|Duke of Bavaria|
|Born||25 July 1336|
|Died||13 December 1404 68) (aged|
|Spouse|| Margaret of Brieg |
Margaret of Cleves
|Issue|| Katharina, Duchess of Gelders and Jülich |
Johanna, Queen of Bohemia
Margaret, Duchess of Burgundy
William VI, Count of Holland
Albert II, Duke of Bavaria-Straubing
Joanna Sophia, Duchess of Austria
John, Duke of Bavaria-Straubing
|Father||Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor|
|Mother||Margaret II, Countess of Holland|
Albert I, Duke of Bavaria (German : Albrecht; 25 July 1336 – 13 December 1404) KG, was a feudal ruler of the counties of Holland, Hainaut, and Zeeland in the Low Countries. Additionally, he held a portion of the Bavarian province of Straubing, his Bavarian ducal line's appanage and seat.
Albert was born in Munich, the third son of Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor,by his second wife Margaret II, Countess of Hainaut and Holland. Albert was originally a younger son, apportioned at best an appanage. He was only 10 years old when his father died, leaving most of his Bavarian inheritance to his eldest half-brother, Louis V, Duke of Bavaria, but also some appanages to the younger sons.
His elder brother, William V, Count of Holland, had engaged in a long struggle with their mother, obtaining Holland and Zeeland from her in 1354, and Hainaut on her death in 1356. William was supported by the party of burghers of the cities. They were opposed in this by the Hook faction, the party of disaffected nobles who were supporters of Empress Margaret. Margaret had resigned her sovereignty in favour of her son William V, but the result was a period of great upheavals and chaos which gave rise to the formation of these two opposing parties.
However, William's insanity resulted in the appointment of the then 22-year-old Albert as governor (or regent or ruwaard) of his brother's territories from 1358 onwards. During Albert's regency, affairs ran smoothly and trade improved. Troubles between the two political parties, the Hoeks ("Hooks") and Kabeljauws ("Cods"), remained barely beneath the surface. William lived for another thirty years. Albert did not formally succeed him until his death in 1388, by which time he had already arranged the marriage of his daughters to a number of Imperial princes and other nobles. The eldest daughter to have children was Margaret; her son Philip III, Duke of Burgundy would ultimately inherit Albert's territories.
In Albert's own reign, troubles erupted between the Hoeks and the Kabeljauws because of a woman. Albert always had mistresses, but this time his attentions were drawn to Aleid van Poelgeest,a member of the Kabeljauw party. She was considered very beautiful and was able to gain political influence which was resented. A plot was hatched among the Hoeks as well as members of Albert's household. On 22 September 1392 Aleid was murdered in The Hague.
In his rage Albert persecuted the Hoeks, by sword and fire, conquering one castle after the other. Even his own son and heir, William, did not feel safe and went to live in Hainault. During his last years, Albert fought the Frisians. They were beaten time and time again, but were never completely conquered.
On Albert's death in 1404, he was succeeded by his eldest son, William. A younger son, John III, became Bishop of Liège. However, on William's death in 1417, a war of succession broke out between John and William's daughter Jacqueline of Hainaut. This would be the last episode of the Hook and Cod wars and would lead to the counties being placed into Burgundian hands.
Albert married in Passau after 19 July 1353, Margaret of Brieg from Silesia (1342/43 – 1386), and had seven children, all of whom lived to adulthood:
He also had several illegitimate children.
Albert contracted a second marriage in 1394 in Heusden with Margaret of Cleves (c. 1375 – 1412), sister of Adolph I, Duke of Cleves, but they had no children. He died in The Hague, aged 68.
Louis the Roman was the eldest son of Emperor Louis IV the Bavarian by his second wife, Margaret II, Countess of Hainault, and a member of the House of Wittelsbach. Louis was Duke of Bavaria as Louis VI (1347–1365) and Margrave of Brandenburg (1351–1365) as Louis II. As of 1356, he also served as Prince-elector of Brandenburg.
The House of Wittelsbach is a German-Bavarian dynasty, with branches that rule, or have ruled over territories including: Bavaria, Holland, Zeeland, Cologne, Sweden, Romania, Bohemia, Hungary, Denmark, Norway, Greece and the Holy Roman Empire. The House of Windsor, the reigning royal house of the British throne, are descendants of Sophia of Hanover, a Wittelsbach Princess and Electress of Hanover.
Philip the Bold was Duke of Burgundy and jure uxoris Count of Flanders, Artois and Burgundy. He was the fourth and youngest son of King John II of France and Bonne of Luxembourg. Philip was the founder of the Burgundian branch of the House of Valois. His vast collection of territories made him the undisputed premier peer of the Kingdom of France and made his successors formidable subjects, and later rivals, of the kings of France.
