Albert G. Brown

Last updated
Albert Brown
Hon. Brown - NARA - 528693.jpg
Confederate States Senator
from Mississippi
In office
February 18, 1862 May 10, 1865
Preceded byConstituency established
Succeeded byConstituency abolished
United States Senator
from Mississippi
In office
January 7, 1854 January 12, 1861
Preceded by Walker Brooke
Succeeded by Hiram Revels
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives for Mississippi's 4th congressional district
In office
March 4, 1847 March 3, 1853
Preceded byDistrict created
Succeeded by Wiley P. Harris
14th Governor of Mississippi
In office
January 10, 1844 January 10, 1848
Preceded by Tilghman Tucker
Succeeded by Joseph Matthews
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives for Mississippi's at-large congressional district
In office
March 4, 1839 March 3, 1841
Preceded by Thomas J. Word
Succeeded by William M. Gwin
Personal details
Born(1813-05-31)May 31, 1813
Chester County, South Carolina, U.S.
DiedJune 12, 1880(1880-06-12) (aged 67)
Terry, Mississippi, U.S.
Political party Democratic
Alma mater Mississippi College
Jefferson College, Mississippi

Albert Gallatin Brown (May 31, 1813 June 12, 1880) was Governor of Mississippi from 1844 to 1848 and a Democrat United States Senator from Mississippi from 1854 to 1861, when he withdrew during secession. [1]

Mississippi U.S. state in the United States

Mississippi is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Mississippi is the 32nd largest and 34th-most populous of the 50 United States. Mississippi is bordered to the north by Tennessee, to the east by Alabama, to the south by the Gulf of Mexico, to the southwest by Louisiana, and to the northwest by Arkansas. Mississippi's western boundary is largely defined by the Mississippi River. Jackson is both the state's capital and largest city. Greater Jackson, with an estimated population of 580,166 in 2018, is the most populous metropolitan area in Mississippi and the 95th-most populous in the United States.

Contents

Early life

He was born to Joseph and Elizabeth (Rice) Brown, a poor farming family, in the Chester District of South Carolina, at the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains in 1813. [2] In 1823, when he was only 10 years old his family moved to the new state of Mississippi. The Brown family settled Copiah County, south of the state capital, Jackson. Raising cotton in the new frontier state proved to be lucrative for the Brown family. [2] In 1824, just one year after settling in Mississippi, Joseph Brown was elected Justice of the Peace in Copiah County. By 1825, two years after arriving in Mississippi, he was the third-largest taxpayer in the county, owning 18 slaves. By 1832, he was farming a plantation of 1,600 acres and owned 23 slaves. [2]

Appalachian Mountains mountain range in the eastern United States and Canada, and France

The Appalachian Mountains, often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians first formed roughly 480 million years ago during the Ordovician Period. They once reached elevations similar to those of the Alps and the Rocky Mountains before experiencing natural erosion. The Appalachian chain is a barrier to east–west travel, as it forms a series of alternating ridgelines and valleys oriented in opposition to most highways and railroads running east–west.

In 1829, Albert Brown entered Mississippi College, but he soon transferred to Jefferson College, which he attended for about six months. [2]

Mississippi College

Mississippi College (MC) is a private Baptist college in Clinton, Mississippi. Founded in 1826, MC is the second-oldest Baptist-affiliated college in the United States and the oldest college in Mississippi. With more than 5,000 students, Mississippi College is the largest private university in the state.

Political career

During his lifetime, Brown was one of the most popular and the most influential men in Mississippi. He is considered to be the father of the public school system and of the University of Mississippi. His rhetorical attacks on illiteracy are considered to have made a substantial contribution to the cause of education in Mississippi.

University of Mississippi university

The University of Mississippi is a public research university in Oxford, Mississippi. Including the University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson, it is the state's largest university by enrollment and is the state’s flagship university. The university was chartered by the Mississippi Legislature on February 24, 1844, and four years later admitted its first enrollment of 80 students. The university is classified as an "R1: Doctoral University—Very High Research Activity" by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education and has an annual research and development budget of $121.6 million.

