Albany, Western Australia

Last updated

Albany
Kinjarling

Western Australia
York Street Albany.jpg
York Street in Albany
Australia Western Australia location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Albany
Kinjarling
Coordinates 35°01′22″S117°52′53″E / 35.02278°S 117.88139°E / -35.02278; 117.88139 Coordinates: 35°01′22″S117°52′53″E / 35.02278°S 117.88139°E / -35.02278; 117.88139
Population34,205 (2018) [1]  (43rd)
 • Density115.091/km2 (298.08/sq mi)
Established26 December 1826
Postcode(s) 6330
Area297.2 km2 (114.7 sq mi) [2] (2011 urban)
Time zone AWST (UTC+8)
Location
LGA(s) City of Albany
State electorate(s) Albany
Federal Division(s) O'Connor
Mean max tempMean min tempAnnual rainfall
19.5 °C
67 °F
11.7 °C
53 °F
929.6 mm
36.6 in
Albany Entertainment Centre, opened December 2010. Albany Entertainment Centre 2011 SMC.jpg
Albany Entertainment Centre, opened December 2010.
Port of Albany Port of Albany.jpg
Port of Albany
Albany, 1874 by Sir Whately Eliot Albany Australia 1874.jpg
Albany, 1874 by Sir Whately Eliot
York Street in the centre of Albany York Street Albany WA.jpg
York Street in the centre of Albany
Saint Joseph Catholic Church in Albany St Joseph Albany 2.JPG
Saint Joseph Catholic Church in Albany

Albany /ˈælbəni/ (Nyungar : Kinjarling) is a port city in the Great Southern region in the Australian state of Western Australia, 418 kilometres (260 mi) southeast of Perth, the state capital. The city centre is at the northern edge of Princess Royal Harbour, which is a part of King George Sound. The central business district is bounded by Mount Clarence to the east and Mount Melville to the west. The city is in the local government area of the City of Albany. It is the oldest colonial settlement in Western Australia, predating Perth and Fremantle by over two years.

Contents

The Albany settlement was founded on 26 December 1826, [3] as a military outpost of New South Wales as part of a plan to forestall French ambitions in the region. To that end, on 21 January 1827, the commander of the outpost, Major Edmund Lockyer, formally took possession of the western third of the continent for the British Crown. [4] During the last decade of the 19th century the town served as a gateway to the Eastern Goldfields. For many years, it was the colony's only deep-water port, having a place of eminence on shipping services between Britain and its Australian colonies. The opening of the Fremantle Inner Harbour in 1897, [5] however, saw its importance as a port decline, after which the town's industries turned primarily to agriculture, timber and later, whaling.

Contemporary Albany is the southern terminus for tourism in the region, and the state's South West, [6] which is known for its natural environment and preservation of its heritage. The town has a role in the ANZAC legend, being the last port of call for troopships departing Australia in the First World War. On 1 November 2014 the Australian and New Zealand Prime Ministers opened the National Anzac Centre in Mount Clarence, Albany, to commemorate 100 years since the first ANZAC troops departed from King George Sound. Approximately 40,000 people attended the commemoration events held between 30 October and 2 November 2014. [7] Also an auxiliary submarine base for the US Navy's 7th Fleet was developed during the Second World War in the event the submarine base at Fremantle was lost. Also in the harbour was an RAN Naval Installation which provided for alongside refuelling from four 5000 ton fuel tanks. [8]

Etymology

Upon its establishment in 1826, the Albany settlement was named Frederick Town in honour of Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. [9] [10] [11] In 1831, the settlement was transferred to the control of the Swan River Colony and renamed Albany by Lieutenant-Governor James Stirling. [12]

The name of the area in the Nyungar language of the local indigenous Menang people is Kinjarling, which has been said to mean "place of plenty" and "place of rain". [13] [14] In 2020, the City of Albany began, as part of an official dual-naming project, to give prominence to Kinjarling as the city's indigenous name. [13]

Early history

Kinjarling was home to Menang Noongar indigenous tribes during the summer season. The Menang people would sometimes camp near "Boondie Yokine" – roughly translated as Dog Rock. [15]

Early European explorers discovered evidence of fish traps located on Emu Point and on the French, now the Kalgan, River. Vancouver made attempts to find the inhabitants of the area but only found bark dwellings that were unoccupied. Later explorers made contact and were told to leave, but were accepted when they did not. Most of the exploration was made to survey the land and sea and assess the resources for further exploitation. The explorers only occasionally noted the Noongars they encountered. Native treatment laws and programs have affected the tribes since settlement.

