha,
  • KL-29 Kayamkulam
  • KL-30 Chengannur
  • KL-31 Mavelikkara
  • KL-32 Cherthala
  • KL-66 Kuttanad
Sex ratio 1079 /
Website alappuzha.nic.in

Alappuzha or Alleppey (Malayalam:  [ɐːlɐpːuɻɐ] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is the administrative headquarters of Alappuzha district in state of Kerala, India. The Backwaters of Alappuzha are one of the most popular tourist attractions in India which attracts millions of domestic and international tourists. [3]

Contents

Alleppey is a city and a municipality in Kerala with an urban population of 174,164 [4] and ranks third among the districts in literacy rate in the state. In 2016, the Centre for Science and Environment rated Alappuzha as the cleanest town in India. [5] Alappuzha is considered to be the oldest planned city in this region and the lighthouse built on the coast of the city is the first of its kind along the Laccadive Sea coast. [6]

The city is 55 km from Kochi and 155 km north of Thiruvananthapuram. [7] A town with canals, backwaters, beaches, and lagoons, Alappuzha was described by George Curzon, Viceroy of India at the start of the 20th century, as the "Venice of the East." [8] Hence, it is known as the "Venetian Capital" of Kerala.

It is an important tourist destination in India. [9] It connects Kumarakom and Cochin to the North and Kollam to the South. It is also the access point for the annual Nehru Trophy Boat Race, held on the Punnamada Lake, near Alappuzha, on the second Saturday of August every year. This is among the most popular and competitive boat races in India. [10]

Alappuzha was home to the Punnapra-Vayalar uprising against the Separate American Model independent Travancore proposal and also the revolt against the Feudal raj. Over 200 Communist party members were killed by the army of the Diwan at Punnapra. [11] Coir is the most important commodity manufactured in Alappuzha. [12] The Coir Board was established by the Central Government under the provisions of the Coir Industry Act, 1955. A Central Coir Research Institute is located at Kalavoor. [13]

Etymology

Alappuzha has extensive backwaters Coco Boat Allapphy Kerala.JPG
Alappuzha has extensive backwaters

Carved out of the erstwhile Kottayam and Kollam districts, Alappuzha district was formed on 17 August 1957 and consisted initially of seven taluks, namely Cherthala, Ambalappuzha, Kuttanad, Chengannur, Karthikappally and Mavelikkara. [14]

The name Ᾱlappuzha is a toponym. ‘Ᾱlayam’ means ‘home’ and ‘puzha’, according to Dr. Herman Gundert's dictionary, means ‘watercourse’ or ‘river’. The name refers to the network of waterways and backwaters in Alappuzha and its surrounding areas. The district is bounded on the north by Kochi and Kanayannur taluks of Ernakulam district, on the east by Vaikom, Kottayam and Changanassery taluks of Kottayam district and Thiruvalla and Kozhencherry taluks of Pathanamthitta district, on the South by Kunnathur and Karunagappally taluks of Kollam district and on the west by Laccadive Sea. [15]

The present Alappuzha district comprises six taluks, namely Cherthala, Ambalappuzha, Kuttanad, Karthikappally, Chengannur and Mavelikkara. [16] The area of the district is 1,414 km2 (546 sq mi). Its headquarters is located at Alappuzha.

History

Walkway in Commercial Canal Alleppey canal.jpg
Walkway in Commercial Canal

Kuttanad, the rice bowl of Kerala, with its paddy fields, small streams and canals with lush green coconut palms, was well known even from the early periods of the Sangam age. [17] History says Alappuzha had trade relations with Greece and Rome in the Middle Ages.[ citation needed ]

The early Cheras, who had their home in Kuttanad, were called `Kuttuvans`,[ citation needed ] so named after this place. Pliny and Ptolemy of the 1st and 2nd centuries had mentioned places like Purakkad or Barace in their classical works.[ citation needed ]

Literary works like "Unnuneeli Sandesam" give some insight into the ancient period of this district. Archaeological antiquities, such as the stone inscriptions, historical monuments found in the temples, churches, and rock-cut caves, also emphasise the historic importance of Alappuzha District. Christianity had a foothold in this district, even from the 1st century AD. The church located at Kokkamangalam was one of the seven churches founded by St. Thomas,[ citation needed ] one of the twelve disciples of Jesus Christ. It is generally believed that he landed at Maliankara in Muziris Port, presently known as Cranganore or Kodungallur, in 52 AD and preached Christianity in South India.

