Albian

Last updated
System/
Period
Series/
Epoch
Stage/
Age
Age (Ma)
Paleogene Paleocene Danian younger
Cretaceous Upper/
Late
Maastrichtian 66.072.1
Campanian 72.183.6
Santonian 83.686.3
Coniacian 86.389.8
Turonian 89.893.9
Cenomanian 93.9100.5
Lower/
Early
Albian 100.5~113.0
Aptian ~113.0~125.0
Barremian ~125.0~129.4
Hauterivian ~129.4~132.9
Valanginian ~132.9~139.8
Berriasian ~139.8~145.0
Jurassic Upper/
Late
Tithonian older
Subdivision of the Cretaceous system
according to the ICS, as of 2017. [1]

The Albian is both an age of the geologic timescale and a stage in the stratigraphic column. It is the youngest or uppermost subdivision of the Early/Lower Cretaceous epoch/series. Its approximate time range is 113.0 ± 1.0 Ma to 100.5 ± 0.9 Ma (million years ago). The Albian is preceded by the Aptian and followed by the Cenomanian. [2]

A geologic age is a subdivision of geologic time that divides an epoch into smaller parts. A succession of rock strata laid down in a single age on the geologic timescale is a stage.

In chronostratigraphy, a stage is a succession of rock strata laid down in a single age on the geologic timescale, which usually represents millions of years of deposition. A given stage of rock and the corresponding age of time will by convention have the same name, and the same boundaries.

Stratigraphic column

A stratigraphic column is a representation used in geology and its subfield of stratigraphy to describe the vertical location of rock units in a particular area. A typical stratigraphic column shows a sequence of sedimentary rocks, with the oldest rocks on the bottom and the youngest on top.

Contents

Stratigraphic definitions

The Albian stage was first proposed in 1842 by Alcide d'Orbigny. It was named after Alba, the latin name for River Aube in France,

Alcide dOrbigny French scientist

Alcide Charles Victor Marie Dessalines d'Orbigny was a French naturalist who made major contributions in many areas, including zoology, palaeontology, geology, archaeology and anthropology.

Aube (river) River in France

The Aube is a river in France, a right tributary of the Seine. It is 248 kilometres (154 mi) long. The river gives its name to the Aube department.

France Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories

France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

A Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP), ratified by the IUGS in 2016, defines the base of the Albian as the first occurrence of the planktonic foraminiferan Microhedbergella renilaevis at the Col de Pré-Guittard section, Arnayon, Drôme, France. [3]

Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point

A Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point, abbreviated GSSP, is an internationally agreed upon reference point on a stratigraphic section which defines the lower boundary of a stage on the geologic time scale. The effort to define GSSPs is conducted by the International Commission on Stratigraphy, a part of the International Union of Geological Sciences. Most, but not all, GSSPs are based on paleontological changes. Hence GSSPs are usually described in terms of transitions between different faunal stages, though far more faunal stages have been described than GSSPs. The GSSP definition effort commenced in 1977. As of 2012, 64 of the 101 stages that need a GSSP have been formally defined.

Foraminifera phylum of amoeboid protists

Foraminifera are members of a phylum or class of amoeboid protists characterized by streaming granular ectoplasm for catching food and other uses; and commonly an external shell of diverse forms and materials. Tests of chitin are believed to be the most primitive type. Most foraminifera are marine, the majority of which live on or within the seafloor sediment, while a smaller variety float in the water column at various depths. Fewer are known from freshwater or brackish conditions, and some very few (nonaquatic) soil species have been identified through molecular analysis of small subunit ribosomal DNA.

Hedbergellidae is an extinct family of foraminifera belonging to the superfamily Rotaliporoidea and the suborder Globigerinina.

The top of the Albian stage (the base of the Cenomanian stage and Upper Cretaceous series) is defined as the place where the foram species Rotalipora globotruncanoides first appears in the stratigraphic column. [4]

The Albian is sometimes subdivided in Early/Lower, Middle and Late/Upper subages or substages. In western Europe, especially in the UK, a subdivision in two substages (Vraconian and Gaultian) is more often used.

