Albany, Western Australia

Last updated

Albany
Kinjarling
Western Australia
York Street Albany.jpg
York Street in Albany
Australia Western Australia location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Albany
Coordinates 35°01′22″S117°52′53″E / 35.022778°S 117.881389°E / -35.022778; 117.881389 (Albany) Coordinates: 35°01′22″S117°52′53″E / 35.022778°S 117.881389°E / -35.022778; 117.881389 (Albany) OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
Population29,373 (UCL 2016) [1]
Established26 December 1826
Postcode(s) 6330
Area297.2 km2 (114.7 sq mi) [2] (2011 urban)
Time zone AWST (UTC+8)
Location
LGA(s) City of Albany
State electorate(s) Albany
Federal division(s) O'Connor
Mean max tempMean min tempAnnual rainfall
19.5 °C
67 °F
11.7 °C
53 °F
929.6 mm
36.6 in
Albany Entertainment Centre, opened December 2010. Albany Entertainment Centre 2011 SMC.jpg
Albany Entertainment Centre, opened December 2010.
Port of Albany Port of Albany.jpg
Port of Albany
Albany, 1874 by Sir Whately Eliot Albany Australia 1874.jpg
Albany, 1874 by Sir Whately Eliot
York Street in the centre of Albany York Street Albany WA.jpg
York Street in the centre of Albany
Saint Joseph Catholic Church in Albany St Joseph Albany 2.JPG
Saint Joseph Catholic Church in Albany

Albany ( /ˈælbəni/ AL-bən-ee; Nyungar : Kinjarling) is a port city in the Great Southern region in the Australian state of Western Australia, 418 kilometres (260 mi) southeast of Perth, the state capital. The city centre is at the northern edge of Princess Royal Harbour, which is a part of King George Sound. The central business district is bounded by Mount Clarence to the east and Mount Melville to the west. The city is in the local government area of the City of Albany. While it is the oldest colonial, although not European, [lower-alpha 1] settlement in Western Australia [lower-alpha 2] - predating Perth and Fremantle by over two years - it was a semi-exclave of New South Wales for over four years until it was made part of the Swan River Colony.

Contents

The settlement was founded on 26 December 1826 as a military outpost of New South Wales for the purpose of forestalling French ambitions in the region. [3] :61 To that end, on 21 January 1827, the commander of the outpost, Major Edmund Lockyer, formally took possession for the British Crown of the portion of New Holland not yet claimed by the British Crown; [lower-alpha 3] that is, the portion west of the 129th meridian east, with the portion east already being claimed collectively by the British Crown as New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land. [4] During the last decade of the 19th century, the town served as a gateway to the Eastern Goldfields. For many years, it was the colony's only deep-water port, having a place of eminence on shipping services between Britain and its Australian colonies. The opening of the Fremantle Inner Harbour in 1897, [5] :51–55 however, saw its importance as a port decline, after which the town's industries turned primarily to agriculture, timber and later, whaling.

Contemporary Albany is the southern terminus for tourism in the region, and the state's south west, [6] which is known for its natural environment and preservation of its heritage. The town has a role in the ANZAC legend, being the last port of call for troopships departing Australia in the First World War. On 1 November 2014, the Australian and New Zealand Prime Ministers opened the National Anzac Centre in Mount Clarence, Albany, to commemorate 100 years since the first ANZAC troops departed from King George Sound. Approximately 40,000 people attended the commemoration events held between 30 October and 2 November 2014. [7]

An auxiliary submarine base for the US Navy's 7th Fleet was developed during the Second World War in the event the submarine base at Fremantle was lost. Also in the harbour was a Royal Australian Navy naval installation which provided for refuelling from four 5,100-tonne (5,000-long-ton) fuel tanks. [8] :26

Etymology

Upon its establishment in 1826, the settlement was named Frederick Town in honour of Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. [9] [10] [11] In 1831, the settlement was transferred to the control of the Swan River Colony and renamed Albany by Lieutenant-Governor James Stirling. [12] :55–115

The name of the area in the Nyungar language of the Menang people is Kinjarling, which has been said to mean "place of plenty" and "place of rain". [13] [14] In 2020, the City of Albany began, as part of an official dual-naming project, to give prominence to “Kinjarling” as the city's Aboriginal name. [13]

