Sithu I of Pagan
|King of Burma|
|Reign||1112/13 – 1167|
|Born||17 January 1090 |
Thursday, full moon of Tabodwe 451 ME
|Died||1167 (aged 77) |
|Consort|| Yadanabon |
Ti Lawka Sanda Dewi
|Issue|| Min Shin Saw |
Alaungsithu or Sithu I (Burmese : အလောင်းစည်သူ [ʔəláʊɰ̃ sìðù] ; also Cansu I; 1090–1167) was king of Pagan Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from 1112/13 to 1167. Sithu's reign was a prosperous one in which Pagan was an integral part of in-land and maritime trading networks. Sithu engaged in a massive building campaign throughout the kingdom, which included colonies, forts and outposts at strategic locations to strengthen the frontiers, ordination halls and pagodas for the support of religion, as well as reservoirs, dams and other land improvements to assist the farmers. He also introduced standardized weights and measures throughout the country to assist administration as well as trade. He presided over the beginning of a transition away from the Mon culture toward the expression of a distinctive Burman style.
Sithu is remembered a peripatetic king who traveled extensively throughout his realm, built monuments and nurtured Theravada Buddhism with acts of piety.
Sithu was born Zeyathura Sithu (Burmese : ဇေယျ သူရ စည်သူ, Pali : Jayyasura Cansu) to Saw Yun (son of King Saw Lu) and Shwe Einthi (daughter of King Kyansittha) on 17 January 1090. (According to Zatadawbon Yazawin, he was born on 13 December 1089. ) The chronicles do not agree on the dates regarding his life and reign. The table below lists the dates given by the four main chronicles.
|Chronicles||Birth–Death||Age||Reign||Length of reign|
At Sithu's birth, Kyansittha, who thought that he had no son, was so delighted that he crowned the infant as king, and presented the baby to the people saying "Behold your king! Henceforth, I reign only as his regent."(It turned out that Kyansittha did have a son by a wife during one of his exiles in the 1070s. That son, Yazakumar, made no claims of the throne.)
Sithu faced no opposition to the throne after his grandfather, Kyanzittha, died in 1112. He was the great grandson of Anawrahta on his father's side.His coronation was presided by an aging Primate Shin Arahan who also presided the coronations of the two predecessor kings, and adviser to three previous kings. Upon ascending the throne, Sithu assumed the royal style Sri Tribhuwanaditya Pavarapandita Sudhammaraja Mahadhipati Narapatisithu.
The early part of Sithu's reign was spent repressing revolts, especially in Tenasserim and north Arakan. A Pali inscription found at Mergui (Myeik) is evidence that Tenasserim then paid allegiance to the Pagan monarchy. In north Arakan, a usurper (Kahton, lord of Thets) —a combined land and seaborne invasion—failed but the second attempt in 1118 succeeded. (The Arakanese chronicles report the date as 1103.) Letya Min Nan, in gratitude, repaired the Buddhagaya shrine in the honor of his overlord Sithu.had driven out the rightful heir, who fled to Pagan, where he subsequently died. Pagan's initial attempt to restore the rightful heir Letya Min Nan
Sithu traveled far and wide throughout his dominions, building many works of merit. These pious pilgrimages form the main theme of the chronicles of his reign. He reportedly sailed as far south as Malaya and Bengal in the west. Like his great-grandfather Anawrahta, he also traveled to Nanzhao Kingdom.There was apparently much disorder during his long absences from the capital.
The rulings given at his court, some of which by himself, once existed in a collection, the Alaungsithu Hpyatton.
Sithu's reign was a prosperous one in which Pagan was an integral part of in-land and maritime trading networks. Sithu engaged in a massive building campaign throughout the kingdom, which included colonies, forts and outposts at strategic locations to strengthen the frontiers, ordination halls and pagodas for the support of religion, as well as reservoirs, dams and other land improvements to assist the farmers. He also introduced standardized weights and measures throughout the country to assist administration as well as trade. The standardization provided an impetus for the monetization of Pagan's economy, the full impact of which however would not be felt until later in the 12th century.