The district flourished in religion and culture under the second Chera Empire, during 9th to 12th centuries AD. The literary work, `Ascharya Choodamani`, a Sanskrit drama written by Sakthibhadran, a scholar of Chengannur, enables us to know many pertinent facts. Further, the temple on Lord Ayyappan, in Mukkal vattam near Muhamma in Alappuzha District, is called Cheerappanchira, for the Kalari from which Lord Ayyappa learnt his martial arts. A recent album by P. Unni Krishnan on Lord Ayyappa, titled 'Sabarimalai Va Charanam Solli Va', has songs illustrating the history of this temple and Lord Ayyappa's stay here before he went to conquer the Mahishi Demon. [18]

Since landing in Calicut in 1498, the Portuguese started playing an influential role in Alappuzha. They began by spreading Catholicism and converting already existing Christians into Catholics. The famous St. Andrew's Basilica was built by them during this period. [19] In the 17th century, as the Portuguese power declined, the Dutch gained a predominant position in the principalities of this district. They built many factories and warehouses for storing pepper and ginger, relying on several treaties signed between the Dutch and the Rajas of Purakkad, Kayamkulam and Karappuram. In course of time they also delved into the political and cultural affairs of the district. At that time Maharaja Marthanda Varma (1706–1758), who was the 'Maker of modern Travancore', intervened in the political affairs of those princedoms.

Travancore Dewan Ramayyan Dalawa (d. 1756) resided in Mavelikkara where he had a palace built by Marthanda Varma. After the death of his wife, Ramayyan consorted with a Nair lady from Mavelikkara of the Edassery family (PGN Unnithan, a member of this family, later became the last Dewan of Travancore in 1947). After his death Ramayyan's descendants left Travancore to settle in Pudukkottai in Tamil Nadu. His Nair consort was given gifts and presents and special allowances from the Travancore government in recognition of his services to the state while his own descendants were bestowed with the honorific title of Dalawa.

In the 19th century the district saw progress in many spheres. One of the five subordinate courts opened in the state in connection with the reorganization of the judicial system by Colonel George Monro was located at Mavelikkara. The first post office and first telegraph office in the former Travancore state were established in this district. The first manufacturing factory for the coir mats was established in 1859. In 1894 the city Improvement Committee was set up.

The district played a role in the freedom struggle of the country. The struggles of Punnapra and Vayalar in 1946 arrayed the people against Sir C. P. Ramaswami Iyer, who was Dewan of Travancore. This led to Ramaswami Iyer's exit from the political scene of Travancore. A popular Ministry was formed in Travancore on 24 March 1948 after India's independence. Travancore and Cochin states were integrated on 1 July 1949. This arrangement continued until the formation of Kerala State on 1 November 1956, under the States Reorganisation Act 1956. The district came into existence as a separate administrative unit on 1 August 1957.

Raja Kesavadas and Alappuzha

Raja Kesavadas, the Dewan of Travancore during the reign of Dharma Raja Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma in 18th century was well known for his planning skills and administrative acumen. He was the master mind in developing the Alappuzha town. [20]

He found Alappuzha as an ideal location and constructing a well planned port city in Travancore. Alappuzha was most suitable, because of the geographical and oceanic reasons. He constructed two parallel canals for bringing goods to port from backwaters and offered infrastructural facilities to merchants and traders from Surat, Mumbai and Kutch to start industrial enterprises, trading, and cargo centres. Alappuzha attained progress and became the financial nerve centre of Travancore during his time. [21] The port was opened in 1762, mainly for the export of coir-matting and coir-yarn. Kesavadas built three ships for trade with Calcutta and Bombay, and alleppey afforded a convenient depot for the storage and disposal of goods produce in the east. [22]