Lithofacies

The following representatives of the Albian stage are worthy of notice: the phosphorite beds of the Argonne and Bray areas in France; the Flammenmergel of northern Germany; the lignites of Utrillas in Spain; the Upper sandstones of Nubia, and the Fredericksburg beds of North America. [5]

Phosphorite non-detrital sedimentary rock which contains high amounts of phosphate bearing minerals

Phosphorite,phosphate rock or rock phosphate is a non-detrital sedimentary rock which contains high amounts of phosphate minerals. The phosphate content of phosphorite (or grade of phosphate rock) varies greatly, from 4% to 20% phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5). Marketed phosphate rock is enriched ("beneficiated") to at least 28%, often more than 30% P2O5. This occurs through washing, screening, de-liming, magnetic separation or flotation. By comparison, the average phosphorus content of sedimentary rocks is less than 0.2%. The phosphate is present as fluorapatite Ca5(PO4)3F typically in cryptocrystalline masses (grain sizes < 1 μm) referred to as collophane-sedimentary apatite deposits of uncertain origin. It is also present as hydroxyapatite Ca5(PO4)3OH or Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, which is often dissolved from vertebrate bones and teeth, whereas fluorapatite can originate from hydrothermal veins. Other sources also include chemically dissolved phosphate minerals from igneous and metamorphic rocks. Phosphorite deposits often occur in extensive layers, which cumulatively cover tens of thousands of square kilometres of the Earth's crust.

Forest of Argonne site of Meuse-Argonne Offensive

The Forest of Argonne is a long strip of rocky mountain and wild woodland in north-eastern France, three hours east of Paris, France. In 1792 Charles François Dumouriez outmaneuvered the invading forces of the Duke of Brunswick in the forest before the Battle of Valmy.

Pays de Bray

The Pays de Bray is a small natural region of France situated to the north-east of Rouen, straddling the French departments of the Seine-Maritime and the Oise. The landscape is of bocage, a land use which arises from its clay soil; suited to the development of pasture for the raising of dairy cattle. It produces famous butters and cheeses such as Neufchâtel.

Paleontology

Ankylosaurs

Ankylosaurs of the Albian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages
Acanthopholis Acanthopholis suposed.jpg
Acanthopholis
Animantarx Animantarx.jpg
Animantarx
Pawpawsaurus Pawpawsaurus campbelli.jpg
Pawpawsaurus
Sauropelta Sauropelta jconway.png
Sauropelta
Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, USA
Aptian to ?Albian Ulansuhai Formation, Inner Mongolia, China
Aptian to Albian Cloverly Formation, Wyoming, Montana, Utah, USAA medium-sized nodosaurid, measuring about 5 meters (16.5 ft) long, Sauropelta had a distinctively long tail which made up about half of its body length. Its neck and back were protected by an extensive bony body armor including characteristically large spines
Mongolia
Dakota Formation, Kansas, USAA nodosaurid estimated to have been approximately four meters in length (13 ft). Besides the usual rounded and polygonal osteoderms, Silvisaurus may have also sported bony spines on its shoulders and tail
Late Albian to early Cenomanian Frontier Formation, Wyoming, USAA poorly known genus of nodosaurid
Paw Paw Formation, Texas, USAPoorly known, probably a nodosaurid

Birds (avian theropods)

Birds of the Albian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages
Jeholornis Jeholornis mmartyniuk wiki.jpg
Jeholornis

Bony fish

Bony fish of the Albian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages
Thrissops Thrissops formosus.jpg
Thrissops
Xiphactinus XiphactinusDB.jpg
Xiphactinus
Alabama, Georgia and Kansas, USA; Czech Republic; Canada; Australia

Cartilaginous fish

Cartilaginous fish of the Albian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages
Western Interior Seaway, North America
Cretoxyrhina mantelli Cretoxyrhina mantelli 21DB.jpg
Cretoxyrhina mantelli
Ischyodus Ischyodus avitus.JPG
Ischyodus
Scapanorhynchus Scapanorhynchus raphiodon.jpg
Scapanorhynchus
Europe, Russia, North America and New Zealand

†Ceratopsia

Ceratopsia of the Albian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages
Gobi Desert, MongoliaHad an intermediate phylogenetic position between Liaoceratops and Archaeoceratops within Neoceratopia
Yamaceratops Yamaceratops BW.jpg
Yamaceratops

Crocodylomorphs

Crocodylomorphs of the Albian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages
Africa
Sarcosuchus Sarcosuchus BW.jpg
Sarcosuchus

