A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.
|Heritage status||Grade II listed structure|
|Design||Skew arch bridge|
|Designer||George W. Buck|
|Opened||26 August 1844|
Albert Bridge is a Grade II listed skew arch bridge in Greater Manchester, England.A replacement for an earlier structure, New Bailey Bridge, it was completed in 1844. It crosses the River Irwell, connecting Salford to Manchester.
A listed building, or listed structure, is one that has been placed on one of the four statutory lists maintained by Historic England in England, Historic Environment Scotland in Scotland, Cadw in Wales, and the Northern Ireland Environment Agency in Northern Ireland.
A skew arch is a method of construction that enables an arch bridge to span an obstacle at some angle other than a right angle. This results in the faces of the arch not being perpendicular to its abutments and its plan view being a parallelogram, rather than the rectangle that is the plan view of a regular, or "square" arch.
Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million. It encompasses one of the largest metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom and comprises ten metropolitan boroughs: Bolton, Bury, Oldham, Rochdale, Stockport, Tameside, Trafford, Wigan, and the cities of Manchester and Salford. Greater Manchester was created on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972; and designated a functional city region on 1 April 2011.
An 1843 investigation of the earlier structure, built between 1783 and 1785, revealed that it was in such poor condition it would have to be completely replaced. A special committee decided on a design by George W. Buck, costing about £9,000. A temporary footbridge was provided while the new bridge was being built, although this was temporarily destroyed during a flood. In a separate incident, a construction worker was killed by falling masonry.
George Watson Buck (1789–1854) was the engineer of the Montgomeryshire Canal in the early 19th century, and was responsible for the unique lock paddle design.
The new bridge was opened on 26 August 1844. The first vehicle to cross was a donkey cart, from Manchester.
A cart is a vehicle designed for transport, using two wheels and normally pulled by one or a pair of draught animals. A handcart is pulled or pushed by one or more people. It is different from a dray or wagon, which is a heavy transport vehicle with four wheels and typically two or more horses, or a carriage, which is used exclusively for transporting humans.
As with the nearby Blackfriars and Victoria bridges, Albert Bridge replaced an earlier structure, New Bailey Bridge. 1783 and 1785. Road users paid a toll to cross the bridge, allowing those who funded it to recoup their investment of about £1,500, plus interest of about 7.5 percent. The last toll was paid on 31 January 1803, following which the bridge became free for all to use. New Bailey Bridge was built from stone and used two arches to cross the Mersey and Irwell Navigation. A smaller arch on the Manchester bank of the river crossed a towpath, giving access to the Duke of Bridgewater's quay. Two six-foot wide flagged pavements were provided for pedestrian use, on either side of a road 23 feet 11 inches wide.This was built by subscription in shares of £40, between
Blackfriars Bridge is a stone arch bridge in Greater Manchester, England. Completed in 1820, it crosses the River Irwell, connecting Salford to Manchester.
Victoria Bridge is a stone arch bridge in Greater Manchester, England. Completed in 1839 and named after Queen Victoria, it crosses the River Irwell, connecting Salford to Manchester.
Subscription refers to the process of investors signing up and committing to invest in a financial instrument, before the actual closing of the purchase. The term comes from the Latin word subscribere.
By 1843 the bridge's condition was perilous, prompting magistrates at an annual session in Preston to investigate its future. magistrates decided to pull down the almost 59-year-old bridge and replace it with a stone structure about 60 feet wide. A committee was formed, and three estimates were offered: two stone bridges costing £9,700 and £9,640 respectively, and an iron bridge costing £9,400. The committee decided to accept a separate plan by George W. Buck, of a stone and brick bridge costing about £9,000. Buck advertised for contractors to submit tenders in the Manchester Guardian in April 1843. An advertisement in the Manchester Guardian announced the closure of the old bridge for 26 June 1843.A court of about 30
Preston is a city and the administrative centre of Lancashire, England, on the north bank of the River Ribble.