Geography

Boating center in Sea view canal Alappuzha - Boating centre.jpg
Boating center in Sea view canal

Alappuzha is located at 9°32′N76°24′E / 9.54°N 76.40°E / 9.54; 76.40 . [23] The average elevation is 1 metre (3.3 ft) [24] Alappuzha covers an area of 1,414 square kilometres (546 sq mi) and is flanked by 2,195 square kilometres (847 sq mi) of Vembanad Lake, where six major rivers spread out before joining the 80 km coast line of the district. The city of Alappuzha is crisscrossed by a system of canals, which is a part of the National Waterway 3. [25]

The district is a sandy strip of land intercepted by lagoons, rivers and canals. There are no mountains or hills in the district except some scattered hillocks lying between Bharanikkavu and Chengannur blocks in the eastern portion of the district. There are no forest area in this district.

Alappuzha is bounded by the Laccadive Sea on its west. The town has a network of lakes, lagoons and fresh water rivers. The richness of the coastal Alappuzha waters is expressed annually in the blooming and consequent deposit of a huge quantity of fishes and prawns on the Alappuzha coast called ‘[Chakara]’. This annual shifting of sandbank appears during the post-monsoon period and contributes to the local economy and is a festive season for the people of Kerala. The annual floods rejuvenate and cleanse the soil and water due to which there is abundance of marine life like prawns, lobsters, fishes, turtles and other flora in the sea.

The backwaters and wetlands host thousands of migrant common teal, ducks and cormorants every year who reach here from long distances. A major feature of the area is the region called Kuttanad, the 'granary of Kerala'. Kuttanad is also known as the rice bowl of Kerala and is one of the few places in the world where farming is done below sea level. The paddy fields lie about 0.6 to 2 m below mean sea level. [17]

Climate

Owing to its proximity to the sea, the climate of Alappuzha is humid and hot during the summer, although it remains fairly cool and pleasant during the months of October and November. The average monthly temperature is 27 degree Celsius. The district gets the benefit of two seasonal monsoons, as in other parts of the state. Alappuzha town experiences a long monsoon season with heavy showers as both the Southwest and Northeast monsoon influences the weather of Alappuzha. The South-west monsoon affects the climate in the months from June to September. On the other hand, the North-east monsoon brings rain from October to November. The average rainfall received by the region is 2763 mm. [26]

Climate data for Alappuzha (1981–2010, extremes 1944–2012)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)36.7
(98.1)
37.4
(99.3)
37.9
(100.2)
38.2
(100.8)
36.7
(98.1)
37.2
(99.0)
34.0
(93.2)
34.2
(93.6)
34.8
(94.6)
35.6
(96.1)
35.4
(95.7)
36.6
(97.9)
38.2
(100.8)
Average high °C (°F)32.6
(90.7)
32.8
(91.0)
33.5
(92.3)
33.5
(92.3)
32.7
(90.9)
30.3
(86.5)
29.2
(84.6)
29.2
(84.6)
30.1
(86.2)
31.2
(88.2)
31.8
(89.2)
32.5
(90.5)
31.6
(88.9)
Average low °C (°F)22.4
(72.3)
23.5
(74.3)
24.9
(76.8)
25.5
(77.9)
25.3
(77.5)
23.8
(74.8)
23.2
(73.8)
23.4
(74.1)
23.8
(74.8)
23.8
(74.8)
23.6
(74.5)
22.7
(72.9)
23.8
(74.8)
Record low °C (°F)17.3
(63.1)
18.7
(65.7)
18.8
(65.8)
19.2
(66.6)
20.0
(68.0)
19.5
(67.1)
19.9
(67.8)
19.4
(66.9)
20.4
(68.7)
19.3
(66.7)
20.0
(68.0)
17.8
(64.0)
17.3
(63.1)
Average rainfall mm (inches)19.2
(0.76)
41.1
(1.62)
54.8
(2.16)
136.1
(5.36)
260.3
(10.25)
613.0
(24.13)
481.2
(18.94)
343.9
(13.54)
301.5
(11.87)
342.5
(13.48)
194.5
(7.66)
38.0
(1.50)
2,826.1
(111.26)
Average rainy days1.11.93.26.711.221.921.117.113.314.18.92.4122.9
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST)68707375788687878381776978
Source: India Meteorological Department [27] [28]