Early history

Kinjarling was home to Menang Noongar tribes during the summer season. [15] Early British explorers recorded evidence of fish traps located on Emu Point and on the French, now the Kalgan, River. Vancouver made attempts to find the inhabitants of the area but only found bark dwellings that were unoccupied. Later explorers made contact and were told to leave, but were accepted when they did not. Most of the British exploration was undertaken to survey the land and sea to assess the profitability of resources. The explorers occasionally noted encounters with Noongars. Native treatment laws and programs have affected the tribes since settlement.

Heritage buildings

There are a number of heritage buildings in Albany; see List of heritage places in the City of Albany and Category:Heritage places in Albany, Western Australia. These include:

Some of the above information is derived from the State Heritage Register [17] where these places are registered. The assessment criteria contain more details.

Population

In June 2018, the urban population of Albany was 34,205 [18] making it the state's sixth-largest population centre. [19]

Geography

Ellen Cove, Middleton Beach, Albany Ellencove.JPG
Ellen Cove, Middleton Beach, Albany

The city centre of Albany is located between the hills of Mount Melville and Mount Clarence, which look down into Princess Royal Harbour. Many beaches surround Albany, with Middleton Beach being the closest to the town centre. Other popular beaches include Frenchman Bay and Muttonbird Island.

Albany is 418 km (260 mi) SSE of the state capital, Perth, to which it is linked by Albany Highway.

Wine region

Albany is a sub-region of the Great Southern region of Western Australia. [21]

Coastline

King George Sound, painted in 1803 by William Westall King George Sound (WA) Westall.jpg
King George Sound, painted in 1803 by William Westall
View of Lake Seppings from Mount Clarence Lakeseppingmtclarence.jpg
View of Lake Seppings from Mount Clarence
Emu Point Boat pens and ramp Emu Point, Albany WA (3099307661).jpg
Emu Point Boat pens and ramp

The Albany coastline is notorious for deaths due to king waves washing people off rocks. The Torndirrup National Park features some of the more rugged coastline in the area. However, there are many beaches that are safe and usable.

Betty's Beach was named after Betty Jones, who used to go camping there with her family, and was initially called Betty's Bay. [22]

Frenchman Bay Beach is adjacent to the Torndirrup National Park, and was originally called Quarantine Bay, owing to the quarantine station set up by the British in 1826 on Mistaken Island at the northern end of Goode Beach [23]

Beach on the southern eastern side of Vancouver Peninsula Beach on the southern eastern side of Vancouver Peninsula.jpg
Beach on the southern eastern side of Vancouver Peninsula

Misery Beach, located 20 km (12 mi) south of Albany, was so named owing to the location of the whaling station at Albany that operated until 1978, causing offal to be washed ashore at Misery Beach and its sand and waters to be stained red. However, the beach was named Tourism Australia Best Beach 2022 by Tourism Australia, described a "[ticking] all the boxes of what the typical beachgoer is looking for — uncrowded, crystal-white sand, turquoise waters and a very dramatic granite backdrop". [24]

Other beaches include:

Climate

Albany has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csb) with dry, warm summers, mild, wet winters, and pleasant springs and autumns. [25] :5 Summers have short spells of very hot weather, but cool ocean breeze brings relief, especially during evenings and nights. The city is situated on what is promoted as the "Rainbow Coast", an appropriate title given the frequency of days with both sun and drizzle or showers. Albany has 44.8 clear days annually.

July is the wettest month, with a long-term average of 144.0 mm (5.67 in). Rain in excess of 0.2 mm (0.01 in) occurs on two days out of every three during an average winter. The driest month is February with a mean of 22.9 mm (0.90 in).

Albany received a record amount of rain on 20 November 2008 when violent storms swept across the Great Southern region. The town was flooded after 113.8 mm (4.48 in) of rain fell in a 24-hour period, the highest amount recorded since rainfall records began in 1877. [26] The wettest month on record was June 1920 when 292.8 mm (11.5 in) fell, while February 1877 and February 1879 remain the only rainless months.

