Albertus Magnus

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Saint
Albertus Magnus, OP
AlbertusMagnus.jpg
Saint Albertus Magnus, a fresco by Tommaso da Modena (1352), Church of San Nicolò, Treviso, Italy
Religious, Bishop, and Doctor of the Church
Bornbefore 1200
Lauingen, Duchy of Bavaria
DiedNovember 15, 1280 (aged over 80)
Cologne, Holy Roman Empire
Venerated in Catholic Church
Beatified 1622, Rome, Papal States, by Pope Gregory XV
Canonized 1931, Vatican City, by Pope Pius XI
Major shrine St. Andrew's Church, Cologne, Germany
Feast November 15
Patronage medical technologists/technicians; natural sciences; philosophers; scientists; students; City of Cincinnati (Ohio)
Philosophy career
Other namesAlbertus Teutonicus, Albertus Coloniensis, Albert the Great, Albert of Cologne
Alma mater University of Padua
Era Medieval philosophy
Region Western philosophy
School Scholasticism
Aristotelianism
Medieval realism [1]
Christian philosophy
Notable students Thomas Aquinas
Main interests
Philosophy
Theology
Astronomy
Music
Notable ideas
Natural law
Aevum [2]
Known forSystematic study of minerals
discovery of the element arsenic
Scientific career
Fields Natural science
Astrology
Alchemy
Theology
Philosophy

Albertus Magnus [5] (before 1200 – November 15, 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a German Catholic Dominican friar and bishop. Later canonised as a Catholic saint, he was known during his lifetime as Doctor universalis and Doctor expertus and, late in his life, the sobriquet Magnus was appended to his name. [6] Scholars such as James A. Weisheipl and Joachim R. Söder have referred to him as the greatest German philosopher and theologian of the Middle Ages. [7] The Catholic Church distinguishes him as one of the 36 Doctors of the Church.

Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history. German is the shared mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans.

Dominican Order Roman Catholic religious order

The Order of Preachers, also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Innocent III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216. Members of the order, who are referred to as Dominicans, generally carry the letters OP after their names, standing for Ordinis Praedicatorum, meaning of the Order of Preachers. Membership in the order includes friars, nuns, active sisters, and affiliated lay or secular Dominicans.

Friar member of a mendicant religious order in Catholic Christianity

A friar is a brother member of one of the mendicant orders founded in the twelfth or thirteenth century; the term distinguishes the mendicants' itinerant apostolic character, exercised broadly under the jurisdiction of a superior general, from the older monastic orders' allegiance to a single monastery formalized by their vow of stability. The most significant orders of friars are the Dominicans, Franciscans, Augustinians and Carmelites.

Contents

Biography

It seems likely that Albert was born sometime before 1200, given well-attested evidence that he was aged over 80 on his death in 1280. Two later sources say that Albert was about 87 on his death, which has led 1193 to be commonly given as the date of Albert's birth, but this information has not enough evidence. [8] Albert was probably born in Lauingen (now in Bavaria), since he called himself 'Albert of Lauingen', but this might simply be a family name. Most probably his family was of ministerial class; his familiar connection with (being son of the count) Bollstädt noble family is almost certainly mere conjecture by 15th c. hagiographer. [8] [ failed verification ]

Duchy of Bavaria Former duchy in Germany

The Duchy of Bavaria was a frontier region in the southeastern part of the Merovingian kingdom from the sixth through the eighth century. It was settled by Bavarian tribes and ruled by dukes (duces) under Frankish overlordship. A new duchy was created from this area during the decline of the Carolingian Empire in the late ninth century. It became one of the stem duchies of the East Frankish realm which evolved as the Kingdom of Germany and the Holy Roman Empire.

Albert was probably educated principally at the University of Padua, where he received instruction in Aristotle's writings. A late account by Rudolph de Novamagia refers to Albertus' encounter with the Blessed Virgin Mary, who convinced him to enter Holy Orders. In 1223 (or 1229) [9] he became a member of the Dominican Order, and studied theology at Bologna and elsewhere. Selected to fill the position of lecturer at Cologne, Germany, where the Dominicans had a house, he taught for several years there, as well as in Regensburg, Freiburg, Strasbourg, and Hildesheim. During his first tenure as lecturer at Cologne, Albert wrote his Summa de bono after discussion with Philip the Chancellor concerning the transcendental properties of being. [10] In 1245, Albert became master of theology under Gueric of Saint-Quentin, the first German Dominican to achieve this distinction. Following this turn of events, Albert was able to teach theology at the University of Paris as a full-time professor, holding the seat of the Chair of Theology at the College of St. James. [10] [11] During this time Thomas Aquinas began to study under Albertus. [12]