Demographics

Religion in Alappuzha City (2011)
Percent
Hinduism
49.85%
Christianity
26.23%
Islam
23.62%
Others
0.30%
Jain Temple, Alappuzha JainTempleAlappuzhaFrontPrd.jpg
Jain Temple, Alappuzha

According to the 2011 census, Alappuzha Municipality+Outgrowths had a population of 240,991 with 116,439 men and 124,552 women. The City spreads over Alappuzha municipality and the outgrowths of Punnapra and Kalarcode villages with an area of 65.57 km2 (25.32 sq mi) and population density of 3,675 persons per square kilometre. There were 22,361 persons under six years of age. The literacy rate of Alappuzha city stands at 95.81% with 209,201 literates where 101,927 are males (97.3%) and 107,274 are females (94.43%). Alappuzha had a sex ratio of 1070. [30]

The population is predominantly Hindus, and there are sizeable numbers of Christians and Muslims. The most widely spoken language is Malayalam, although many people speak Konkani.

The standard dialect of Malayalam spoken is Central Travancore dialect. [31] Konkani is a language that is spoken in the Konkan region. During the Portuguese and Dutch invasions of the 16th and 18th centuries, many Konkanis migrated southwards to Thuravoor, Cherthala and Alappuzha in the state of Travancore as well as other places in Kerala like Cochin, Kodungalloor, and Kollam. A majority of these people got settled in Alappuzha. [32] [33] [34]

Economy

A Houseboat in Alleppey Alleppey Boat houses.jpg
A Houseboat in Alleppey

The economy of the district is based on agriculture and marine products. The agricultural activities predominantly revolve around the Kuttanad region, the rice bowl of Kerala. Though the district is industrially backward, some traditional industries based on coir and coir products, marine products, handlooms, different types of handicrafts, toddy tapping have been active from the very early times. The district is known as the traditional home of coir industry in Kerala. [35]

The availability of raw materials and the existence of backwaters and canals suitable for the getting of green husk and accessibility of transportation are the main factors of the development of this industry. Arabs had carried on trade in coir products from very ancient period. The manufacture of mats and mattings were first introduced in 1859 by Mr. James Durragh. [36]

The Coir Board was established by the Central Government under the provisions of the Coir Industry Act in 1955. [37] A coir research institute functions at Kalavoor. [38] The National Coir Training and Designing Centre was established at Alappuzha in 1965. [39]

Coir is the most important commodity manufactured in Alappuzha, Kayamkulam, Kokkothamangalam, Komalapuram, Mannancherry, Muhamma and Vayalar, [40] Coir products are available in Cherthala and Mannancherry, Lime shell in Arookutty and Kodamthuruth, Plywood in Chengannur, Keltron controls in Aroor, [41] Potassium Chloride in Mavelikkara and coconut in Thanneermukkom. The other important commodities manufactured in these towns are copra, coconut oil, glass, mats and matches. [42]

In recent times, tourism has become a major source of revenue. This is mainly due to the presence of houseboats that provide the tourists with a view of the scenic backwaters of the town. Another reason is the proximity to other tourist spots like Munnar, Varkala, Alappuzha and Wayanad.