Climate data for Albany Airport
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)45.6
(114.1)
44.2
(111.6)
41.2
(106.2)
38.8
(101.8)
32.6
(90.7)
24.8
(76.6)
22.5
(72.5)
26.2
(79.2)
27.9
(82.2)
33.6
(92.5)
39.2
(102.6)
42.8
(109.0)
45.6
(114.1)
Average high °C (°F)24.8
(76.6)
24.9
(76.8)
24.1
(75.4)
21.9
(71.4)
19.0
(66.2)
16.7
(62.1)
15.8
(60.4)
16.2
(61.2)
17.3
(63.1)
18.8
(65.8)
20.9
(69.6)
23.1
(73.6)
20.3
(68.5)
Average low °C (°F)13.7
(56.7)
14.5
(58.1)
13.4
(56.1)
11.7
(53.1)
9.8
(49.6)
8.1
(46.6)
7.5
(45.5)
7.5
(45.5)
8.1
(46.6)
9.2
(48.6)
10.8
(51.4)
12.5
(54.5)
10.6
(51.1)
Record low °C (°F)4.8
(40.6)
5.1
(41.2)
4.3
(39.7)
3.2
(37.8)
1.9
(35.4)
0.0
(32.0)
−0.2
(31.6)
0.8
(33.4)
0.7
(33.3)
1.0
(33.8)
2.7
(36.9)
3.6
(38.5)
−0.2
(31.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)23.6
(0.93)
22.3
(0.88)
33.6
(1.32)
61.3
(2.41)
89.8
(3.54)
108.0
(4.25)
119.3
(4.70)
106.8
(4.20)
88.5
(3.48)
70.8
(2.79)
47.0
(1.85)
27.8
(1.09)
798.1
(31.42)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1mm)2.82.64.06.38.29.911.110.99.98.05.73.783.1
Average relative humidity (%)69697176787979777575737074
Average dew point °C (°F)13
(55)
13
(55)
12
(54)
12
(54)
10
(50)
8
(46)
8
(46)
8
(46)
8
(46)
10
(50)
11
(52)
12
(54)
10
(51)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 251.1209.1204.6186.0167.4153.0170.5189.1189.0210.8222.0244.92,397.5
Source 1: Bureau of Meteorology [27]
Source 2: Time and Date (humidity and dew point) [28]

Industry

Sperm whale remains at the Albany Whaling Station in July 1977, the year before its closure 1977.07,08- 8 -42,43aS Sperm whale,whaling Albany,Western Australia,AU sat23-tue26jul1977.jpg
Sperm whale remains at the Albany Whaling Station in July 1977, the year before its closure
Wind farm at Albany Albany Wind Farm, Western Australia.jpg
Wind farm at Albany
Dog Rock (2006) Dog Rock Albany.jpg
Dog Rock (2006)
Princess Royal Harbour panorama

Albany's main industries are tourism, fishing, timber (wood chips) and agriculture. From 1952 to 1978 whaling was a major source of income and employment for the local population.

The Whaling Station, which closed operations in 1978, has been converted to a museum of whaling and features one of the 'Cheynes' whale chasers that were used for whaling in Albany. The station was the last operating whaling station in the southern hemisphere and the English-speaking world at the time of closure. [29]

The Western Power Wind Farm is located at Sand Patch, to the west of Albany. The wind farm, originally commissioned in 2001 with 12 turbines, now has 18 turbines, driven by strong southerly winds, and can generate up to 80% [30] of the city's electricity usage. [31]

Albany has a number of historical sites including the Museum, Albany Convict Gaol, The Princess Royal Fortress (commonly known as The Forts) and Patrick Taylor Cottage, one of the oldest dwellings in Western Australia, c.1832. [32] Albany has a great deal of historical significance to Western Australia.

Natural sights along the rugged coastline include the 'Natural Bridge' and the 'Gap'. The beaches have pristine white sand. The destroyer HMAS Perth was sunk in King George Sound in 2001 as a dive wreck. [33] Albany is also close to two low mountain ranges, the Porongurups and Stirling Ranges.