Heritage buildings

There are a number of heritage buildings in Albany; see List of heritage places in the City of Albany and Category:Heritage places in Albany, Western Australia. These include:

Some of the above information is derived from the State Heritage Register [17] where these places are registered. The assessment criteria contain more details.

Population

In June 2018, the urban population of Albany was 34,205 [1] making it the state's sixth-largest population centre. [18]

Geography

Ellen Cove, Middleton Beach, Albany Ellencove.JPG
Ellen Cove, Middleton Beach, Albany

The city centre of Albany is located between the hills of Mount Melville and Mount Clarence, which look down into Princess Royal Harbour. Many beaches surround Albany, with Middleton Beach being the closest to the town centre. Other popular beaches include Frenchman Bay and Muttonbird Island.

Albany is 418 km (260 mi) SSE of the state capital, Perth, to which it is linked by Albany Highway.

Wine region

Albany is a sub-region of the Great Southern region of Western Australia. [20]

Coastline

King George Sound, painted in 1803 by William Westall King George Sound (WA) Westall.jpg
King George Sound, painted in 1803 by William Westall
View of Lake Seppings from Mount Clarence Lakeseppingmtclarence.jpg
View of Lake Seppings from Mount Clarence
Emu Point Boat pens and ramp Emu Point, Albany WA (3099307661).jpg
Emu Point Boat pens and ramp

The Albany coastline is notorious for deaths due to king waves washing people off rocks. The Torndirrup National Park features some of the more rugged coastline in the area. However, there are many beaches that are safe and usable:

Climate

Albany has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csb) with dry, warm summers, mild, wet winters, and pleasant springs and autumns. [21] Summers have short spells of very hot weather, but cool ocean breeze brings relief, especially during evenings and nights. The city is situated on what is promoted as the "Rainbow Coast", an appropriate title given the frequency of days with both sun and drizzle or showers. Albany has 44.8 clear days annually.

July is the wettest month, with a long-term average of 144.0 mm (5.67 in). Rain in excess of 0.2 mm (0.01 in) occurs on two days out of every three during an average winter. The driest month is February with a mean of 22.9 mm (0.90 in).

Albany received a record amount of rain on 20 November 2008 when violent storms swept across the Great Southern region. The town was flooded after 113.8 mm (4.48 in) of rain fell in a 24-hour period, the highest amount recorded since rainfall records began in 1877. [22] The wettest month on record was June 1920 when 292.8 mm (11.5 in) fell, while February 1877 and February 1879 remain the only rainless months.

Climate data for Albany Airport
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)45.6
(114.1)
44.0
(111.2)
41.2
(106.2)
38.8
(101.8)
32.6
(90.7)
24.8
(76.6)
22.5
(72.5)
26.2
(79.2)
27.9
(82.2)
33.6
(92.5)
39.2
(102.6)
42.8
(109.0)
45.6
(114.1)
Average high °C (°F)24.8
(76.6)
24.9
(76.8)
24.1
(75.4)
21.9
(71.4)
19.0
(66.2)
16.7
(62.1)
15.8
(60.4)
16.2
(61.2)
17.3
(63.1)
18.8
(65.8)
20.9
(69.6)
23.1
(73.6)
20.3
(68.5)
Average low °C (°F)13.7
(56.7)
14.5
(58.1)
13.4
(56.1)
11.7
(53.1)
9.8
(49.6)
8.1
(46.6)
7.5
(45.5)
7.5
(45.5)
8.1
(46.6)
9.2
(48.6)
10.8
(51.4)
12.5
(54.5)
10.6
(51.1)
Record low °C (°F)4.8
(40.6)
5.1
(41.2)
4.3
(39.7)
3.2
(37.8)
1.9
(35.4)
0.0
(32.0)
−0.2
(31.6)
0.8
(33.4)
0.7
(33.3)
1.0
(33.8)
2.7
(36.9)
3.6
(38.5)
−0.2
(31.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)23.6
(0.93)
22.3
(0.88)
33.6
(1.32)
61.3
(2.41)
89.8
(3.54)
108.0
(4.25)
119.3
(4.70)
106.8
(4.20)
88.5
(3.48)
70.8
(2.79)
47.0
(1.85)
27.8
(1.09)
798.1
(31.42)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1mm)2.82.64.06.38.29.911.110.99.98.05.73.783.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 251.1209.1204.6186.0167.4153.0170.5189.1189.0210.8222.0244.92,397.5
Source: Bureau of Meteorology [23]