University of Padua university in Italy

The University of Padua is an Italian university located in the city of Padua, Veneto, Italy. The University of Padua was founded in 1222 as a school of law. Padua is the second-oldest university in Italy and the world's fifth-oldest surviving university. In 2010 the university had approximately 65,000 students, in 2016 was ranked "best university" among Italian institutions of higher education with more than 40,000 students, and in 2018 best Italian university according to ARWU ranking.

Aristotle philosopher in ancient Greece

Aristotle was a Greek philosopher during the Classical period in Ancient Greece, the founder of the Lyceum and the Peripatetic school of philosophy and Aristotelian tradition. Along with his teacher Plato, he has been called the "Father of Western Philosophy". His writings cover many subjects – including physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theatre, music, rhetoric, psychology, linguistics, economics, politics and government. Aristotle provided a complex synthesis of the various philosophies existing prior to him, and it was above all from his teachings that the West inherited its intellectual lexicon, as well as problems and methods of inquiry. As a result, his philosophy has exerted a unique influence on almost every form of knowledge in the West and it continues to be a subject of contemporary philosophical discussion.

Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the divine and, more broadly, of religious belief. It is taught as an academic discipline, typically in universities and seminaries. It occupies itself with the unique content of analyzing the supernatural, but also deals with religious epistemology, asks and seeks to answer the question of revelation. Revelation pertains to the acceptance of God, gods, or deities, as not only transcendent or above the natural world, but also willing and able to interact with the natural world and, in particular, to reveal themselves to humankind. While theology has turned into a secular field, religious adherents still consider theology to be a discipline that helps them live and understand concepts such as life and love and that helps them lead lives of obedience to the deities they follow or worship.

Bust of Albertus Magnus by Vincenzo Onofri, c. 1493 Vincenzo onofri, sant'alberto magno, 1493.JPG
Bust of Albertus Magnus by Vincenzo Onofri, c. 1493

Albert was the first to comment on virtually all of the writings of Aristotle, thus making them accessible to wider academic debate. The study of Aristotle brought him to study and comment on the teachings of Muslim academics, notably Avicenna and Averroes, and this would bring him into the heart of academic debate.

Avicenna medieval Persian polymath, physician, and philosopher

Ibn Sina, also known as Abu Ali Sina, Pur Sina (پورسینا), and often known in the west as Avicenna was a Persian Muslim polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age, and the father of modern medicine. Avicenna is also called "the most influential philosopher of the pre-modern era". Of the 450 works he is believed to have written, around 240 have survived, including 150 on philosophy and 40 on medicine.

Averroes Medieval Arab scholar and philosopher

Ibn Rushd, often Latinized as Averroes, was a Muslim Andalusian philosopher and thinker who wrote about many subjects, including philosophy, theology, medicine, astronomy, physics, Islamic jurisprudence and law, and linguistics. His philosophical works include numerous commentaries on Aristotle, for which he was known in the West as The Commentator. He also served as a judge and a court physician for the Almohad caliphate.

In 1254 Albert was made provincial of the Dominican Order, [12] and fulfilled the duties of the office with great care and efficiency. During his tenure he publicly defended the Dominicans against attacks by the secular and regular faculty of the University of Paris, commented on John the Evangelist, and answered what he perceived as errors of the Islamic philosopher Averroes.

Provincial superior

A provincial superior is a major superior of a religious institute acting under the institute's Superior General and exercising a general supervision over all the members of that institute in a territorial division of the order called a province—similar to but not to be confused with an ecclesiastical province made up of particular churches or dioceses under the supervision of a Metropolitan Bishop. The division of a religious institute into provinces is generally along geographical lines, and may consist of one or more countries, or of only a part of a country. There may be, however, one or more houses of one province situated within the physical territory of another since the jurisdiction over the individual religious is personal rather than territorial. The title of the office is often abbreviated to Provincial.

John the Evangelist Name traditionally given to the author of the Gospel of John

John the Evangelist is the name traditionally given to the author of the Gospel of John. Christians have traditionally identified him with John the Apostle, John of Patmos, or John the Presbyter, although this has been disputed by modern scholars.