†Ichthyosaurs

Ichthyosaurs of the Albian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages
Platypterigius Platypterigius longmani DB.jpg
Platypterigius

Mammalia

Mammals of the Albian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages
several species from Hauterivian to AlbianSpain, Mongolia
Steropodon Steropodon BW.jpg
Steropodon
Lightning Ridge, New South Wales, Australia
Lightning Ridge, New South Wales, Australia

†Ornithopods

Ornithopods of the Albian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages
Khukhtek Formation, Dornogovi Province, MongoliaAn advanced iguanodontian, just basal to the family Hadrosauridae
Altirhinus Altirhinus 01.JPG
Altirhinus
Eolambia Eolambia.png
Eolambia
Leaellynasaura Leaellynasaura BW.jpg
Leaellynasaura
Muttaburrasaurus Muttaburrasaurus NT.jpg
Muttaburrasaurus
Nanyangosaurus Nanyangosaurus dinosaur.png
Nanyangosaurus
Probactrosaurus Probactrosaurus v3.jpg
Probactrosaurus
Qantassaurus Qantassaurus sketch1.jpg
Qantassaurus
Tenontosaurus Tenontosaurus BW.jpg
Tenontosaurus
Theiophytalia TheiophytaliaType.jpg
Theiophytalia
Aptian/Albian Dinosaur Cove, Victoria, Australia2–3 meters long hypsilophodont
Albian-Cenomanian Utah, USAAn iguanodont
China
Mongolia
ChinaAn early hadrosauroid iguanodont, about 17 – 20 feet (5 – 6 metres) in length. It had a narrow snout, an elongated lower jaw and double rows of flattened cheek teeth. It was a possible ancestor of the duck-billed dinosaurs.
Barremian to Albian
Aptian to Albian Purgatoire Formation, Colorado, USAAn iguanodont described as intermediate in derivation between Camptosaurus and Iguanodon
Aptian to Albian Cloverly Formation, Montana, USAHypsilophodont

Plesiosaurs

Plesiosauria of the Albian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages
Aptian to Albian Hughenden district, Queensland, AustraliaAmong the largest pliosaurs, body-length estimates put the total length of Kronosaurus at 9–10 meters
Kronosaurus Kronosaurus.jpg
Kronosaurus

†Pterosauria

Pterosaurs of the Albian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages
Berriasian-Albian Cambridge Greensand, United Kingdom
Coloborhynchus Coloborhynchus piscator jconway.jpg
Coloborhynchus
Pterodaustro Pterodaustro BW.jpg
Pterodaustro
Thalassodromeus Thalassodromeus DB.jpg
Thalassodromeus
Tupuxuara Tupuxuara.jpg
Tupuxuara
Zhejiangopterus Zhenjiangopterus jconway.jpg
Zhejiangopterus
Toolebuc Formation, Queensland, Australia
Morocco; Santana Formation, Brazil; Paw Paw Formation, Texas, USA
Albian-Turonian Chalk Formation and Cambridge Greensand, England
Lianmuxin Formation, Xinjiang, China
Toolebuc Formation, Queensland, Australia
Cambridge Greensand, England
Valanginian to Albian Lagarcito Formation, Argentina
Aptian or Albian Santana Formation, Brazil
Aptian to early AlbianSantan do Cariri, Brazil; St Gallen, Switzerland
Albian or Cenomanian Santana Formation, Brazil
?Zhejiang, China

†Sauropods

Sauropods of the Albian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages
Mid to Late AlbianUtah, USA
Astrodon Astrodon johnstoni .jpg
Astrodon
Brontomerus Brontomerus utahraptor2.jpeg
Brontomerus
Sauroposeidon Sauroposeidon proteles.jpg
Sauroposeidon
EgyptThe only known bones of this sauropod were destroyed in World War II.
Early CretaceousBrazil
Swampoodle, Arundel Formation, Prince George's County, Maryland; Antlers Formation, Oklahoma
AlgeriaThe bones referred to "B." nougaredi probably belong to more than one different species.
Atian-AlbianUtah
South America
Aptian or AlbianMontana
Aptian-early AlbianOklahomaThis sauropod weighed up to 60 tonnes, making it one of the largest known dinosaurs.
early AlbianTunisiaTataouinea had highly pneumatic pelvic bones, suggesting that sauropods had abdominal air sacs.
Aptian-Albian Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah
Winton Formation, Queensland, Australia

