Aldan Highlands

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Aldan Highlands
Алданское нагорье / Алдан үрдэлэ
Ozero Bol'shoe Toko.jpg
Highest point
Elevation 2,306 m (7,566 ft)
Dimensions
Length600 km (370 mi)
Width300 km (190 mi)
Geography
Relief Yakutia.png
Red triangle with thick white border.svg
Location in the Sakha Republic, Russia
Country Russia
Federal subject Sakha Republic
Range coordinates 57°0′N128°0′E / 57.000°N 128.000°E / 57.000; 128.000 Coordinates: 57°0′N128°0′E / 57.000°N 128.000°E / 57.000; 128.000
Parent range South Siberian System
Geology
Age of rock Precambrian [1] and Late Archaean
Type of rock Gneiss, slate, Granulite and amphibolite
Climbing
Easiest route from Aldan

The Aldan Highlands, or Aldan Plateau (Russian:Алданское нагорье, tr. Aldanskoye Nagorye; Yakut : Алдан үрдэлэ) [2] are a mountainous area in the Sakha Republic, Far Eastern Federal District, Russia.

Contents

The Olyokma Nature Reserve is a protected area located on the northwestern side, partly within the neighboring Lena Plateau. [3]

History

The area of the Aldan and the Yudoma-Maya highlands, between the basins of the Aldan River and the Yudoma, was uncharted territory well until the 1930s. It was first surveyed in 1934 by geologist Yuri Bilibin (1901—1952) together with mining engineer Evgeny Bobin (1897—1941) in the course of an expedition sent by the government of the USSR. Bilibin and Bobin made a thorough topographic survey of the mountainous region leading separate research parties. [4]

Geography

The Aldan Highlands are located at the southern end of the Sakha Republic, between the Aldan River and the Uchur River. The Aldan partly crosses the uplands in the north, in the same manner as the Amga River in the west. The highlands are limited by the Stanovoy Range to the southwest, south and southeast, and by the Olyokma River in the northwest, beyond which lies the Lena Plateau. Besides the Aldan and the Amga, the rivers of the highlands include the Buotama, the Amedichi, the Elkon, the Ulu, the Bolshoy Nimnyr, the Timpton and the Tuolba. [5]

Aldan town and Tommot are located in the northern area of the highlands and Chulman in the south. [6]

Subranges

The system of the Aldan Highlands comprises a number of subranges. Mountains are of middle height and their relief is usually smooth. The highest point is an unnamed 2,306 m (7,566 ft) summit. The ranges within the uplands include the following: [7]

The Aldan River flowing across the highlands. Vid s berega (Kyllakhskii khrebet) - panoramio.jpg
The Aldan River flowing across the highlands.
A bend in the Chulman River. Poezdka v Neriungrinskii raion, 2017 (151).jpg
A bend in the Chulman River.

Geology

The highlands are composed of Archean crystalline slates and gneisses. The Aldan Highlands coincide geographically with the Aldan Shield, a geological region that is an exposed part of the Siberian Craton. Together with the Anabar Shield further to the northwest, the Aldan Shield is one of the main features of the craton. [8]

Flora

The mountains of the highlands are covered by larch taiga up to elevations between 1,100 and 1,300 m and by rocky tundra at higher altitudes. [5]

Related Research Articles

Verkhoyansk Range Mountain range in eastern Siberia, Russia

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Lena (river) River in Russia

The Lena is the easternmost of the three great Siberian rivers that flow into the Arctic Ocean. Permafrost underlies most of the catchment, 77% of which is continuous. It is 4,294 kilometres (2,668 mi) long, and has a drainage basin of 2,490,000 square kilometres (960,000 sq mi). The Lena is the eleventh-longest river in the world, and the longest river in Russia.

Aldan (river)

The Aldan is the second-longest, right tributary of the Lena in the Sakha Republic in eastern Siberia. The river is 2,273 kilometres (1,412 mi) long, of which around 1,600 kilometres (990 mi) is navigable. It has a drainage basin of 729,000 square kilometres (281,000 sq mi). It was part of the River Route to Okhotsk. In 1639 Ivan Moskvitin ascended the rivers Aldan and Maya and crossed to the Ulya to reach the Sea of Okhotsk.