Early Islamic philosophy or classical Islamic philosophy is a period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar and lasting until the 6th century AH. The period is known as the Islamic Golden Age, and the achievements of this period had a crucial influence in the development of modern philosophy and science. For Renaissance Europe, "Muslim maritime, agricultural, and technological innovations, as well as much East Asian technology via the Muslim world, made their way to western Europe in one of the largest technology transfers in world history.” This period starts with al-Kindi in the 9th century and ends with Averroes at the end of 12th century. The death of Averroes effectively marks the end of a particular discipline of Islamic philosophy usually called the Peripatetic Arabic School, and philosophical activity declined significantly in Western Islamic countries, namely in Islamic Spain and North Africa, though it persisted for much longer in the Eastern countries, in particular Persia and India where several schools of philosophy continued to flourish: Avicennism, Illuminationist philosophy, Mystical philosophy, and Transcendent theosophy.

In 1259 Albert took part in the General Chapter of the Dominicans at Valenciennes together with Thomas Aquinas, masters Bonushomo Britto, [13] Florentius, [14] and Peter (later Pope Innocent V) establishing a ratio studiorum or program of studies for the Dominicans [15] that featured the study of philosophy as an innovation for those not sufficiently trained to study theology. This innovation initiated the tradition of Dominican scholastic philosophy put into practice, for example, in 1265 at the Order's studium provinciale at the convent of Santa Sabina in Rome, out of which would develop the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, the "Angelicum". [16]

Valenciennes Subprefecture and commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Valenciennes is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.

Pope Innocent V pope

Pope Innocent V, born Pierre de Tarentaise, was pope from 21 January to 22 June 1276. He was a member of the Order of Preachers and was a close collaborator of Pope Gregory X during his pontificate. He was beatified in 1898 by Pope Leo XIII.

Santa Sabina historical church on the Aventine Hill in Rome

The Basilica of Saint Sabina is a historic church on the Aventine Hill in Rome, Italy. It is a titular minor basilica and mother church of the Roman Catholic Order of Preachers, better known as the Dominicans. Santa Sabina is perched high above the Tiber river to the north and the Circus Maximus to the east. It is next to the small public park of Giardino degli Aranci, which has a scenic terrace overlooking Rome. It is a short distance from the headquarters of the Knights of Malta.

Roman sarcophagus containing the relics of Albertus Magnus in the crypt of St. Andrew's Church, Cologne, Germany 2004 Koln Sarkophag Albertus Magnus.JPG
Roman sarcophagus containing the relics of Albertus Magnus in the crypt of St. Andrew's Church, Cologne, Germany

In 1260 Pope Alexander IV made him bishop of Regensburg, an office from which he resigned after three years. During the exercise of his duties he enhanced his reputation for humility by refusing to ride a horse, in accord with the dictates of the Order, instead traversing his huge diocese on foot. This earned him the affectionate sobriquet "boots the bishop" from his parishioners. In 1263 Pope Urban IV relieved him of the duties of bishop and asked him to preach the eighth Crusade in German-speaking countries. [17] After this, he was especially known for acting as a mediator between conflicting parties. In Cologne he is not only known for being the founder of Germany's oldest university there, but also for "the big verdict" (der Große Schied) of 1258, which brought an end to the conflict between the citizens of Cologne and the archbishop. Among the last of his labors was the defense of the orthodoxy of his former pupil, Thomas Aquinas, whose death in 1274 grieved Albert (the story that he travelled to Paris in person to defend the teachings of Aquinas can not be confirmed).

Albert was a scientist, philosopher, astrologer, theologian, spiritual writer, ecumenist, and diplomat. Under the auspices of Humbert of Romans, Albert molded the curriculum of studies for all Dominican students, introduced Aristotle to the classroom and probed the work of Neoplatonists, such as Plotinus. Indeed, it was the thirty years of work done by Aquinas and himself that allowed for the inclusion of Aristotelian study in the curriculum of Dominican schools.

After suffering a collapse of health in 1278, he died on November 15, 1280, in the Dominican convent in Cologne, Germany. Since November 15, 1954, his relics are in a Roman sarcophagus in the crypt of the Dominican St. Andreas Church in Cologne. [18] Although his body was discovered to be incorrupt at the first exhumation three years after his death, at the exhumation in 1483 only a skeleton remained. [19]

Albert was beatified in 1622. He was canonized and proclaimed a Doctor of the Church on December 16, 1931, by Pope Pius XI [17] and the patron saint of natural scientists in 1941. St. Albert's feast day is November 15.