Backwater paddy cultivation

Paddy fields in Kuttanad Kerala Kuttanad2.jpg
Paddy fields in Kuttanad

The major occupation in Alappuzha is farming. The Rice Bowl of Kerala, Kuttanadu is located in Alappuzha. Large farming areas near Vembanad Lake were reclaimed from the lake. In earlier times, the reclamation was done mainly from the shallow part of the Vembanad Lake or from the periphery of river Pamba. These reclamations constituted small areas of paddy fields called Padsekharam. The bailing out of water from those fields were done manually using water wheels (Chakram). Gradually the manual method used for bailing out of water gave way to steam engines.

Three stages can be identified in the reclamation of lands from the Vembanad Lake. In the first stage it was carried out by private entrepreneurs without any financial support from the part of the government. The Pattom Proclamation, made by the Travancore Kingdom in the year 1865, gave a great boost to the reclamation activities between 1865 and 1890. During this period de-watering of the polders were done manually, using waterwheels, restricting large-scale reclamations. Only about 250 hectares of land were reclaimed during this period. Venadu Lake and Madathil Lake that were reclaimed during this period are considered as the first Kayal Nilam (lake-reclaimed land) which were reclaimed from Vembanad Lake. [43] The pioneering reclamation activity of lake-reclamation and cultivation was made by two brothers Pallithanam Luca Matthai and Ouseph Luka Pallithanam belonging to Kainady village in Kuttanadu. [44] The period between 1865 and 1890 is usually considered as the first phase of lake-cultivation.

The introduction of kerosene engines for dewatering resulted in the reclamation of wider areas of the lake for cultivation. It made the farmers consider venturing into the deeper parts of the lake. During the period between 1898 and 1903, reclamation activity was led by Pallithanam Luca Mathai (alias Pallithanathu Mathaichen) who reclaimed the Cherukara Kayal and Pallithanam Moovayiram Kayal.

The second phase (1890 to 1903) of reclamation activities came to a halt because of the ban on lake reclamation imposed by the Madras Government in 1903. Cherukali Kayal, Rama Rajapuram Kayal, Aarupanku Kayal, Pantharndu Panku kayal and Mathi Kayal were the other major reclamations during this period.

In 1912, the Madras Government approved a proposal from the Travencore Government for further reclamations in three stages. Under this reclamation scheme areas were notified for reclamation in blocks each named by an alphabet letter. Out of the total area of 19,500 acres of reclaimed land 12,000 acres were reclaimed between 1913 and 1920. The reclamations between 1914 and 1920 are known as new reclamations, which were carried out in three periods. In the first period Blocks A to G measuring 6300 Acres were reclaimed. C Block, D Block (Attumukham Aarayiram (Attumuttu Kayal), Thekke Aarayiram and Vadakke Aarayiram) and E Block (Erupathinalayiram Kayal) F Block (Judge's Aarayiram Kayal) and G Block (Kochu Kayal) are the major reclamations during this period.

During the second period of new reclamation, blocks H to N measuring 3600 acres were reclaimed. During the third period of new reclamation, R Block measuring 1,400 acres were reclaimed.

Due to the steep decline in the price of rice during 1920 to 1940, the reclamation activities became sluggish, but they gained momentum again in the early 1940s. During this period, in order to increase the agricultural output, government initiated a Grow More Food campaign and provided incentives to encourage new reclamations. The advent of electric motors made the reclamation easier, cheaper and less risky as compared to the earlier periods. The last tract of the reclamations namely Q, S and T block were made during this period.[ citation needed ] [45]

Transport

Road

National highways

Nation Highway 66 is one of the longest national highway in India. It connects Panvel to Kanyakumari and crisscrosses through the Alappuzha city centre. The Alappuzha Bypass, to route the national highway around city centers between Kommady and Kalarkode. National Highway 66 connects Alappuzha city to other major cities like Mumbai, Udupi, Mangalore, Kannur, Kozhikode, Ernakulam, Kollam and Trivandrum. There is a plan to upgrade State Highway 11 to a national highway in order to help connect Alappuzha to Kodaikanal as part of promoting the coastal-hill tourism project. [46]

State highways

Alappuzha KSRTC station KSRTC Bus stand Alappuzha.jpg
Alappuzha KSRTC station
State Highway 11 AC Road SH-11.JPG
State Highway 11