Albany is the southern terminus of the Bibbulmun Track walking trail. [34]

Albany is the southern terminus of the Munda Biddi Trail off-road cycling trail. [35]

Albany is home to HMAS Albany (based in Darwin) and the adopted home port of the Royal Australian Navy frigate HMAS Anzac. Albany is frequently visited by other warships.

Transport

Albany has a city bus service run by Swan Transit with five town routes. Albany is connected to Perth with road-coach services via Walpole and Bunbury; via Katanning and Northam; via Kojonup and Williams. Transwa coaches also serve Jerramungup, Ravensthorpe and Hopetoun. [36]

Regional Express Airlines, a national independent regional airline, provides 23 services a week between Perth and Albany Airport using 34-passenger turboprop Saab 340 aircraft. [37] [38]

Albany was served by the Albany Progress passenger train from Perth until 1978. The railway station reopened as a tourist information centre in 1994. [39]

Media

Albany radio stations include 783 Triple M (formerly 6VA and RadioWest), GOLD MX, Rete Italia, Vision FM, Fly FM Albany, HitFM (formerly HOT FM), ABC South Coast, ABC News, ABC Radio National, ABC Classic FM, Triple J, Racing Radio & Great Southern FM.

Below is a table showing the broadcast frequencies on which these services can be received.

ServiceBroadcast frequency
ABC Local Radio630 kHz AM
783 Triple M783 kHz AM
GOLD MX1611 kHz AM
Rete Italia1629 kHz AM
Vision FM (Local)87.6 MHz FM
Fly FM88.0 MHz FM
ABC News92.1 MHz FM
Triple J92.9 MHz FM
Vision FM93.7 MHz FM
ABC Classic FM94.5 MHz FM
HitFM95.3 MHz FM
ABC Radio National96.9 MHz FM
Great Southern FM100.9 MHz FM
Racing Radio104.9 MHz FM
HitFM (Local)106.5 MHz FM

Localised television stations available in Albany include GWN7, WIN Television Western Australia, West Digital Television, SBS and ABC Television Western Australia. GWN7 broadcasts a half-hour news program for regional WA, GWN7 News, at 5:30pm on weeknights with a district newsroom covering Albany and surrounding areas based in the city.

Below is a table showing the full suite of digital television services available in Albany. These services are broadcast from Mount Clarence and cover the majority of the geographic area with some areas requiring a signal to be received from the Southern Agricultural site at Mount Barker. Both these transmission sites employ vertical polarity. Furthermore, a number of residents rely on receiving these services via satellite using the Viewer Access Satellite Television system.

LCNChannel nameBroadcast ch. no.Broadcast frequency
2ABC TVUHF 43634.5 MHz
3SBS TVUHF 41620.625 MHz
510 HDUHF 44641.5 MHz
6GWN7UHF 45648.5 MHz
8Channel 9UHF 42627.5 MHz
20ABC HDUHF 43634.5 MHz
21ABC TVUHF 43634.5 MHz
22ABC TV Plus/KIDSUHF 43634.5 MHz
23ABC MEUHF 43634.5 MHz
24ABC NEWSUHF 43634.5 MHz
30SBS HDUHF 41620.625 MHz
31SBS VICELANDUHF 41620.625 MHz
32SBS WORLD MOVIESUHF 41620.625 MHz
33SBS FOODUHF 41620.625 MHz
34NITVUHF 41620.625 MHz
5010 BOLDUHF 44641.5 MHz
5510 PeachUHF 44641.5 MHz
627TWOUHF 45648.5 MHz
637mateUHF 45648.5 MHz
65ishop TVUHF 45648.5 MHz
68RACING.COMUHF 45648.5 MHz
809HDUHF 42627.5 MHz
829GemUHF 42627.5 MHz
839Go!UHF 42627.5 MHz
84TVSNUHF 42627.5 MHz
859LifeUHF 42627.5 MHz

Local newspapers are the Albany Advertiser (established 1888) and The Extra (owned by Seven West Media Limited, publishers of The West Australian), and The Great Southern Weekender (independently owned by Beaconwood Holdings Pty Ltd). The Great Southern Weekender also owns local radio stations GOLD MX and Fly FM.