Writings

Albertus Magnus monument at the University of Cologne Albertus Magnus-Denkmal.jpg
Albertus Magnus monument at the University of Cologne

Albert's writings collected in 1899 went to thirty-eight volumes. These displayed his prolific habits and encyclopedic knowledge of topics such as logic, theology, botany, geography, astronomy, astrology, mineralogy, alchemy, zoology, physiology, phrenology, justice, law, friendship, and love. He digested, interpreted, and systematized the whole of Aristotle's works, gleaned from the Latin translations and notes of the Arabian commentators, in accordance with Church doctrine. Most modern knowledge of Aristotle was preserved and presented by Albert. [12]

His principal theological works are a commentary in three volumes on the Books of the Sentences of Peter Lombard (Magister Sententiarum), and the Summa Theologiae in two volumes. The latter is in substance a more didactic repetition of the former.

Albert's activity, however, was more philosophical than theological (see Scholasticism). The philosophical works, occupying the first six and the last of the 21 volumes, are generally divided according to the Aristotelian scheme of the sciences, and consist of interpretations and condensations of Aristotle's relative works, with supplementary discussions upon contemporary topics, and occasional divergences from the opinions of the master. Albert believed that Aristotle's approach to natural philosophy did not pose any obstacle to the development of a Christian philosophical view of the natural order. [17]

De animalibus (1450-1500 ca., cod. fiesolano 67, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana) Firenze, alberto magno, de animalibus, 1450-1500 ca. cod fiesolano 67, 01.JPG
De animalibus (1450–1500 ca., cod. fiesolano 67, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana)

Albert's knowledge of natural science was considerable and for the age remarkably accurate. His industry in every department was great: not only did he produce commentaries and paraphrases of the entire Aristotelian corpus, including his scientific works, but Albert also added to and improved upon them. His books on topics like botany, zoology, and minerals included information from ancient sources, but also results of his own empirical investigations. These investigations pushed several of the special sciences forward, beyond the reliance on classical texts. In the case of embryology, for example, it has been claimed that little of value was written between Aristotle and Albert, who managed to identify organs within eggs. [20] Furthermore, Albert also effectively invented entire special sciences, where Aristotle has not covered a topic. For example, prior to Albert, there was no systematic study of minerals. [21] For the breadth of these achievements, he was bestowed the name Doctor Universalis.

Much of Albert's empirical contributions to the natural sciences have been superseded, but his general approach to science may be surprisingly modern. For example, in De Mineralibus (Book II, Tractate ii, Ch. 1) Albert claims, "For it is [the task] of natural science not simply to accept what we are told but to inquire into the causes of natural things." [21]

Alchemy

Albertus Magnus, Chimistes Celebres, Liebig's Extract of Meat Company Trading Card, 1929 Liebig Company Trading Card Ad 01.12.003 front.tif
Albertus Magnus, Chimistes Celebres, Liebig's Extract of Meat Company Trading Card, 1929

In the centuries since his death, many stories arose about Albert as an alchemist and magician. "Much of the modern confusion results from the fact that later works, particularly the alchemical work known as the Secreta Alberti or the Experimenta Alberti, were falsely attributed to Albertus by their authors to increase the prestige of the text through association." [22] On the subject of alchemy and chemistry, many treatises relating to alchemy have been attributed to him, though in his authentic writings he had little to say on the subject, and then mostly through commentary on Aristotle. For example, in his commentary, De mineralibus, he refers to the power of stones, but does not elaborate on what these powers might be. [23] A wide range of Pseudo-Albertine works dealing with alchemy exist, though, showing the belief developed in the generations following Albert's death that he had mastered alchemy, one of the fundamental sciences of the Middle Ages. These include Metals and Materials; the Secrets of Chemistry; the Origin of Metals; the Origins of Compounds, and a Concordance which is a collection of Observations on the philosopher's stone ; and other alchemy-chemistry topics, collected under the name of Theatrum Chemicum. [24] He is credited with the discovery of the element arsenic [25] and experimented with photosensitive chemicals, including silver nitrate. [26] [27] He did believe that stones had occult properties, as he related in his work De mineralibus. However, there is scant evidence that he personally performed alchemical experiments.

