Alastair Windsor, 2nd Duke of Connaught and Strathearn

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Alastair Windsor
Alastair.png
Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
Predecessor Prince Arthur
BornPrince Alastair of Connaught
(1914-08-09)9 August 1914
Mayfair, London
Died26 April 1943(1943-04-26) (aged 28)
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Burial
Full name
Alastair Arthur Windsor
Father Prince Arthur of Connaught
Mother Princess Alexandra, 2nd Duchess of Fife
OccupationMilitary officer
Military career
AllegianceFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Service/branchFlag of the British Army.svg  British Army
Years of service1935–43
Rank Lieutenant
Unit Royal Scots Greys
Battles/wars Second World War

Alastair Arthur Windsor, 2nd Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (9 August 1914 – 26 April 1943) was a member of the British Royal Family. He was the only child of Prince Arthur of Connaught and Princess Alexandra, 2nd Duchess of Fife. He was a great-grandson of Queen Victoria through his father and her great-great-grandson through his mother.

Prince Arthur of Connaught British prince

Prince Arthur of Connaught was a British military officer and a grandson of Queen Victoria. He served as Governor-General of the Union of South Africa from 20 November 1920 to 21 January 1924.

Princess Alexandra, 2nd Duchess of Fife British princess

Princess Arthur of Connaught, 2nd Duchess of Fife, RRC, GCStJ was a granddaughter of King Edward VII and great-granddaughter of Queen Victoria.

Queen Victoria British monarch who reigned 1837–1901

Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India.

Contents

In 1942, he became the second Duke of Connaught and Strathearn and Earl of Sussex when he inherited his grandfather's title. In 1943, at the age of 28, he died in Canada of exposure, after falling out of a window in a state of inebriation.[ citation needed ]

Duke of Connaught and Strathearn

The title of Duke of Connaught and Strathearn was granted by Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland to her third son, Prince Arthur, on 24 May 1874. At the same time, he was also granted the subsidiary title of Earl of Sussex.

Early life

Portrait with his mother Princess Arthur of Connaught with Alastair.jpg
Portrait with his mother

Alastair was born on 9 August 1914 at his parents' home at 54 Mount Street, Mayfair, London (now the Brazilian Embassy). His father was Prince Arthur of Connaught, the only son of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, and Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia. His mother was Princess Alexandra, 2nd Duchess of Fife, the eldest daughter of Alexander Duff, 1st Duke of Fife, and Louise, Princess Royal. Alastair was thus a great-grandchild of Queen Victoria through his father and great-great grandchild of her through his mother.

Mayfair area of central London, England

Mayfair is an affluent area in the West End of London towards the eastern edge of Hyde Park, in the City of Westminster, between Oxford Street, Regent Street, Piccadilly and Park Lane. It is one of the most expensive districts in London and the world.

London Capital of the United Kingdom

London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.

Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn British prince and Governor General of Canada

Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn was the seventh child and third son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. He served as the Governor General of Canada, the tenth since Canadian Confederation and the only British prince to do so. In 1910 he was appointed Grand Prior of the Order of St John and held this position until 1939.

The Prince was baptised on 1 September 1914 at his parents' home [1] and his godparents were King George V (his maternal great-uncle), King Alfonso XIII of Spain (for whom Lord Farquhar, a Lord in Waiting to King George, stood proxy), Queen Alexandra (his maternal great-grandmother), the Duke of Connaught (his grandfather, for whom Major Malcolm Murray stood proxy), Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll (his great aunt), and Princess Mary (his cousin). [2]

Horace Farquhar, 1st Earl Farquhar British financier, courtier and Conservative politician

Horace Brand Farquhar, 1st Earl Farquhar, was a British financier, courtier and Conservative politician.

Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll English princess, sixth child of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert

Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll, was the sixth child and fourth daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. In her public life, she was a strong proponent of the arts and higher education and of the feminist cause. Her early life was spent moving among the various royal residences in the company of her family. When her father, the prince consort, died on 14 December 1861, the court went into a long period of mourning, to which with time Louise became unsympathetic. Louise was an able sculptor and artist, and several of her sculptures remain today. She was also a supporter of the feminist movement, corresponding with Josephine Butler, and visiting Elizabeth Garrett.

Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood member of the British Royal Family, daughter of King George V and Queen Mary

Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood was a member of the British royal family. She was the third child and only daughter of King George V and Queen Mary and was born during the reign of Queen Victoria, her great-grandmother. Mary was the paternal aunt of the current British monarch, Queen Elizabeth II. Her education started at home. World War I brought Mary out of seclusion as she launched a charity campaign to support British troops and sailors. She eventually became a nurse. Mary married Viscount Lascelles in 1922. She was an avid collector of jewellery.

House of Windsor

St Ninian's Chapel, Braemar - inscription commemorating the 2nd Duke of Connaught (1914-1943) Braemar, Mar Lodge Estate, St Ninian's Chapel - wall stone 01.JPG
St Ninian's Chapel, Braemar - inscription commemorating the 2nd Duke of Connaught (1914–1943)

Prince Alastair was born shortly after the First World War broke out, prompting strong anti-German feelings in the United Kingdom. George V eventually responded to this by changing the name of the Royal House from the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to the House of Windsor and relinquishing all German titles belonging to members of the family who were British subjects.

United Kingdom Country in Europe

The United Kingdom (UK), officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world. It is also the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.

George V King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India

George V was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936.

House of Windsor royal house of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms

The House of Windsor is the reigning royal house of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. The dynasty is originally of German paternal descent and was a branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, itself derived from the House of Wettin, which succeeded the House of Hanover to the British monarchy following the death of Queen Victoria, wife of Albert, Prince Consort.

British Royalty
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg
Victoria and Albert
Great-grandchildren
Prince Alastair of Connaught
Johann Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Princess Sibylla, Duchess of Västerbotten
Prince Hubertus of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Princess Caroline Mathilde, Countess of Castell-Rüdenhausen
Prince Friedrich Josias of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

In letters patent dated 20 November 1917, George V undertook further restructuring of the royal styles and titles by restricting the titles of Prince or Princess and the style of Royal Highness to the children of the sovereign, the children of the sovereign's sons, and the eldest living son of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales. This excluded Alastair, who was a great-grandson of a former sovereign but was not the eldest living son of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales. It further stated that all titles of "the grandchildren of the sons of any such Sovereign in the direct male line (save only the eldest living son of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales) shall have the style and title enjoyed by the children of Dukes." [3]

Letters patent type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order

Letters patent are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch, president, or other head of state, generally granting an office, right, monopoly, title, or status to a person or corporation. Letters patent can be used for the creation of corporations or government offices, or for the granting of city status or a coat of arms. Letters patent are issued for the appointment of representatives of the Crown, such as governors and governors-general of Commonwealth realms, as well as appointing a Royal Commission. In the United Kingdom they are also issued for the creation of peers of the realm. A particular form of letters patent has evolved into the modern patent granting exclusive rights in an invention. In this case it is essential that the written grant should be in the form of a public document so other inventors can consult it to avoid infringement and also to understand how to "practice" the invention, i.e., put it into practical use. In the Holy Roman Empire, Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, imperial patent was also the highest form of generally binding legal regulations, e. g. Patent of Toleration, Serfdom Patent etc.

Royal Highness is a style used to address or refer to some members of royal families, usually princes or princesses. Monarchs and their consorts are usually styled Majesty. When used as a direct form of address, spoken or written, it takes the form "Your Royal Highness". When used as a third-person reference, it is gender-specific and, in plural, Their Royal Highnesses (TRH).

Prince of Wales British Royal Family Title

Prince of Wales was a title granted to princes born in Wales from the 12th century onwards; the term replaced the use of the word king. One of the last Welsh princes, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, was killed in battle in 1282 by Edward I, King of England, whose son Edward was invested as the first English Prince of Wales in 1301.

Later life

Braemar, Mar Lodge Estate, St Ninian's Chapel - Grave of the 2nd Duke of Connaught (1914-1943) Braemar, Mar Lodge Estate, St Ninian's Chapel - floor slab 05.jpg
Braemar, Mar Lodge Estate, St Ninian's Chapel - Grave of the 2nd Duke of Connaught (1914–1943)

Lord Macduff received his education at Bryanston and at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. On 31 January 1935, he received a commission as a second lieutenant in the Royal Scots Greys (2nd Dragoons), his father's regiment, [4] which was based in Egypt from 1936. In 1939, Lord Macduff was promoted to lieutenant on 14 July, [5] and was assigned to Ottawa as aide-de-camp to his kinsman The Earl of Athlone, then Governor General of Canada; his own grandfather had held the same post during the First World War.