Sport

Two of Albany's major sports facilities are Collingwood Park Stadium in Collingwood Park and Centennial Oval in Centennial Park. [40] Collingwood Park is home to North Albany Football Club [40] while Centennial Oval is home to Royals Football Club. [41]

Albany Leisure and Aquatic Centre is the home of Albany Basketball Association. [42] The Rainbow Coast Raiders of the State Basketball League played at the Albany Sports Centre (33 Barker Road) between 1989 and 1999. [43] 33 Barker Road is now the home of Albany Indoor Beach Volleyball. [44]

Education

There are currently several primary schools, eight high schools and one university campus in the Albany area.

Albany Senior High School AlbanySHS2.jpg
Albany Senior High School
Great Southern Grammar Gym GSGgym.jpg
Great Southern Grammar Gym
Albany UWA Centre 2006 Albany UWA Centre.jpg
Albany UWA Centre 2006

Primary schools

High schools

Universities

TAFE

Localities

Notable residents

See also

Notes

  1. The Wiebbe Hayes Stone Fort on West Wallabi Island is the oldest surviving European building in Australia. [lower-alpha 4] :37 It was built by survivors of the Batavia shipwreck and massacre in 1629, predating Frederick Town by 197 years and indeed James Cook's first visit to Australia by 141 years. Frederick Town became Albany in 1831 upon becoming a part of the Swan River Colony.
  2. Frederick Town became a part of the Swan River Colony in 1831, in contrast to Perth which was founded on 12 August 1829 as the administrative centre of the Swan River Colony. The Swan River Colony became the Colony of Western Australia[ citation needed ] on 6 February 1832, which in turn became the state of Western Australia upon federation on 1 January 1901.
  3. Every one of these claims by the British Crown was in competition to claims, possession and occupancy by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples that predate the claims by the British Crown by tens of millennia.
  4. Michael Pearson (2005). Margaret Cresswell (ed.). Great Southern Land: The Maritime Exploration of Terra Australis (PDF). Canberra: Department of the Environment and Heritage. ISBN   0-642-55185-5. OCLC   67617194. OL   26818732M. Wikidata   Q110529184 . Retrieved 12 January 2022.

Related Research Articles

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Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia. It is the fourth most populous city in Australia and Oceania, with a population of 2.1 million living in Greater Perth in 2020. Perth is part of the South West Land Division of Western Australia, with most of the metropolitan area on the Swan Coastal Plain between the Indian Ocean and the Darling Scarp. The city has expanded outward from the original British settlements on the Swan River, upon which the city's central business district and port of Fremantle are situated. Perth is located on the traditional lands of the Whadjuk Noongar people, where Aboriginal Australians have lived for at least 45,000 years.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Western Australia</span> State of Australia

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fremantle</span> Port city in Western Australia

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mandurah</span> City in Western Australia

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Albany Highway</span> Highway in Western Australia

Albany Highway links Western Australia's capital city Perth with its oldest settlement, Albany, on the state's south coast. The 405-kilometre-long (252 mi) highway travels through the southern Wheatbelt and Great Southern regions, and is designated State Route 30 for most of its length. Outside of Perth the highway is predominately a sealed, single carriageway with regular overtaking lanes in some undulating areas. Albany Highway commences at The Causeway, a river crossing that connects to Perth's central business district. The highway heads south-east through Perth's metropolitan region, bypassed in part by Shepperton Road and Kenwick Link, and continues south-eastwards through to Albany. It intersects several major roads in Perth, including the Leach, Tonkin, Brookton, and South Western highways. The rural section of Albany Highway connects to important regional roads at the few towns and roadhouses along the route, including Coalfields Highway at Arthur River, Great Southern Highway at Cranbrook, and Muirs Highway at Mount Barker.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mount Barker, Western Australia</span> Town in Western Australia

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">King George Sound (Western Australia)</span> Large body of water in southern Western Australia

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The Western Australian 175th Anniversary of European settlement was celebrated in 2004.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">The Causeway</span> Road bridge in Perth, Western Australia