There are eight state highways in Alappuzha district, of which three of them originates from Alappuzha town. State Highway 11 starts from Kalarcode and ends at Perunna. This highway is locally known as AC road (Alappuzha-Changanassery road) and it covers a distance of 24.2 km. It is an important road which connects Alappuzha town with Kottayam district. Stateway High 40 is an interstate highway in Alappuzha district which connects Alappuzha town with Madurai in Tamil Nadu. It is the only interstate highway in Alappuzha district. State Highway 66 originates from Alappuzha town and terminates at Thoppumpady. [47]

There are two bus terminals are situated in Alappuzha town, one for KSRTC buses (situated near state water transport corporation headquarters, boat jetty road) and the V K soman memorial municipal bus stand for private buses and interstate bound contract carriage buses (situated near Vazhicherry). A temporary KSRTC bus dippo and garage facing National Highway 66 is under construction near valavanadu. KSRTC buses connect Alappuzha with cities like Banglore, Mysore, kollur, manglore, chennai, coimbathore, palani, ooty, Kochi, Trivandrum, Thiruvalla and all other major towns in kerala. The kayamkulam - Ernakulam KSRTC Fast passenger chain service through the National highway 66 is very popular. SETC and TNSTC ply many daily services to the city. Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation have two daily services originating from Alappuzha.City private buses are green and white colored (formally white and brown). City buses connect Alappuzha with places like Mannancherry, Kalavoor, Erattakulangara, Kanjippadam, and Aspinwal. Some buses connects Alappuzha to Cherthala through coastal highway and Kanichukulangara route. Many contract carriage buses originate from Alappuzha to cities like chennai, Banglore, coimbathore, madurai, velankanni and Puducherry

Water

The presence of a lot of backwaters and canals makes water transport a popular means of transport. National Waterway-3 passes through Alappuzha. There is a SWTD boat jetty in the city that lies opposite to the KSRTC bus stand. It is served by boat services to Kottayam and Kollam cities besides other small towns and jetties. Availing an SWTD boat is a cheaper alternative to houseboats for visiting tourists.

Public water transport organised by Kerala State Transport Agency for long-distance transport within the back waters of Kerala (India) The Public Transport Through Waters in Kerala.jpg
Public water transport organised by Kerala State Transport Agency for long-distance transport within the back waters of Kerala (India)

Rail

Alappuzha is linked by Ernakulam–Kayamkulam coastal railway line and connects to cities like Trivandrum, Kollam, Cochin, Coimbatore, Chennai, Delhi, Bokaro and Mumbai. The railway station is about 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) from the heart of the city. [48] A total of four trains originate from Alappuzha to cities like Kannur, Chennai, Dhanbad and Tatanagar. There are a lot of local trains running throughout the day, which connect Alappuzha to other towns near by. Since Alappuzha is a prime destination, trains from important cities like Delhi, Chandigarh, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Mangalore, Kozhikode and Amritsar pass through this station. [49]

Air

Cochin International Airport, which is 78 kilometres (48 mi) to the North, is the closest airport. Thiruvananthapuram International Airport, 159 kilometres (99 mi) to the South, is the other airport that links the district with other countries. International tourists use these airports to reach Alappuzha. The other nearest airports are located at Kozhikode (236 kilometres (147 mi)) and Coimbatore (254 kilometres (158 mi)). A helipad in the town is reserved for government uses.

Administration and politics

Alappuzha city officials
District Collector V R Krishna Teja
Municipal chairpersonMrs.Soumya Raj [50]
Superintendent of Police Mr.G.Jaidev [51]
Alleppey Bar Association Alappuzha loves Wikimedia IMG 7599.JPG
Alleppey Bar Association

The two administrative systems prevailing in the district are revenue and local self-government. Under the revenue system, the district is divided into two revenue divisions, six taluks and 91 villages. The two revenue divisions are Alappuzha division comprising Cherthala, Ambalappuzha and Kuttanad taluks consisting of 47 villages and Chengannur division comprising Karthikapally, Chengannur and Mavelikkara taluks consisting of 44 villages. For census purposes, Aroor, Arookutty, Kodamthuruth, Thanneermukkom Vadakku, Thaneermukkam Thekku, Vayalar East and Kokkothamangalam village, except the portions included in Cherthala municipality are treated in the 1981 census as census towns based on the threefold criteria adopted for treating a place as census town.