Industry

Sperm whale remains at the Albany Whaling Station in July 1977, the year before its closure 1977.07,08- 8 -42,43aS Sperm whale,whaling Albany,Western Australia,AU sat23-tue26jul1977.jpg
Sperm whale remains at the Albany Whaling Station in July 1977, the year before its closure
Wind farm at Albany Albany Wind Farm, Western Australia.jpg
Wind farm at Albany
Dog Rock Albany 2006 Dog Rock Albany.jpg
Dog Rock Albany 2006
Princess Royal Harbour panorama

Albany's main industries are tourism, fishing, timber (wood chips) and agriculture. From 1952 to 1978 whaling was a major source of income and employment for the local population.

The Whaling Station, which closed operations in 1978, has been converted to a museum of whaling, and features one of the 'Cheynes' whale chasers that were used for whaling in Albany. The station was the last operating whaling station in the southern hemisphere and the English-speaking world at the time of closure. [24]

The Western Power Wind Farm is located at Sand Patch, to the west of Albany. The wind farm, originally commissioned in 2001 with 12 turbines, now has 18 turbines, driven by strong southerly winds, and can generate up to 80% [25] of the city's electricity usage. [26]

Albany has a number of historical sites including the Museum, Albany Convict Gaol, The Princess Royal Fortress (commonly known as The Forts) and Patrick Taylor Cottage, one of the oldest dwellings in Western Australia, c1832. [27] Albany has a great deal of historical significance to Western Australia.

Natural sights along the rugged coastline include the 'Natural Bridge' and the 'Gap'. The beaches have pristine white sand. The destroyer HMAS Perth was sunk in King George Sound in 2001 as a dive wreck. [28] Albany is also close to two low mountain ranges, the Porongurups and Stirling Ranges.

Albany is the southern terminus of the Bibbulmun Track walking trail. [29]

Albany is the southern terminus of the Munda Biddi Trail off-road cycling trail. [30]

Albany is home to HMAS Albany (based in Darwin) and the adopted home port of the Royal Australian Navy frigate HMAS Anzac. Albany is frequently visited by other warships.

Transport

Albany has a city bus service run by Love's Bus Service with five town routes. Albany is connected to Perth with road-coach services via Walpole and Bunbury; via Katanning and Northam; via Kojonup and Williams. Transwa coaches also serve Jerramungup, Ravensthorpe and Hopetoun. [31]

Regional Express Airlines, a national independent regional airline, provides 23 services a week between Perth and Albany Airport using 34-passenger turboprop Saab 340 aircraft. [32] [33]

Albany was served by the Albany Progress passenger train from Perth until 1978. The railway station reopened as a tourist information centre in 1994. [34]

Media

Albany radio stations include 783 Triple M (formerly 6VA and RadioWest), GOLD MX, Rete Italia, Vision FM, Fly FM Albany, HitFM (formerly HOT FM), ABC South Coast, ABC News, ABC Radio National, ABC Classic FM, Triple J, Racing Radio & Great Southern FM.

Below is a table showing the broadcast frequencies on which these services can be received.