The Causeway is an arterial traffic crossing in Perth, Western Australia, linking the inner-city suburbs of East Perth and Victoria Park. It is carried over the Swan River at the eastern end of Perth Water by two bridges on either side of Heirisson Island. The current Causeway is the third structure to have been built across the river at this point.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Round House (Western Australia)</span> Former gaol in Fremantle, Western Australia

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Whaling in Western Australia</span>

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Economy of Western Australia</span> Overview of the economy of Western Australia

The Western Australian economy is a state economy dominated by its resources and services sector and largely driven by the export of iron-ore, gold, liquefied natural gas and agricultural commodities such as wheat. Covering an area of 2.5 million km2, the state is Australia's largest, accounting for almost one-third of the continent. Western Australia is the nation's fourth most populous state, with 2.6 million inhabitants.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">East Fremantle, Western Australia</span> Suburb of Perth, Western Australia

East Fremantle is a suburb of Perth, Western Australia, located 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) south-west of the central business district. The suburb is mainly residential, and is coterminous with the Town of East Fremantle local government area.

Transport in Perth, Western Australia, is served by various means, among them an extensive highway / freeway network and a substantial system of commuter rail lines and bus routes. Public transport is managed by the Transperth agency.

Henry Willey Reveley (1788–1875) was a civil engineer responsible for the earliest public works at the Swan River Colony, the foundation of the state of Western Australia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of Albany, Western Australia</span>

The coastline of the Albany area was observed by Europeans for the first time in 1627 by the Dutchman François Thijssen, captain of the ship 't Gulden Zeepaert, who sailed to the east as far as Ceduna in South Australia and back. Captain Thijssen had discovered the south coast of Australia and charted about 1,768 kilometres (1,099 mi) of it between Cape Leeuwin and the Nuyts Archipelago.

References

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  2. "2011 Census Community Profiles: Albany". ABS Census. Australian Bureau of Statistics . Retrieved 15 September 2016.
  3. Battye, James Sykes (2005) [First published 1924]. Western Australia: A History from its Discovery to the Inauguration of the Commonwealth. Oxford: Clarendon Press. OCLC   4362013 . Retrieved 24 September 2021 via Project Gutenberg of Australia.
  4. "King George's Sound Settlement". State Records. State Records Authority of New South Wales. Archived from the original on 24 June 2014. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  5. Hutchison, David (2006). Fremantle Walks. Fremantle: Fremantle Arts Centre Press. ISBN   1921064307. OCLC   86110696.
  6. "Destination Albany" . Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  7. "Anzac Albany | National Anzac Centre". www.nationalanzaccentre.com.au. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  8. Commander Seventh Fleet (15 September 1944). Base Facilities Report (Report). United States Navy. Retrieved 26 September 2021.
  9. Nind, Isaac Scott (7 February 1828). "View of Frederick Town, King Georges Sound, at the expiration of the first year of its settlement" (pdf). Manuscripts, Oral History and Pictures. State Library of New South Wales . Retrieved 12 May 2014.
  10. Nind, Isaac Scott (1832). "Description of the Natives of King George's Sound (Swan River Colony) and Adjoining Country". The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London. 1: 21–51. doi:10.2307/1797657. JSTOR   1797657 . Retrieved 12 May 2014.
  11. Wilson, Thomas Braidwood (1835). "Formation of the Settlement at King George's Sound". Narrative of a Voyage Round the World. London: Sherwood Gilbert & Piper. p. 281. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
  12. West, Dunstan Arthur Percival (2004) [1976]. The Settlement on the Sound – Discovery and settlement of the Albany Region 1791–1831. Perth: Western Australian Museum. OCLC   4466596.
  13. 1 2 Dobson, John (3 July 2020). "Albany, WA's oldest colonial settlement, to officially adopt joint Noongar names". ABC Great Southern . Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  14. Goode, Brad (2013). Council Report 'Kinjarling' The Place of Rain:The City of Albany & Department of Indigenous Affairs Aboriginal Heritage Survey. Albany, WA: City of Albany. Retrieved 4 July 2020.
  15. "Albany History Gallery: Albany History Gallery & Meaning of Town Names ending in UP". Kalgan Queen Riverboat, Cruise Tour and Albany Horse-drawn wagon tours. Archived from the original on 24 January 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2021.
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Bibliography

Wikisource