William of Holland may refer to:
The counts of Holland ruled over the County of Holland in the Low Countries between the 10th and the 16th century.
Margaret II of Avesnes was Countess of Hainaut and Countess of Holland from 1345 to 1356. She was Holy Roman Empress and Queen of Germany by marriage to Emperor Louis IV the Bavarian.
The Hook and Cod wars comprise a series of wars and battles in the County of Holland between 1350 and 1490. Most of these wars were fought over the title of count of Holland, but some have argued that the underlying reason was because of the power struggle of the bourgeois in the cities against the ruling nobility.
The County of Hainaut, was a territorial lordship within the medieval Holy Roman Empire, straddling what is now the border of Belgium and France. Its most important towns included Mons, now in Belgium, and Valenciennes, now in France.
John II was Count of Hainaut, Holland, and Zeeland.
Jacqueline, of the House of Wittelsbach, was a noblewoman who ruled the counties of Holland, Zeeland and Hainaut in the Low Countries from 1417 to 1433. She was also Dauphine of France for a short time between 1415 and 1417 and Duchess of Gloucester in the 1420s, if her marriage to Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, is accepted as valid.
The Avesnes family played an important role during the Middle Ages. The family has its roots in the small village Avesnes-sur-Helpe, in the north of France.
Bavaria-Straubing denotes the widely scattered territorial inheritance in the Wittelsbach house of Bavaria that were governed by independent dukes of Bavaria-Straubing between 1353 and 1432; a map (illustration) of these marches and outliers of the Holy Roman Empire, vividly demonstrates the fractionalisation of lands where primogeniture did not obtain. In 1349, after Emperor Louis IV's death, his sons divided Bavaria once again: Lower Bavaria passed to Stephan II, William and Albert. In 1353, Lower Bavaria was further partitioned into Bavaria-Landshut and Bavaria-Straubing: William and Albert received a part of the Lower Bavarian inheritance, with a capital in Straubing and rights to Hainaut and Holland. Thus the dukes of Bavaria-Straubing were also counts of Hainaut, counts of Holland, and of Zeeland.
Louis V, called the Brandenburger, a member of the House of Wittelsbach, ruled as Margrave of Brandenburg from 1323 to 1351 and as Duke of Bavaria from 1347 until his death. From 1342 he also was co-ruling Count of Tyrol by his marriage with the Meinhardiner countess Margaret.
William I, Duke of Bavaria-Straubing, was the second son of Emperor Louis IV and Margaret II of Hainaut. He was also known as William V, Count of Holland, as William III, Count of Hainaut and as William IV, Count of Zeeland.
William II of Bavaria was duke of Bavaria-Straubing and count of Holland, Hainaut and Zeeland. He ruled from 1404 until 1417, when he died from an infection caused by a dog bite.
John III the Pitiless (1374–1425), of the House of Wittelsbach, was first bishop of Liège 1389–1418 and then duke of Bavaria-Straubing and count of Holland and Hainaut 1418–1425.
Albert II was duke of Bavaria-Straubing alongside his father Albert I, who also ruled the counties of Holland, Hainaut, and Zeeland in the Low Countries. Additionally, from 1389 until his death in 1397, he administered the Bavarian province of Straubing in the name of his father, it being his Bavarian ducal line's appanage and seat. Albert II's mother was Margaret of Brieg, great-granddaughter of Wenceslaus II of Bohemia.
The Count of Hainaut was the ruler of the county of Hainaut, a historical region in the Low Countries. In English-language historical sources, the title is often given the archaic spelling Hainault.
The House of Valois-Burgundy, or the Younger House of Burgundy, was a noble French family deriving from the royal House of Valois. It is distinct from the Capetian House of Burgundy, descendants of King Robert II of France, though both houses stem from the Capetian dynasty. They ruled the Duchy of Burgundy from 1363 to 1482 and later came to rule vast lands including Artois, Flanders, Luxembourg, Hainault, the county palatine of Burgundy (Franche-Comté), and other lands through marriage, forming what is now known as the Burgundian State.
Margaret of Brieg (1342–1386) was a daughter of Ludwik I the Fair and his wife, Agnes of Sagan. She was Duchess consort of Bavaria by her marriage to Albert I, Duke of Bavaria.
Albert I, Duke of BavariaBorn: 25 July 1336 Died: 13 December 1404
| Duke of Bavaria |
with Louis V, Stephen II, Louis VI, William I, Otto V
|New title|| Duke of Lower Bavaria |
with Stephen II and William I
| Duke of Bavaria-Straubing |
with William I and Albert II
William II of Bavaria
William I of Bavaria
| Count of Holland, Hainaut and Zeeland |