Bowers and Murray of Liverpool were the main contractors, with Sugden and Redfern of Manchester subcontracted for the stonework. A temporary pedestrian footbridge was constructed while the works were underway, although this was destroyed by floating debris when the Irwell flooded in October 1843 (a replacement was built).Another serious accident occurred during the following January, when part of a stone block being lowered by crane broke off, killing a man working below.
The footpath on the bridge's north side was opened on 16 August 1844, coinciding with the closure of the temporary footbridge, and ten days later the new bridge was fully opened. 60 feet wide, it uses a skew arch of 110 feet 9¼ inches to cross about 106 feet of water. Its 3-foot-thick arch is 20 feet tall and built from Bolton stone, and at the centre is about 30 feet above the river bed. The keystone weighs about three tons. Four cast iron lampposts provide illumination. Improvements were also made to the bridge's approaches, paid for by Manchester and Salford and costing an estimated £3,000 and £1,000 respectively.
An opening ceremony was held, with dignitaries from both towns crossing the bridge in a large procession. Military bands played music as the mayors of Manchester and Salford saluted each other, before they approached a long table filled with refreshments. William Garnett, chairman of the bridge committee, gave a speech in which he praised recent improvements to public rights of way and local bridges, and officially named the new bridge. Alexander Kay and William Lockett, mayors of Manchester and Salford, also spoke, as did other local dignitaries. The first vehicle to cross the bridge was a donkey cart from Manchester.
Albert Bridge was declared a Grade II listed building on 20 June 1988.
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The Manchester Bolton & Bury Canal is a disused canal in Greater Manchester, England, built to link Bolton and Bury with Manchester. The canal, when fully opened, was 15 miles 1 furlong (24.3 km) long. It was accessed via a junction with the River Irwell in Salford. Seventeen locks were required to climb to the summit as it passed through Pendleton, heading northwest to Prestolee before it split northwest to Bolton and northeast to Bury. Between Bolton and Bury the canal was level and required no locks. Six aqueducts were built to allow the canal to cross the rivers Irwell and Tonge and several minor roads.
The Manchester Ship Canal is a 36-mile-long (58 km) inland waterway in the North West of England linking Manchester to the Irish Sea. Starting at the Mersey Estuary near Liverpool, it generally follows the original routes of the rivers Mersey and Irwell through the historic counties of Cheshire and Lancashire. Several sets of locks lift vessels about 60 feet (18 m) up to Manchester, where the canal's terminus was built. Major landmarks along its route include the Barton Swing Aqueduct, the only swing aqueduct in the world, and Trafford Park, the world's first planned industrial estate and still the largest in Europe.
The Bridgewater Canal connects Runcorn, Manchester and Leigh, in North West England. It was commissioned by Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater, to transport coal from his mines in Worsley to Manchester. It was opened in 1761 from Worsley to Manchester, and later extended from Manchester to Runcorn, and then from Worsley to Leigh.
Castlefield is an inner city conservation area of Manchester in North West England. The conservation area which bears its name is bounded by the River Irwell, Quay Street, Deansgate and Chester Road. It was the site of the Roman era fort of Mamucium or Mancunium which gave its name to Manchester. It was the terminus of the Bridgewater Canal, the world's first industrial canal, built in 1764; the oldest canal warehouse opened in 1779. The world's first passenger railway terminated here in 1830, at Liverpool Road railway station and the first railway warehouse opened here in 1831.
The River Irwell is a 39-mile (63 km) long river which flows through the Irwell Valley in North West England. Its source is at Irwell Springs on Deerplay Moor, approximately 1.5 miles (2.4 km) north of Bacup. It forms the boundary between Manchester and Salford and empties into the River Mersey near Irlam.
Teddington Lock is a complex of three locks and a weir on the River Thames in England between Ham and Teddington in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. It was first built in 1810.
Barton-upon-Irwell is a suburban area of Salford, Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 12,462 in 2014.