The wealth funded the temple building boom that began in his grandfather's reign. However, a noticeable shift from the Mon architecture to a Burman-style architecture began. The temples built during his reign include the last examples of Mon architecture at Pagan as well as the earliest efforts to construct Burman-style temples, the most famous example of which is the Thatbyinnyu. 200 feet (61 m), it is the tallest of all the Pagan monuments. He also built the Shwegugyi Temple, next to the palace.Consecrated in 1144, the temple stands about 500 yards from the Ananda Temple, and with its spire rising to a height of over
His eldest son Min Shin Saw was the heir-apparent for most of Sithu's reign. In the 1060s, the king banished Min Shin Saw for the latter's ill treatment of people. Having sent Min Shin Saw a small town about 90 miles north of Pagan, Sithu then appointed the second son Narathu as heir apparent.
In 1167, Sithu fell ill. Narathu, who could not wait to be king, moved the king from the palace to the nearby Shwegugyi Temple. When he regained consciousness, Sithu was furious that he had been set aside. Narathu came in and smothered the king with bedclothes.
Sithu is posthumously remembered in Burmese history as Alaungsithu (lit. Sithu the Maitreya Buddha ) for his numerous pious deeds. The devout Buddhist king was also inducted into the pantheon of Burmese animist nats as Min Sithu. (All but one of the nat sprits in the pantheon were murdered.)
Anawrahta Minsaw was the founder of the Pagan Empire. Considered the father of the Burmese nation, Anawrahta turned a small principality in the dry zone of Upper Burma into the first Burmese Empire that formed the basis of modern-day Burma (Myanmar). Historically verifiable Burmese history begins with his accession to the Pagan throne in 1044.
The Shwegugyi Temple is a Theravada Buddhist temple in Bagan, Myanmar. The temple is recognized as Monument #1589 in the Bagan Archeological Area, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Saw Lu was king of Pagan dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from 1077 to 1084. He inherited from his father Anawrahta the Pagan Empire, the first ever unified kingdom of Burma (Myanmar) but proved an inexperienced ruler. In 1082, he faced a rebellion in Lower Burma, and was captured c. April 1083. He was later killed in captivity about a year later.
Narathu was king of Pagan dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from 1167 to 1171. Narahthu ascended the throne after murdering his father King Alaungsithu and his elder brother Min Shin Saw. Narathu built the largest of all the Pagan temples, the Dhammayangyi. Nonetheless, his conduct greatly lowered the prestige of the dynasty, and he was deeply disfavored. The king was assassinated by the mercenaries sent by the chief of Pateikkaya in 1171.
Narapati Sithu was king of Pagan dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from 1174 to 1211. He is considered the last important king of Pagan. His peaceful and prosperous reign gave rise to Burmese culture which finally emerged from the shadows of Mon and Pyu cultures. The Burman leadership of the kingdom was now unquestioned. The Pagan Empire reached its peak during his reign, and would decline gradually after his death.
Kyansittha was king of Pagan dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from 1084 to 1112/13, and is considered one of the greatest Burmese monarchs. He continued the social, economic and cultural reforms begun by his father, King Anawrahta. Pagan became an internationally recognized power during his 28-year reign. The Burmese language and culture continued to gain ground.
Naratheinkha was king of Pagan dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from 1171 to 1174. He appointed his brother Narapati Sithu heir apparent and commander-in-chief. It was the first recorded instance in the history of the dynasty that the king had given up the command of the army. The king was assassinated by Aungzwa, one of Sithu's servants, after the king had raised one of Sithu's wives to queen.
Htilominlo was king of Pagan dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from 1211 to 1235. His 24-year reign marked the beginning of the gradual decline of Pagan dynasty. It was the first to see the impact of over a century of continuous growth of tax-free religious wealth, which had greatly reduced the potential tax base. Htilominlo was the last of the temple builders although most of his temples were in remote lands not in the Pagan region, reflecting the deteriorating state of royal treasury.