He was also a Fire-Eater and a strong advocate for the expansion of slavery. In 1858, he said: "I want a foothold in Central America... because I want to plant slavery there.... I want Cuba,... Tamaulipas, Potosi, and one or two other Mexican States; and I want them all for the same reason - for the planting or spreading of slavery." (Akhil Reed Amar, America's Constitution, A Biography (2005) 267, quoting M.W. Mcklusky, ed., Speeches, Messages, and Other Writings of the Hon. Albert G. Brown (1859), 594-5) Indeed, he went on to say, "I would spread the blessings of slavery, like the religion of our Divine Master, to the uttermost ends of the earth."

In American history, the Fire-Eaters were a group of pro-slavery Southern Democrats in the Antebellum South who urged the separation of Southern states into a new nation, which became the Confederate States of America. The dean of the group was Robert Barnwell Rhett of South Carolina. Some sought to reopen the international slave trade, which had been illegal since 1808.

Central America central geographic region of the Americas

Central America is a region found in the southern tip of North America and is sometimes defined as a subcontinent of the Americas. This region is bordered by Mexico to the north, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west and south. Central America consists of seven countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama. The combined population of Central America is estimated to be between 41,739,000 and 42,688,190.

Cuba Country in the Caribbean

Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean meet. It is east of the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico), south of both the U.S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti and north of both Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. Havana is the largest city and capital; other major cities include Santiago de Cuba and Camagüey. The area of the Republic of Cuba is 110,860 square kilometers (42,800 sq mi). The island of Cuba is the largest island in Cuba and in the Caribbean, with an area of 105,006 square kilometers (40,543 sq mi), and the second-most populous after Hispaniola, with over 11 million inhabitants.

To those who agreed with such views, "Albert Gallatin Brown possessed magical powers. With many learnt spells, handsome continence, surrounded by a luxuriant, flowing beard and dark-curly hair, in every sense he looked distinguished. Courageous, he was void of vanity; animated, he was persuasive; his spirit, crackerish to the extreme." In his speech, Reuben Davis, who knew him well, states in his book Reminiscences on Mississippi and Mississippians that Brown "was the best-balanced man I ever knew.... In politics, he had strategy with-out corruption, and handled all his opponents with skill but never descended to intrigue." During a lifetime, most of which was spent in an epoch of bitter controversy, his most intimate friends never heard him speak ill of others.

Reuben Davis (representative) American politician

Reuben O. Davis was a United States Representative from Mississippi.

Brown served three terms in the state legislature, four in the US Congress, one on the circuit bench. He was twice elected United States senator, twice Governor, and one senator in the Confederate Congress. Rand wrote that "the political career of Albert Gallatin Brown provides one of the most amazing chapters in Mississippi history."

Death

Overcome by a stroke of apoplexy, Brown fell face down in a shallow pond at his home near Terry in 1880. His last remains rest in Greenwood Cemetery, Jackson.

Personal life

Brown's first wife was Elizabeth Frances Thornton Taliaferro (1817–1836) of Virginia, who died about five months after the marriage. She was the daughter of Richard Henry Taliaferro, Sr. (1783–1830) and Frances Walker Gilmer (ca. 1784-1826).

Brown's second wife was Roberta Eugenia Young (1813–1886), daughter of Brig. Gen. Robert Young (1768–1824) and Elizabeth Mary Conrad (1772–1810). Roberta's older sister was Elizabeth Mary Young (1804–1859), the wife of Philip Richard Fendall II (1794–1867), the District Attorney of the District of Columbia.

Legacy

In Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl , a narrative written by the escaped slave Harriet Jacobs, Brown is called out by Jacobs for supporting slavery in a speech to Congress despite the fact that he "could not be ignorant of [the wrongdoings perpetrated against slaves], for they are of frequent occurrence in every Southern State." [3]

Brown County, Kansas, is named after him.

In the 1992 alternate history/science fiction novel The Guns of the South by Harry Turtledove, Brown is an important supporting character.

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References

  1. "BROWN, Albert Gallatin - Biographical Information". U.S. Congress. Retrieved July 25, 2012.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Ranck, p. 1.
  3. Jacobs, Harriet A., Lydia Maria Child, and Jean Fagan. Yellin. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl: Written by Herself. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1987. Print. p. 136

Sources