Under the local self-government system, the district is divided into five statutory towns and development blocks consisting of 71 panchayats. The jurisdiction of a Development Block includes the areas falling in census towns also. [52]

There were nine legislative assembly segments in Alappuzha district for the 2011 Assembly elections. They are Aroor, Cherthala, Alappuzha, Kuttanad, Haripad, Kayamkulam, Mavelikkara and Chengannur. [53]

Alappuzha assembly constituency is part of Alappuzha (Lok Sabha constituency). The other Lok Sabha constituency of the district is Mavelikkara. [54]

Parliament representatives
NameLok-Sabha constituencyYearPolitical party
P. K. Vasudevan NairAlappuzha1962–1977Communist Party of India (as Ambalappuzha seat)
R.AchuthanMavelikara1962–1967Indian National Congress
G.P. MangalathumadomMavelikara1967–1971Samyukta Socialist Party
R. Balakrishna Pillai Mavelikara1971–1977Kerala Congress
B.K. NairMavelikara1977–1980Indian National Congress
Suseela GopalanAlappuzha1980–1984Communist Party of India (Marxist)
Prof. P.J. Kurien Mavelikara1980–1984,1989-1998Indian National Congress
Vakkom PurushothamAlappuzha1984–1991Indian National Congress
Thampan Thomas Mavelikara1984–1989Janata Party
T. J. AnjaloseAlappuzha1991–1996Communist Party of India (Marxist)
Ramesh Chennithala Mavelikara1999–2004Indian National Congress
C.S. Sujatha Mavelikara2004–2009Communist Party of India (Marxist)
V.M Sudheeran Alappuzha1977–1980, 1996–2004Indian National Congress
Dr. K.S Manoj Alappuzha2004–2009Communist Party Of India (Marxist)
K.C Venugopal MP Alappuzha2009- 2014Indian National Congress
Kodikunnil Suresh MPMavelikara2009-2014Indian National Congress
K.C Venugopal MP Alappuzha2009- 2014Indian National Congress
Kodikunnil Suresh MPMavelikara2009-2014Indian National Congress
K.C Venugopal MP Alappuzha2014- 2019Indian National Congress
Kodikunnil Suresh MPMavelikara2014-2019Indian National Congress
A. M. Ariff Alappuzha2019-Communist Party of India (Marxist)
Kodikunnil Suresh MPMavelikara2019-Indian National Congress

Education

St. Joseph's College for Women, Alappuzha St. Joseph's College for Women Alappuzha.jpg
St. Joseph's College for Women, Alappuzha
Government T. D. Medical College, Alappuzha Alappuzha Medical College.jpg
Government T. D. Medical College, Alappuzha

There are schools, computer institutes and colleges all over the district, with nine training schools, 405 lower primary schools, 105 high schools and 87 higher secondary schools. [55]

The first school in Alappuzha, the Church Missionary Society (CMS) School, was established in 1816. The school was established by the Rev. Thomas Norton, the first CMS missionary to India. The school is run by the CSI Christ Church, Alappuzha. The first higher secondary school in Alappuzha was the Leo XIIIth Higher Secondary School, which was opened on 1 June 1889 by Portuguese Bishop John Gomes Pereira of Cochin. The first polytechnic college in Alappuzha was the Carmel Polytechnic College, established by Fr. Gilbert Palaekunnel and it's managed by CMI Congregation. Carmel is the academically top-ranked polytechnic in the state still. [56]

College of Engineering and Management, Punnapra Cemp2.jpg
College of Engineering and Management, Punnapra
Carmel Polytechnic College, Punnapra CarmelPolytechnicCollege.jpg
Carmel Polytechnic College, Punnapra

Colleges in Alappuzha offer both graduate and postgraduate courses for their students. [57]

Major college institutes

Religious buildings/ shrines

Mar Sleeva Forane Church Mar Sleeva Forane Church.jpg
Mar Sleeva Forane Church

Major ImportantHindu Temples in Alappuzha (Alleppey ).