According to legend, Albert is said to have discovered the philosopher's stone and passed it on to his pupil Thomas Aquinas, shortly before his death. Albert does not confirm he discovered the stone in his writings, but he did record that he witnessed the creation of gold by "transmutation." [28] Given that Thomas Aquinas died six years before Albert's death, this legend as stated is unlikely.

Astronomy

Albert was deeply interested in astronomy, as has been articulated by scholars such as Paola Zambelli [29] and Scott Hendrix. [30] Throughout the Middle Ages –and well into the early modern period– astrology was widely accepted by scientists and intellectuals who held the view that life on earth is effectively a microcosm within the macrocosm (the latter being the cosmos itself). It was believed that correspondence therefore exists between the two and thus the celestial bodies follow patterns and cycles analogous to those on earth. With this worldview, it seemed reasonable to assert that astrology could be used to predict the probable future of a human being. Albert argued that an understanding of the celestial influences affecting us could help us to live our lives more in accord with Christian precepts. [30] The most comprehensive statement of his astrological beliefs is to be found in a work he authored around 1260, now known as the Speculum astronomiae . However, details of these beliefs can be found in almost everything he wrote, from his early De natura boni to his last work, the Summa theologiae. [31]

Matter and form

Albert believed that all natural things were compositions of matter and form, he referred to it as quod est and quo est. Albert also believed that God alone is the absolute ruling entity. Albert's version of hylomorphism is very similar to the Aristotelian doctrine.

Music

Albert is known for his commentary on the musical practice of his times. Most of his written musical observations are found in his commentary on Aristotle's Poetics. He rejected the idea of "music of the spheres" as ridiculous: movement of astronomical bodies, he supposed, is incapable of generating sound. He wrote extensively on proportions in music, and on the three different subjective levels on which plainchant could work on the human soul: purging of the impure; illumination leading to contemplation; and nourishing perfection through contemplation. Of particular interest to 20th-century music theorists is the attention he paid to silence as an integral part of music.

Metaphysics of morals

Both of his early treatises, De natura boni and De bono, start with a metaphysical investigation into the concepts of the good in general and the physical good. Albert refers to the physical good as bonum naturae. Albert does this before directly dealing with the moral concepts of metaphysics. In Albert's later works, he says in order to understand human or moral goodness, the individual must first recognize what it means to be good and do good deeds. This procedure reflects Albert's preoccupations with neo-Platonic theories of good as well as the doctrines of Pseudo-Dionysius. [32] Albert's view was highly valued by the Catholic Church and his peers.

Natural law

Albert devoted the last tractatus of De Bono to a theory of justice and natural law. Albert places God as the pinnacle of justice and natural law. God legislates and divine authority is supreme. Up until his time, it was the only work specifically devoted to natural law written by a theologian or philosopher. [33]

Friendship

Albert mentions friendship in his work, De bono, as well as presenting his ideals and morals of friendship in the very beginning of Tractatus II. Later in his life he published Super Ethica. [34] With his development of friendship throughout his work it is evident that friendship ideals and morals took relevance as his life went on. Albert comments on Aristotle's view of friendship with a quote from Cicero, who writes, "friendship is nothing other than the harmony between things divine and human, with goodwill and love". Albert agrees with this commentary but he also adds in harmony or agreement. [35] Albert calls this harmony, consensio, itself a certain kind of movement within the human spirit. Albert fully agrees with Aristotle in the sense that friendship is a virtue. Albert relates the inherent metaphysical contentedness between friendship and moral goodness. Albert describes several levels of goodness; the useful (utile), the pleasurable (delectabile) and the authentic or unqualified good (honestum). Then in turn there are three levels of friendship based on each of those levels, namely friendship based on usefulness (amicitia utilis), friendship based on pleasure (amicitia delectabilis), and friendship rooted in unqualified goodness (amicitia honesti; amicitia quae fundatur super honestum). [36]

Cultural references

The tympanum and archivolts of Strasbourg Cathedral, with iconography inspired by Albertus Magnus France Strasbourg Cathedral Tympanum.jpg
The tympanum and archivolts of Strasbourg Cathedral, with iconography inspired by Albertus Magnus

The iconography of the tympanum and archivolts of the late 13th-century portal of Strasbourg Cathedral was inspired by Albert's writings. [37] Albert is frequently mentioned by Dante, who made his doctrine of free will the basis of his ethical system. In his Divine Comedy , Dante places Albertus with his pupil Thomas Aquinas among the great lovers of wisdom (Spiriti Sapienti) in the Heaven of the Sun. Albert is also mentioned, along with Agrippa and Paracelsus, in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein , in which his writings influence a young Victor Frankenstein.