Kyaswa was king of Pagan dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from 1235 to 1251. Kyaswa succeeded his father Htilominlo and was even more devout. Kyaswa's reign like his father's was largely peaceful but the depletion of the royal treasury due to large tax-free religious landholdings became more pronounced. The royal treasury was so depleted that Kyaswa had trouble completing a temple. The empire founded by Anawrahta over two centuries earlier was still peaceful but already on its last legs, unprepared for the internal disorders and external forces that were to come.
Uzana was king of Pagan dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from 1251 to 1256. He assumed the regnal name "Śrī Tribhuvanāditya Dhammarājajayasūra" (ၐြီတြိဘုဝနာဒိတျဓမ္မရာဇဇယသူရ).
Sokkate was king of Pagan dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from 1038 to 1044. The king lost his life in a single combat with Anawrahta, who succeeded him and went on to found the Pagan Empire.
Narathu of Pinya was king of Pinya from 1359 to 1364. He controlled only around the capital region, and unsuccessfully tried to stop the Mong Mao (Maw) Shan raids of Central Myanmar (Burma) that began in 1359. He reversed his predecessor Kyawswa II's policy of alliance with Sagaing, and later entered into an alliance with Mong Mao as a junior partner to dismember Sagaing. But the policy backfired when Mong Mao forces proceeded to sack Pinya in May 1364. He was brought back to the Shan country, and is remembered as Maw-Pa Min.
Thihathu of Prome, or Sihasura, was viceroy of Prome (Pyay) from 1275 to 1288. He is known in Burmese history for assassinating his own father King Narathihapate, the last sovereign king of the Pagan Empire, in 1287. He was the maternal grandfather of King Swa Saw Ke of Ava.
The Pinya Kingdom was the kingdom that ruled Central Myanmar (Burma) from 1313 to 1365. It was the successor state of Myinsaing, the polity that controlled much of Upper Burma between 1297 and 1313. Founded as the de jure successor state of the Pagan Empire by Thihathu, Pinya faced internal divisions from the start. The northern province of Sagaing led by Thihathu's eldest son Saw Yun successfully fought for autonomy in 1315−17, and formally seceded in 1325 after Thihathu's death.
Min Shin Saw was heir-apparent of the Pagan Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from c. 1117 to 1151. His father King Sithu I sent the crown prince into exile to present-day Ava (Inwa) where the prince subsequently turned into a highly cultivated region. After Sithu was assassinated in 1167, Min Shin Saw returned to Pagan to claim the throne. There, he was consecrated king but later that night, was assassinated by Narathu, his younger brother and the assassin of their father.
Manisanda Khin U was queen to three consecutive kings of Pagan dynasty of Burma (Myanmar). The ethnic Mon queen is famous in Burmese history for her love triangle with Gen. Kyansittha and King Anawrahta. Their story has been compared to the legend of King Arthur, Lancelot and Guinevere.
The Venerable Shin Panthagu was primate of Pagan Kingdom from 1115 to 1168. The Theravada Buddhist monk, son of the lord of Seinnyet, succeeded his teacher Shin Arahan as primate. For the next five decades, he was the chief religious adviser to King Alaungsithu, and helped advise many of Alaungsithu's religious deeds. The notable works were the repairs of the Buddhagaya Temple circa 1118, and the buildings of the Thatbyinnyu Temple, and the Shwegugyi Temple.
Yadanabon was the first chief queen consort of King Sithu I of Pagan Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar). The queen was the mother of Crown Prince Min Shin Saw. She was still alive in 1151/52 when she successfully persuaded her husband to change the prison sentence for Min Shin Saw to an exile. The queen apparently did not outlive her husband; according to the royal chronicles, she was succeeded as chief queen (Usaukpan) by Ti Lawka Sanda Dewi.
Ananda Thuriya was a senior minister to kings Sithu I, Narathu and Naratheinkha of the Pagan Dynasty of Myanmar. He is best remembered in Burmese history for the poem he wrote for King Sithu II, just a few minutes before his execution, titled The Law of Nature. The extant poem, likely a result of a 14th-century update, is considered to be the first known instance of poetry in Burmese as well as monarchical criticism.
AlaungsithuBorn: 17 January 1090 Died: 1167
| King of Burma |
| Heir to the Burmese Throne |
Min Shin Saw