His father having died in 1938, Alastair succeeded his grandfather as Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, and Earl of Sussex, in 1942. [6] However, he died in 1943 at the age of 28 "on active service" in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, in unusual circumstances. The diaries of Sir Alan Lascelles, King George VI's private secretary, published in 2006, recorded that both the regiment and Athlone had rejected him as incompetent, [7] and he fell out of a window when drunk and perished of hypothermia overnight.[ citation needed ] Theo Aronson, in his biography of Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone, simply stated that the Duke "was found dead on the floor of his room at Rideau Hall on the morning of 26 April 1943. He had died, apparently, from hypothermia." [8] Marlene Eilers Koenig, who wrote about the Duke's mother in an article for Majesty magazine, noted that he was found lying "near an open window." [9] Newspapers at the time cited the cause of death as "natural causes." [10]

His ashes were interred at St Ninian's Chapel, Braemar, Scotland. [11]

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Coat of arms Arms of Alaistair, 2nd Duke of Connaught and Strathearn.svg
Coat of arms

Titles and styles

Until the age of three, he was styled as Prince Alastair of Connaught. However, in 1917, he lost the title of a British prince and the style of Highness. After that, he was known as the Earl of Macduff, this being the courtesy title he had as heir to his mother's Dukedom of Fife.

Arms

In 1942, on the inheritance of his paternal grandfather's dukedom, he was granted arms, being, quarterly, first and fourth his paternal grandfather's arms (being the royal arms, differenced with a three-point label argent, the first and third points bearing fleurs-de-lys azure, the second a cross gules), second and third his maternal grandfather's arms (quartering Fife and Duff).

Upon his death, the Dukedom of Connaught and Strathearn and the Earldom of Sussex became extinct. [14] His first cousin, James Carnegie (23 September 1929 – 22 June 2015), succeeded as 3rd Duke of Fife and Earl of Macduff upon Princess Alexandra's death on 26 February 1959.

Place in the line of succession

Alastair was born ninth in the line of succession, behind the six children of George V, his grandmother and his mother. When he died, he was 12th in the line of succession. His mother and he were the first two people in line behind the descendants of George V.

Ancestry

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References

  1. "Prince Alastair" . Beverley and East Riding Recorder. England. 5 September 1914. Retrieved 23 April 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  2. "Yvonne's Royalty Home Page — Royal Christenings". Archived from the original on 2011-08-27. Retrieved 2010-12-28.
  3. At that point, the three-year-old became known as Alastair Arthur Windsor, Earl of Macduff. Although second in line to the dukedom of Connaught and Strathearn and the earldom of Sussex at the time of his birth, as heir of his father who was the heir apparent, he was also the heir apparent to his mother's dukedom of Fife. Therefore, he used his mother's secondary peerage as a courtesy title.
  4. "No. 34129". The London Gazette. 1 February 1935. p. 772.
  5. "No. 34651". The London Gazette. 4 August 1931. p. 5396.
  6. 1 2 "Death of Duke of Connaught" . Aberdeen Press and Journal. Scotland. 17 January 1942. Retrieved 23 April 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  7. Lascelles, Alan; Hart-Davis, Duff (2006). King's counsellor: abdication and war: the diaries of Sir Alan Lascelles. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 39. ...the wretched young Duke of Connaught, whom his regiment (Greys) have had to get rid of, as he is wholly incompetent.
  8. Aronson, Theo (1981). Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone. London: Cassell. p. 211. ISBN   978-0304307579.
  9. Koenig, Marlene Eilers (2010-11-29). "Royal Musings: Princess Arthur of Connaught" . Retrieved 17 April 2018.
  10. "DEATH OF DUKE OF CONNAUGHT IN CANADA". The Argus (Melbourne) (30, 162). Victoria, Australia. 28 April 1943. p. 3. Retrieved 17 April 2018 via National Library of Australia.
  11. CWGC entry.
  12. "Talk of the Town" . Pall Mall Gazette. England. 28 August 1914. Retrieved 23 April 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  13. "The Earl of Macduff" . Aberdeen Press and Journal. Scotland. 10 July 1917. Retrieved 23 April 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
  14. "Dukedoms Pass" . The Sphere. England. 8 May 1943. Retrieved 23 April 2018 via British Newspaper Archive.
Alastair Windsor, 2nd Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
Cadet branch of the House of Wettin
Born: 9 August 1914 Died: 26 April 1943
Peerage of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
The Prince Arthur
Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
Earl of Sussex

1942–1943
Extinct