†Theropods (non-avian)

Theropods of the Albian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages
North America
Acrocanthosaurus Museum of Natural Science Acrocanthosaurus.jpg
Acrocanthosaurus
Alxasaurus Alxasaurus YWRA 400.JPG
Alxasaurus
Deinonychus Deinonychus BW-2.png
Deinonychus
Fukuiraptor Fukuiraptor BW.jpg
Fukuiraptor
Spinosaurus Spinosaurus skull steveoc.jpg
Spinosaurus
Suchomimus Suchomimus BW.jpg
Suchomimus
Utahraptor Utahraptor Restoration.png
Utahraptor
Asia
Northern Africa
Niger
North America
France
Japan
France
South America
Africa
Africa
Australia
North AmericaThe largest known dromaeosaurid

Ammonites

Ammonitida

  • Moffitites
Originating in Lower Albian strata

The following is a list of Ammonite genera whose fossils are geochronologically found first in lower Albian strata. These genera may survive into later portions of the Albian stage, or even into later geological stages. This list should not be thought of in terms of the lifespan of the genera included.

Puzosia Puzosia sp Madagascar.PNG
Puzosia
Originating in Middle Albian strata

The following is a list of Ammonite genera whose fossils are geochronologically found first in middle Albian strata. These genera may survive into later portions of the Albian stage, or even into later geological stages. This list should not be thought of in terms of the lifespan of the genera included.

Mortoniceras from South Africa Mortoniceras inflatum 01.JPG
Mortoniceras from South Africa
Originating in Upper Albian strata

The following is a list of Ammonite genera whose fossils are geochronologically found first in upper Albian strata. These genera may survive into later portions of the Albian stage, or even into later geological stages. This list should not be thought of in terms of the lifespan of the genera included.

Scaphites SmallScaphites.jpg
Scaphites

†Belemnites

Belemnites of the Albian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages
Belemnites BelemniteDB2.jpg
Belemnites

Nautiloids

Nautiloids of the Albian
TaxaPresenceLocationDescriptionImages
An illustration of a variety of fossil nautiloids. Cameroceras trentonese.jpg
An illustration of a variety of fossil nautiloids.

Phylloceratida

Related Research Articles

In the geological timescale the Tithonian is the latest age of the Late Jurassic epoch or the uppermost stage of the Upper Jurassic series. It spans the time between 152.1 ± 4 Ma and 145.0 ± 4 Ma. It is preceded by the Kimmeridgian and followed by the Berriasian stage.

The Toarcian is, in the ICS' geologic timescale, an age and stage in the Early or Lower Jurassic. It spans the time between 182.7 Ma and 174.1 Ma. It follows the Pliensbachian and is followed by the Aalenian.

The Aalenian is a subdivision of the Middle Jurassic epoch/series of the geologic timescale that extends from about 174.1 Ma to about 170.3 Ma. It was preceded by the Toarcian and succeeded by the Bajocian.

In the geologic timescale, the Anisian is the lower stage or earliest age of the Middle Triassic series or epoch and lasted from 247.2 million years ago until 242 million years ago. The Anisian age succeeds the Olenekian age and precedes the Ladinian age.

The Aptian is an age in the geologic timescale or a stage in the stratigraphic column. It is a subdivision of the Early or Lower Cretaceous epoch or series and encompasses the time from 125.0 ± 1.0 Ma to 113.0 ± 1.0 Ma, approximately. The Aptian succeeds the Barremian and precedes the Albian, all part of the Lower/Early Cretaceous.

In the geologic timescale, the Bajocian is an age and stage in the Middle Jurassic. It lasted from approximately 170.3 Ma to around 168.3 Ma. The Bajocian age succeeds the Aalenian age and precedes the Bathonian age.

In the geologic timescale the Bathonian is an age and stage of the Middle Jurassic. It lasted from approximately 168.3 Ma to around 166.1 Ma. The Bathonian age succeeds the Bajocian age and precedes the Callovian age.

In the geologic timescale, the Valanginian is an age or stage of the Early or Lower Cretaceous. It spans between 139.8 ± 3.0 Ma and 132.9 ± 2.0 Ma. The Valanginian stage succeeds the Berriasian stage of the Lower Cretaceous and precedes the Hauterivian stage of the Lower Cretaceous.