Salford Junction is the canal junction of the Grand Union and Tame Valley Canals with the Birmingham and Fazeley Canal. It is in the north of the administrative city of Birmingham, England and historically marked a tripoint between two divisions of Aston to the south and Erdington to the north. It is directly east of most of the Gravelly Hill Interchange. With Aston and Bordesley Junctions it forms a circuit, at the heart of Birmingham's thirty-five miles of canals.
The architecture of Manchester demonstrates a rich variety of architectural styles. The city is a product of the Industrial Revolution and is known as the first modern, industrial city. Manchester is noted for its warehouses, railway viaducts, cotton mills and canals - remnants of its past when the city produced and traded goods. Manchester has minimal Georgian or medieval architecture to speak of and consequently has a vast array of 19th and early 20th-century architecture styles; examples include Palazzo, Neo-Gothic, Venetian Gothic, Edwardian baroque, Art Nouveau, Art Deco and the Neo-Classical.
Rushall Junction is the southern limit of the Rushall Canal where it meets the Tame Valley Canal in the West Midlands, England. It opened in 1847, when the Rushall Canal was built to create connections between the Birmingham Canal Navigations system and the Wyrley and Essington Canal, following the amalgamation of the two companies in 1840.
Mark Addy AM was a publican and champion oarsman, from Manchester, England, who was awarded the Albert Medal (AM), and a number of other honours, for the rescue of over 50 people from the then highly polluted River Irwell in the 19th century. The Albert Medal was later superseded by the George Cross as the highest civilian or non-combat gallantry award in the British honours system.
The Manchester and Bolton Railway was a railway in the historic county of Lancashire, England, connecting Salford to Bolton. It was built by the proprietors of the Manchester, Bolton and Bury Canal Navigation and Railway Company who had in 1831 converted from a canal company. The 10-mile (16 km) long railway was originally to have built upon most of the line of the canal, but it was eventually built alongside the Salford and Bolton arms of the canal. The Act of Parliament also allowed the construction of a connection to Bury, but technical constraints meant that it was never built.
Broughton Suspension Bridge was an iron chain suspension bridge built in 1826 to span the River Irwell between Broughton and Pendleton, now in Salford, Greater Manchester, England. One of Europe's first suspension bridges, it has been attributed to Samuel Brown, though some suggest it was built by Thomas Cheek Hewes, a Manchester millwright and textile machinery manufacturer.
The River Irwell Railway Bridge was built for the Liverpool & Manchester Railway (L&MR), the world's first passenger railway which used only steam locomotives and operated as a scheduled service, near Water Street in Manchester, England. The stone railway bridge, built in 1830 by George Stephenson, was part of Liverpool Road railway station. The bridge was designated a Grade I listed building on 20 June 1988.
Greengate is an area of Manchester city centre which is geographically located within Salford, Greater Manchester, England. It is bounded by the River Irwell, Victoria Bridge Street and Chapel Street, Blackfriars Road and Trinity Way. Greengate is the original historic core of Salford and sits within the easternmost part of the City of Salford. Greengate is currently experiencing a period of intensive development activity and growth, benefiting from its location just across the River Irwell from the City of Manchester.
Trinity Bridge is a three-way footbridge which crosses the River Irwell and links the two cities of Manchester and Salford in Greater Manchester, England. It was designed by renowned Spanish architect, Santiago Calatrava and was completed in 1995. It was one of Calatrava's earliest bridge works and remains the only project he has completed in the United Kingdom.
Palatine Bridge is a wrought-iron road bridge in Greater Manchester. Opened in 1864 and rebuilt in 1911, it crosses the River Irwell between Salford and Manchester.
The Barton Aqueduct, opened on 17 July 1761, carried the Bridgewater Canal over the River Irwell at Barton-upon-Irwell, in the historic county of Lancashire, England. Designed largely by James Brindley under the direction of John Gilbert, it was the first navigable aqueduct to be built in England, "one of the seven wonders of the canal age" according to industrial archaeologist Mike Nevell.