|Born|| 10 February, 1524|
Danzig, Kingdom of Poland
|Died|| 1 August, 1580|
Danzig, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
|Occupation||Merchant, councilman, Mayor of Gdańsk|
Albrecht Giese (10 February, 1524 – 1 August, 1580) was a councilman and diplomat of the city of Gdańsk (Danzig). He was a member of the Hanseatic League, and part of an important merchant family who had offices in London and Danzig.
Gdańsk is a Polish city on the Baltic coast. With a population of 464,254, Gdańsk is the capital and largest city of the Pomeranian Voivodeship and the capital of Kashubia. It is Poland's principal seaport and the centre of the country's fourth-largest metropolitan area.
Giese was born in Gdańsk (Danzig), in the Kingdom of Poland, to the influential and wealthy merchant Patrician family Giese (or Gisze). The Giese family had emigrated from Unna, near Giesen, Cologne in 1430.They were part of the Hanseatic League, that had come to dominate European trade in the 14th and 15th-centuries. The Giese family maintained offices in London, at the Steelyard , where Hanseatic and foreign merchants congregated and his sons appear to have managed the London branch.
The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania joined in a personal union established by the Union of Krewo (1385). The union was transformed into a closer one by the Union of Lublin in 1569, which was shortly followed by the end of the Jagiellon dynasty, which had ruled Poland for two centuries.
Patricianship, the quality of belonging to a patriciate, began in the ancient world, where cities such as Ancient Rome had a class of patrician families whose members were the only people allowed to exercise many political functions. In the rise of European towns in the 12th and 13th century, the patriciate, a limited group of families with a special constitutional position, in Henri Pirenne's view, was the motive force. In 19th century central Europe, the term had become synonymous with the upper Bourgeoisie and can't be compared with the medieval patriciate in Central Europe. In the German speaking parts of Europe as well as in the maritime republics of Italy, the patricians were as a matter of fact the ruling body of the medieval town and particularly in Italy part of the nobility.
The Hanseatic League was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe. Growing from a few North German towns in the late 1100s, the league came to dominate Baltic maritime trade for three centuries along the coasts of Northern Europe. Hansa territories stretched from the Baltic to the North Sea and inland during the Late Middle Ages, and diminished slowly after 1450.
Albrecht studied at the Universities of Greifswald, Wittenberg and Heidelberg. As was the custom of the time for Hanseatic merchants, he toured Europe for several years to learn different languages after his formal studies, as was necessary for a long-distance trader. In 1564, on his return to Danzig, he married Elisabeth Langenbeck, whose uncle, Johann Ferber, had been the Mayor of Danzig.The following year, Giese became a councilman. Over the next six years, he was Danzig's delegate at several Hanse meetings in Lübeck.
The University of Greifswald is a public research university located in Greifswald, Germany, in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
The Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, also referred to as MLU, is a public, research-oriented university in the cities of Halle and Wittenberg in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. MLU offers German and international (English) courses leading to academic degrees such as BA, BSc, MA, MSc, doctoral degrees and Habilitation.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.
Open conflict between the Polish king and the city council broke out when the city council was arrested for opposing the loss of certain privileges according to the terms of the declared Union of Lublin, which the city had not agreed to. Negotiations between the city and the king took place in 1568/69, initially at Piotrków Trybunalski. Giese was a member of a delegation, led by the mayor of the city, Johann Brandes in negotiations. Despite being subjected to severe pressure and incarceration for a year at Kraków [ citation needed ], the delegation refused to submit to the king's terms, thereby upholding independence, Giese and Councilor Georg Kleefeld were eventually released in 1570 against a ransom of 100,000 guilders.
The Union of Lublin was signed on 1 July 1569, in Lublin, Poland, and created a single state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. It replaced the personal union of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with a real union and an elective monarchy, since Sigismund II Augustus, the last of the Jagiellons, remained childless after three marriages. In addition, the autonomy of Royal Prussia was largely abandoned. The Duchy of Livonia, tied to Lithuania in real union since the Union of Grodno (1566), became a Polish–Lithuanian condominium.
Piotrków Trybunalski is a city in central Poland with 74,694 inhabitants (2016). It is situated in the Łódź Voivodeship, and was previously the capital of the Piotrków Voivodeship (1975–1998). It is the capital of Piotrków County.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków was the official capital of Poland until 1596 and has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, economic, cultural and artistic life. Cited as one of Europe's most beautiful cities, its Old Town was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Giese ultimately became Mayor of Danzig. In 1579, Giese was named royal burgrave of Danzig by the Polish king, a position that entailed the supervision of the judiciary system of the city.