  1. Ambalappuzha Sree Krishna Swamy Temple
  2. Chakkulathukavu Temple - Bhagavathy Temple
  3. Chettikulangara Devi Temple
  4. Haripad Sree Subrahmanya Swamy Temple
  5. Kanichukulangara Devi Temple
  6. Thrikkunnappuzha Sree Dharmasastha Temple
  7. Thuravoor Mahakshetram
  8. Mannarasala Temple - Sree Nagaraja Temple
  9. Kuttikattu Sree Bhadra Kali Devi Temple
  10. Karthyayani Devi Temple, Cherthala
  11. Maruthorvattom Sri Dhanwanthari Temple,Cherthala
  12. Thiruvizha Mahadeva Temple,Cherthala
  13. Kandiyoor Sree Mahadeva Temple,Mavelikkara
  14. Vettikodu Sri Nagararaja Temple
  15. Padanilam Parabrahma Temple - Nooranad
  16. Mullakkal Temple - Bhagavathy Temple
  17. Valiyakulangara Devi Temple ,Karthikappally

Major importantChristian churches in Alappuzha (Alleppey ).

  1. St. Andrew's Basilica, Arthunkal
  2. St. George Forane Church, Edathua (St. George /Paul Forane Church)
  3. Basilica of St. Mary, Champakulam (Chambakulam kalloorkadu Basilica)
  4. Thumpoly Church (St. Thomas Church, Thumpoly )
  5. Poomkavu Church (Our Lady of Assumption Church, Poomkavu )
  6. Pulinkunnu /Pulincunno Church ( St. Mary's Forane valiya Church, Pulincunno)
  7. Thankey Church ( St. Mary's Forane Church, Thankey )
  8. Cherthala Pallipuram Church ( St. Mary's Forane Church, Pallipuram )
  9. Alleppey Cathedral Church ( Mount Caramel Cathedral Church, Alappuzha )
  10. St Thomas Orthodox Cathedral, Karthikappally

Major importantMuslim mosques in Alappuzha (Alleppey ).

  1. Makidusha Jumah Masjid Alappy
  2. Kizhake Masthan Jumah Masjid
  3. Padinjaare Jumah Masjid
  4. Thekke Jumah Masjid
  5. Kadhar Ali Bava Thykaav Dargah arghahD
  6. Purakkad Mosque Dargah
  7. Zilla Court Jumah Makidusha

Sports

The Nehru Trophy Boat Race is a popular sport held in the Punnamada Lake near Alappuzha Nehru Trophy Boat Race 2012 7791.JPG
The Nehru Trophy Boat Race is a popular sport held in the Punnamada Lake near Alappuzha

Alappuzha is globally famous for snake boat races, especially the Nehru Trophy Boat Race held in the Punnamada Lake near Alappuzha. In 1952, when Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India, visited Kerala, the people of Alleppey decided to give a special entertainment for their prestigious guest and conducted a snake boat race. Nehru got so excited by this event and he jumped into 'Nadubhagam Chundan' (a snake boat), ignoring the security officials. By this excitement of sailing in a snake boat he donated a rolling trophy to be awarded to the winner of the race. Other than this snake boat race cricket, football, basketball and rowing are among the most popular sports in town. In 2015, the Kerala Cricket Association inaugurated the KCA Cricket Stadium Alappuzha, which is an A-class cricket stadium. [76] Another stadium named as EMS Stadium or municipal stadium is under construction as of 2021.

Notable people

Religion

Politics

Cinema

Sport

See also

Related Research Articles

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