ServiceBroadcast frequency
ABC Local Radio630 kHz AM
783 Triple M783 kHz AM
GOLD MX1611 kHz AM
Rete Italia1629 kHz AM
Vision FM (Local)87.6 MHz FM
Fly FM88.0 MHz FM
ABC News92.1 MHz FM
Triple J92.9 MHz FM
Vision FM93.7 MHz FM
ABC Classic FM94.5 MHz FM
HitFM95.3 MHz FM
ABC Radio National96.9 MHz FM
Great Southern FM100.9 MHz FM
Racing Radio104.9 MHz FM
HitFM (Local)106.5 MHz FM

Localised television stations available in Albany include GWN7, WIN Television Western Australia, West Digital Television, SBS and ABC Television Western Australia. GWN7 broadcasts a half-hour news program for regional WA, GWN7 News, at 5:30pm on weeknights with a district newsroom covering Albany and surrounding areas based in the city.

Below is a table showing the full suite of digital television services available in Albany. These services are broadcast from Mount Clarence and cover the majority of the geographic area with some areas requiring signal to be received from the Southern Agricultural site at Mount Barker. Both these transmission sites employ vertical polarity. Furthermore, a number of residents rely on receiving these services via satellite using the Viewer Access Satellite Television (VAST) system.

LCNChannel nameBroadcast ch. no.Broadcast frequency
2ABCUHF 43634.5 MHz
3SBSUHF 41620.625 MHz
510 HDUHF 44641.5 MHz
6GWN7UHF 45648.5 MHz
8NINEUHF 42627.5 MHz
20ABC HDUHF 43634.5 MHz
21ABCUHF 43634.5 MHz
22ABC TV Plus/KIDSUHF 43634.5 MHz
23ABC MEUHF 43634.5 MHz
24ABC NEWSUHF 43634.5 MHz
30SBS HDUHF 41620.625 MHz
31SBS VICELANDUHF 41620.625 MHz
32SBS WORLD MOVIESUHF 41620.625 MHz
33SBS FoodUHF 41620.625 MHz
34NITVUHF 41620.625 MHz
5010 BoldUHF 44641.5 MHz
5510 PeachUHF 44641.5 MHz
627twoUHF 45648.5 MHz
637mateUHF 45648.5 MHz
65ishop TVUHF 45648.5 MHz
68RACING.COMUHF 45648.5 MHz
809HDUHF 42627.5 MHz
829GemUHF 42627.5 MHz
839Go!UHF 42627.5 MHz
849LifeUHF 42627.5 MHz
85TVSNUHF 42627.5 MHz

Local newspapers are the Albany Advertiser (established 1888) and The Extra (owned by Seven West Media Limited, publishers of The West Australian), and The Great Southern Weekender (independently owned by Beaconwood Holdings Pty Ltd). The Great Southern Weekender also owns local radio stations GOLD MX and Fly FM.

Education

There are currently several primary schools, eight high schools and one university campus in the Albany area.

Albany Senior High School AlbanySHS2.jpg
Albany Senior High School
Great Southern Grammar Gym GSGgym.jpg
Great Southern Grammar Gym
Albany UWA Centre 2006 Albany UWA Centre.jpg
Albany UWA Centre 2006

Primary schools

High schools

Universities

TAFE

Localities

Notable residents

See also

Related Research Articles

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Mount Clarence, Western Australia Suburb of Albany, Western Australia

Mount Clarence is an inner suburb of Albany, Western Australia, between the Albany city centre and Middleton Beach. Its local government area is the City of Albany, and over three-quarters of its land area is either parkland or forest, including Albany's Heritage Park. Mount Clarence was gazetted as a suburb in 1979.

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Princess Royal Fortress

Princess Royal Fortress also known as Albany Forts was a fortress on the northern shore of Atatürk entrance on Princess Royal Harbour on Mount Adelaide overlooking King George Sound in Albany, Western Australia. It now operates as a museum.

History of Albany, Western Australia

The coastline of the Albany area was observed by Europeans for the first time in 1627 by the Dutchman François Thijssen, captain of the ship 't Gulden Zeepaert, who sailed to the east as far as Ceduna in South Australia and back. Captain Thijssen had discovered the south coast of Australia and charted about 1,768 kilometres (1,099 mi) of it between Cape Leeuwin and the Nuyts Archipelago.

References

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  33. Start of Rex flights welcomed Minister for Agriculture & Food Transport 27 February 2016
  34. Visitor Centre City of Albany

Bibliography

Wikisource