In the geologic timescale, the Callovian is an age and stage in the Middle Jurassic, lasting between 166.1 ± 4.0 Ma and 163.5 ± 4.0 Ma. It is the last stage of the Middle Jurassic, following the Bathonian and preceding the Oxfordian.

The Campanian is the fifth of six ages of the Late Cretaceous epoch on the geologic timescale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS). In chronostratigraphy, it is the fifth of six stages in the Upper Cretaceous series. Campanian spans the time from 83.6 to 72.1 million years ago. It is preceded by the Santonian and it is followed by the Maastrichtian.

The Carnian is the lowermost stage of the Upper Triassic series. It lasted from 237 to 227 million years ago (Ma). The Carnian is preceded by the Ladinian and is followed by the Norian. Its boundaries are not characterized by major extinctions or biotic turnovers, but a climatic event occurred during the Carnian and seems to be associated with important extinctions or biotic radiations.

The Cenomanian is, in the ICS' geological timescale the oldest or earliest age of the Late Cretaceous epoch or the lowest stage of the Upper Cretaceous series. An age is a unit of geochronology: it is a unit of time; the stage is a unit in the stratigraphic column deposited during the corresponding age. Both age and stage bear the same name.

The Turonian is, in the ICS' geologic timescale, the second age in the Late Cretaceous epoch, or a stage in the Upper Cretaceous series. It spans the time between 93.9 ± 0.8 Ma and 89.8 ± 1 Ma. The Turonian is preceded by the Cenomanian stage and underlies the Coniacian stage.

The Coniacian is an age or stage in the geologic timescale. It is a subdivision of the Late Cretaceous epoch or Upper Cretaceous series and spans the time between 89.8 ± 1 Ma and 86.3 ± 0.7 Ma. The Coniacian is preceded by the Turonian and followed by the Santonian.

The Santonian is an age in the geologic timescale or a chronostratigraphic stage. It is a subdivision of the Late Cretaceous epoch or Upper Cretaceous series. It spans the time between 86.3 ± 0.7 mya and 83.6 ± 0.7 mya. The Santonian is preceded by the Coniacian and is followed by the Campanian.

In the geologic timescale, the Sinemurian is an age and stage in the Early or Lower Jurassic epoch or series. It spans the time between 199.3 ± 2 Ma and 190.8 ± 1.5 Ma. The Sinemurian is preceded by the Hettangian and is followed by the Pliensbachian.

In the geologic timescale, the Kimmeridgian is an age or stage in the Late or Upper Jurassic epoch or series. It spans the time between 157.3 ± 1.0 Ma and 152.1 ± 0.9 Ma. The Kimmeridgian follows the Oxfordian and precedes the Tithonian.

In the geologic timescale, the Olenekian is an age in the Early Triassic epoch or a stage in the Lower Triassic series. It spans the time between 251.2 Ma and 247.2 Ma. The Olenekian follows the Induan and is followed by the Anisian.

The Ladinian is a stage and age in the Middle Triassic series or epoch. It spans the time between 242 Ma and ~237 Ma. The Ladinian was preceded by the Anisian and succeeded by the Carnian.

The Norian is a division of the Triassic geological period. It has the rank of an age (geochronology) or stage (chronostratigraphy). The Norian lasted from ~227 to 208.5 million years ago. It was preceded by the Carnian and succeeded by the Rhaetian.

References

Notes

  1. http://www.stratigraphy.org/index.php/ics-chart-timescale
  2. For a detailed geologic timescale, see Gradstein et al. (2004)
  3. Kennedy, J.W.; Gale, A.S.; Huber, B.T.; Petrizzo, M.R.; Bown, P.; Jenkyns, H.C. (2017). "The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Albian Stage, of the Cretaceous, the Col de Pré-Guittard section, Arnayon, Drôme, France". Episodes. 40 (3): 177–188. doi:10.18814/epiiugs/2017/v40i3/017021.
  4. See Kennedy et al. (2004) for a description of the GSSP for the Cenomanian
  5. Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Howe, John Allen (1911). "Albian". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica . 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 505.
  6. Mortimer, Mickey. "List of Dromaeosaurids". Archived from the original on October 3, 2011. Retrieved July 8, 2011.

Literature