In The Concept of Anxiety , Søren Kierkegaard wrote that Albert, "arrogantly boasted of his speculation before the deity and suddenly became stupid." Kierkegaard cites Gotthard Oswald Marbach whom he quotes as saying "Albertus repente ex asino factus philosophus et ex philosopho asinus" [Albert was suddenly transformed from an ass into a philosopher and from a philosopher into an ass]. [38]

Johann Eduard Erdmann considers Albert greater and more original than his pupil Aquinas. [39]

Influence and tribute

Painting by Joos (Justus) van Gent, Urbino, c. 1475 Albertus Magnus Painting by Joos van Gent.jpeg
Painting by Joos (Justus) van Gent, Urbino, c. 1475

A number of schools have been named after Albert, including Albertus Magnus High School in Bardonia, New York; [40] Albertus Magnus Lyceum in River Forest, Illinois; and Albertus Magnus College in New Haven, Connecticut. [41]

Albertus Magnus Science Hall at Thomas Aquinas College, in Santa Paula, California, is named in honor of Albert. The main science buildings at Providence College and Aquinas College in Grand Rapids, Michigan, are also named after him.

The central square at the campus of the University of Cologne features a statue of Albert and is named after him.

The Academy for Science and Design in New Hampshire honored Albert by naming one of its four houses Magnus House.

As a tribute to the scholar's contributions to the law, the University of Houston Law Center displays a statue of Albert. It is located on the campus of the University of Houston.

The Albertus-Magnus-Gymnasien is found in Rottweil, Germany.

In Managua, Nicaragua, the Albertus Magnus International Institute, a business and economic development research center, was founded in 2004.

University of Santo Tomas in the Philippines University of Santo Tomas.jpg
University of Santo Tomas in the Philippines

In The Philippines, the Albertus Magnus Building at the University of Santo Tomas that houses the Conservatory of Music, College of Tourism and Hospitality Management, College of Education, and UST Education High School is named in his honor. The Saint Albert the Great Science Academy in San Carlos City, Pangasinan, which offers preschool, elementary and high school education, takes pride in having St. Albert as their patron saint. Its main building was named Albertus Magnus Hall in 2008. San Alberto Magno Academy in Tubao, La Union is also dedicated in his honor. This century-old Catholic high school continues to live on its vision-mission up to this day, offering Senior High school courses. Due to his contributions to natural philosophy, the plant species Alberta magna and the asteroid 20006 Albertus Magnus were named after him.

Numerous Catholic elementary and secondary schools are named for him, including schools in Toronto; Calgary; Cologne; and Dayton, Ohio.

The Albertus typeface is named after him. [42] At the University of Notre Dame du Lac in South Bend, Indiana, USA, the Zahm House Chapel is dedicated to St. Albert the Great. Fr. John Zahm, C.S.C., after whom the men's residence hall is named, looked to St. Albert's example of using religion to illumine scientific discovery. Fr. Zahm's work with the Bible and evolution is sometimes seen as a continuation of St. Albert's legacy.

Located in Groningen, The second largest student's fraternity of the Netherlands is named Albertus Magnus, in honour of the saint.

The Colegio Cientifico y Artistico de San Alberto, Hopelawn, New Jersey, USA with a sister school in Nueva Ecija, Philippines was founded in 1986 in honor of him who thought and taught that religion, the sciences and the arts may be advocated as subjects which should not contradict each other but should support one another to achieve wisdom and reason.

The Vosloorus catholic parish (located in Vosloorus Extension One, Ekurhuleni, Gauteng, South Africa) is named after the saint.

The catholic parish in Leopoldshafen, near Karlsruhe in Germany is also named after him also considering the huge research center of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology nearby, as he is the patron saint of scientists.

Since the death of King Albert I, the King's Feast is celebrated in Belgium on Albert's feast day.

Edinburgh's Catholic Chaplaincy serving the city's universities is named after St Albert.

Bibliography

Translations

See also

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Thomas Aquinas was an Italian Dominican friar, Philosopher, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church. He is an immensely influential philosopher, theologian, and jurist in the tradition of scholasticism, within which he is also known as the Doctor Angelicus and the Doctor Communis. The name Aquinas identifies his ancestral origins in the county of Aquino in present-day Lazio, Italy. He was the foremost classical proponent of natural theology and the father of Thomism; of which he argued that reason is found in God. His influence on Western thought is considerable, and much of modern philosophy developed or opposed his ideas, particularly in the areas of ethics, natural law, metaphysics, and political theory.