Burgrave also rendered as Burggrave, was since the medieval period in Europe the official title for the ruler of a castle, especially a royal or episcopal castle, and its territory called a Burgraviate or Burgravate. The burgrave was a "count" in rank equipped with judicial powers, under the direct authority of the Emperor or King, or of a territorial imperial state—a prince-bishop or territorial lord. The responsibilities were administrative, military and jurisdictional. A burgrave, who ruled over a substantially large territory, may also have possessed the regality of coinage, and could mint their own regional coins.
Albrect and Elisabeth Giese had at least seven children.Two of his sons enjoyed prominent careers. One of his older sons, Tiedemann Giese, became the Bishop of Chełm (Culm) and later, Prince-Bishop of Warmia (Ermland), while one of the younger sons, Georg Giese became a merchant and who is noted for having his portrait painted by Hans Holbein the younger.
Tiedemann Giese, was Bishop of Kulm (Chełmno) first canon, later Prince-Bishop of Warmia (Ermland). His interest in mathematics, astronomy and theology led him to mentor to a number of important young scholars, including Copernicus. He was a prolific writer and correspondent, publishing a number of works on the reformation of the church. Tiedemann was a member of the patrician Giese family of Danzig (Gdańsk) in Poland. The Giese family ancestors originated from Unna in Westphalia, near Cologne. His father was Albrecht Giese and his younger brother, the Hanseatic League merchant Georg Giese.
Georg Giese was a prominent Hanseatic merchant, who managed his family's office at London's Steelyard for at least 12 years, and is noted for having had his portrait painted by Hans Holbein the Younger.
Albrecht Giese died in 1580 in Danzig.
Georg Joachim de Porris, also known as Rheticus, was a mathematician, astronomer, cartographer, navigational-instrument maker, medical practitioner, and teacher. He is perhaps best known for his trigonometric tables and as Nicolaus Copernicus's sole pupil. He facilitated the publication of his master's De revolutionibus orbium coelestium.
The triquetrum was the medieval name for an ancient astronomical instrument first described by Ptolemy in the Almagest. Also known as Parallactic Rulers, it was used for determining altitudes of heavenly bodies. Ptolemy calls it a "parallactic instrument" and seems to have used it to determine the zenith distance and parallax of the Moon.
The Steelyard, from the Middle Low German Stalhof, was the main trading base (kontor) of the Hanseatic League in London during 15th and 16th centuries.
Georg Pencz was a German engraver, painter and printmaker.
Lucas Watzenrode the Elder (1400–1462) was a merchant in the Hanseatic Prussian city of Thorn (Toruń), father of Bishop Lucas Watzenrode the Younger, and grandfather of astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus.
Mauritius Ferber was a member of the patrician Ferber family. As Roman Catholic Prince-Bishop of Warmia (Ermland), he prevented most towns in his diocese from converting to Protestantism while the surrounding hitherto Catholic State of the Teutonic Order was transformed into the Duchy of Prussia and became the first state to adopt Lutheranism.
Johann(es) Petreius was a German printer in Nuremberg.
De libris revolutionum Copernici narratio prima, usually referred to as Narratio Prima, is an abstract of Nicolaus Copernicus' heliocentric theory, written by Georg Joachim Rheticus in 1540. It is an introduction to Copernicus's major work, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, published in 1543, largely due to Rheticus's instigation. Narratio Prima is the first printed publication of Copernicus's theory.
Johann Haller or Jan Haller (1463–1525) is considered one of the first commercial printers in Poland.
The Treaty of Utrecht was signed in 1474 after the Anglo-Hanseatic War between England and the Hanseatic League.
The Anglo-Hanseatic War was a conflict fought between England and the Hanseatic League, led by the cities of Danzig (Gdańsk) and Lübeck, that lasted from 1469 to 1474. Causes of the war include increasing English pressure against the trade of the Hanseatic cities on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
Franz Rhode was a German printer of the 16th century.
Giese is a German surname. Especially since the mid-19th century, people with this name have migrated throughout the world and now form an extensive diaspora in countries such as the United States and Australia, where they have lived for several generations.
Antonio Urceo, called Codro was an Italian humanist who taught grammar and eloquence in Bologna.
Alexander von Suchten was an alchemist, doctor and writer.
Portrait of Georg Giese is a 1532 portrait by Hans Holbein the Younger, now in the Gemäldegalerie, Berlin. It is one of a series of portraits of wealthy Hanseatic merchants made by Holbein in the 1530s. This series of portraits signals the increasing importance of the emerging merchant class, as they took their place on a world stage.