Servais-Théodore Pinckaers Belgian Catholic Moral Theologian, Dominican Priest

Servais-Théodore Pinckaers O.P. was a noted moral theologian, Roman Catholic priest, and member of the Dominican Order. He has been especially influential in the renewal of a theological and Christological approach to Christian virtue ethics.

Benedict M. Ashley, O.P., was an American theologian and philosopher who had a major influence on 20th century Catholic theology and ethics in America through his writing, teaching, and consulting with the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. Author of 19 books, Ashley was a major exponent of the River Forest Thomism. Health Care Ethics, which he co-authored in 1975 and now in its fifth edition, continues to be a fundamental text in the field of Catholic Medical Ethics. Ashley taught at numerous institutions and was an active teacher, consultant, and author. He was a faculty member of the Institute for Advanced Physics, a physics research and educational organization reintegrating the foundational principles given directly through our senses into the heart of modern science, from 2003 till his death. He called the Institute for Advanced Physics "the first and only institution addressing this problem [the disintegration of secular and religious culture] at its core by integrating the proper philosophical depth into the heart of modern science."

Aevum

In Scholastic philosophy, the aevum is the mode of existence experienced by angels and by the saints in heaven. In some ways, it is a state that logically lies between the eternity (timelessness) of God and the temporal experience of material beings. It is sometimes referred to as "improper eternity". The word aevum is Latin, originally signifying "age", "aeon", or "everlasting time"; the word aeviternity comes from the Medieval Latin neologism aeviternitas.

Medieval philosophy

Medieval philosophy is the philosophy that existed through the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century to the Renaissance in the 15th century. Medieval philosophy, understood as a project of independent philosophical inquiry, began in Baghdad, in the middle of the 8th century, and in France, in the itinerant court of Charlemagne, in the last quarter of the 8th century. It is defined partly by the process of rediscovering the ancient culture developed in Greece and Rome during the Classical period, and partly by the need to address theological problems and to integrate sacred doctrine with secular learning.

Bonaventura of Iseo was an Italian Friar Minor, diplomat, theologist and alchemist.

Saint Albert the Great Science Academy is a private Catholic school, consisting of an Early Childhood center and elementary and high school departments. Founded in 2004, under the patronage of St. Albert the Great and inspiration of Our Blessed Mother Mary.

References

Citations

  1. Hilde de Ridder-Symoens (ed.). A History of the University in Europe: Volume 1, Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 1991, p. 439.
  2. Albertus Magnus, De IV coaequaevis, tract. 2, qu. 3.
  3. Henricus Bate, Helmut Boese, Carlos Steel, On Platonic Philosophy, Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1990, p. xvi.
  4. Irven Resnick (ed.), A Companion to Albert the Great: Theology, Philosophy, and the Sciences, BRILL, 2012, p. 4; Thomas F. Glick, Steven Livesey, Faith Wallis (eds.), Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia, Routledge, 2014, p. 15; Pope Benedict XVI, Great Christian Thinkers: From the Early Church Through the Middle Ages, Fortress Press, 2011, p. 281.
  5. Latin : Albertus Teutonicus, Albertus Coloniensis.
  6. Weisheipl, James A. (1980), "The Life and Works of St. Albert the Great", in Weisheipl, James A. (ed.), Albertus Magnus and the Sciences: Commemorative Essays, Studies and texts, 49, Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, p. 46, ISBN   978-0-88844-049-5
  7. Joachim R. Söder, "Albert der Grosse – ein staunen- erregendes Wunder," Wort und Antwort 41 (2000): 145; J.A. Weisheipl, "Albertus Magnus," Joseph Strayer ed., Dictionary of the Middle Ages 1 (New York: Scribner, 1982) 129.
  8. 1 2 Tugwell, Simon. Albert and Thomas, New York Paulist Press, 1988, p. 3, 96–7
  9. Tugwell 1988, pp. 4–5.
  10. 1 2 Kovach, Francs, and Rober Shahan. Albert the Great: Commemorative Essays . Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980, p.X
  11. Hampden, The Life, p. 33.
  12. 1 2 3 Kennedy, Daniel. "St. Albertus Magnus." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 10 Sept. 2014
  13. Grange, Antoine Rivet de la; Clément, François; (Dom), Charles Clémencet; Daunou, Pierre Claude François; Clerc, Joseph Victor Le; Hauréau, Barthélemy; Meyer, Paul (1838). Histoire littéraire de la France: XIIIe siècle. 19. p. 103. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
  14. Probably Florentius de Hidinio, a.k.a. Florentius Gallicus, Histoire littéraire de la France: XIIIe siècle, Volume 19, p. 104, Accessed October 27, 2012
  15. Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, Volume 10, p. 701. Accessed 9 June 2011
  16. Weisheipl O.P., J. A., "The Place of Study In the Ideal of St. Dominic" Archived 2010-12-29 at the Wayback Machine , 1960. Accessed 19 March 2013
  17. 1 2 3 Führer, Markus, "Albert the Great", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2014 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.),
  18. "Zeittafel". Gemeinden.erzbistum-koeln.de. Retrieved 2013-08-09.
  19. Carroll Cruz, Joan (1977). The Incorruptibles: A Study of the Incorruption of the Bodies of Various Catholic Saints and Beati . Charlotte, NC: TAN Books. ISBN   978-0-89555-066-8.
  20. Wolpert, Lewis (2004-09-01). "Much more from the chicken's egg than breakfast – a wonderful model system". Mechanisms of Development. 121 (9): 1015–1017. doi:10.1016/j.mod.2004.04.021. ISSN   0925-4773. PMID   15296967.
  21. 1 2 Wyckoff, Dorothy (1967). Book of Minerals. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. Preface.
  22. Katz, David A., "An Illustrated History of Alchemy and Early Chemistry", 1978
  23. Georg Wieland, "Albert der Grosse. Der Entwurf einer eigenständigen Philosophie," Philosophen des Mittelalters (Darmstadt: Primus, 2000) 124-39.
  24. Walsh, John, The Thirteenth, Greatest of Centuries. 1907:46 (available online).
  25. Emsley, John (2001). Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 43, 513, 529. ISBN   978-0-19-850341-5.
  26. Davidson, Michael W.; National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at The Florida State University (2003-08-01). "Molecular Expressions: Science, Optics and You — Timeline — Albertus Magnus". The Florida State University. Archived from the original on 2010-03-30. Retrieved 2009-11-28.
  27. Szabadváry, Ferenc (1992). History of analytical chemistry. Taylor & Francis. p. 17. ISBN   978-2-88124-569-5.
  28. Julian Franklyn and Frederick E. Budd. A Survey of the Occult. Electric Book Company. 2001. p. 28-30. ISBN   1-84327-087-0.
  29. Paola Zambelli, "The Speculum Astronomiae and its Enigma" Dordrecht.
  30. 1 2 Scott E. Hendrix, How Albert the Great's Speculum Astronomiae Was Interpreted and Used by Four Centuries of Readers (Lewiston: 2010), 44-46.
  31. Hendrix, 195.
  32. Cunningham, Stanley. Reclaiming Moral Agency: The Moral Philosophy of Albert the Great. Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University Of America Press, 2008 p. 93
  33. Cunningham, Stanley. Reclaiming Moral Agency: The Moral Philosophy of Albert the Great. Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University Of America Press, 2008 p.207
  34. Cunningham, Stanley. Reclaiming Moral Agency: The Moral Philosophy of Albert the Great. Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University Of America Press, 2008 p.242
  35. Cunningham, Stanley. Reclaiming Moral Agency: The Moral Philosophy of Albert the Great. Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University Of America Press, 2008 p.243
  36. Cunningham, Stanley. Reclaiming Moral Agency: The Moral Philosophy of Albert the Great. Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University Of America Press, 2008 p.244
  37. France: A Phaidon Cultural Guide, Phaidon Press, 1985, ISBN   0-7148-2353-8, p. 705
  38. The Concept of Anxiety, Princeton University Press, 1980, ISBN   0-691-02011-6, pp. 150–151
  39. Erdmann - History of Philosophy vol 1 trans Hough - London 1910. p. 422
  40. "Albertus Magnus High School". Albertusmagnus.net. Retrieved 2013-08-09.
  41. "Albertus Magnus College". Albertus.edu. Retrieved 2013-08-09.
  42. Ambrose, Gavin; Harris, Paul (2010-10-04). The Visual Dictionary of Typography. ISBN   9782940411184.

Sources

Further reading