Stanovoy Range Mountain range in Sakha Republic, Russia

The Stanovoy Range, is a mountain range located in the southern Sakha Republic, Far Eastern Federal District. It is also known as Sükebayatur and Sükhbaatar in Mongolian, Stanovoy Mountains, or Outer Khingan Range. The range was first studied and scientifically described by Russian researcher Alexander von Middendorff.

Amga (river)

The Amga is a river in Sakha (Yakutia), Russia. The length of the river is 1,462 kilometres (908 mi). The area of its basin is 69,300 square kilometres (26,800 sq mi). The Amga freezes up in the first half of October and stays under the ice until May. Many different kinds of Fish can be found in the Amga river.

Maya (river)

The Maya is a river in Khabarovsk Krai and Sakha, Russia. It is a right tributary of the Aldan of the Lena basin. The length of the river is 1,053 kilometres (654 mi). The area of its basin 171,000 square kilometres (66,000 sq mi). The Maya freezes up in late October and stays under the ice until May. The Yudoma is one of the biggest tributaries of the Maya. The river is navigable up to 500 kilometres (310 mi) upstream from its mouth.

Tommot Town under district jurisdiction in Sakha Republic, Russia

Tommot is a town in Aldansky District of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located on the Aldan River 390 kilometers (240 mi) southwest of Yakutsk, the capital of the republic, and 70 kilometers (43 mi) northeast of Aldan, the administrative center of the district. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 8,057.

Aldansky District District in Sakha Republic, Russia

Aldansky District is an administrative and municipal district, one of the thirty-four in the Sakha Republic, Russia.

Amur–Yakutsk Mainline

The Amur–Yakutsk Mainline, abbreviated to AYaM is a partially complete railway in eastern Russia, linking the Trans-Siberian Railway and Baikal–Amur Mainline with the Sakha Republic.

Suntar-Khayata Range

Suntar-Khayata Range is a granite mountain range rising along border of Sakha Republic in the north with Amur Oblast and Khabarovsk Krai in the south.

Yudoma

The Yudoma is a river in eastern Siberia in the Yudoma-Maya Highlands near the Okhotsk Coast. It joins the Maya which joins the Aldan which joins the Lena which flows into the Arctic Ocean. Its northern headwaters are in the Suntar-Khayata Range. To the east is the Yudoma Range and then the Okhota, to the south the Maya and to the northwest, the Allakh-Yun, another tributary of the Aldan.

Stanovoy Highlands

The Stanovoy Highlands or Stanovoy Uplands is a mountain range in the Transbaikal region of Siberia, Russia.

Yukaghir Highlands

The Yukaghir Highlands are a mountainous area in the Sakha Republic and Magadan Oblast, Far Eastern Federal District, Russia.

Lena Plateau

The Lena Plateau, also known as Prilensky Plateau, is one of the great plateaus of Siberia. Administratively it is mostly within the Sakha Republic (Yakutia), with a small sector in the Irkutsk Oblast, Far Eastern Federal District, Russia. The plateau is named after the Lena River, which flows across it.

Yudoma-Maya Highlands

The Yudoma-Maya Highlands (Russian: Юдомо-Майское нагорье, tr.Yudomo-Maiskoye Nagorye are a mountainous area in the Sakha Republic and Khabarovsk Krai, Far Eastern Federal District, Russia.

Sette-Daban

The Sette-Daban is a range of mountains in far North-eastern Russia. Administratively the range belongs partly to the Sakha Republic and partly to the Khabarovsk Krai of the Russian Federation. The area of the Sette-Daban is largely uninhabited. The R504 Kolyma Highway passes through the northern part of the range.

Anabar Plateau

The Anabar Plateau is a mountain plateau in Krasnoyarsk Krai and the Sakha Republic (Yakutia), Siberia, Russia.

Aldan Shield

Aldan Shield is a shield in Siberia. It is an exposed basement of the Siberian Craton. Together with the Anabar Shield further to the northwest, the Aldan Shield is one of the main features of the craton.

South Siberian Mountains Series of mountain ranges in Russia and Mongolia

The South Siberian Mountains are one of the largest mountain systems of the Russian Federation. The total area of the system of mountain ranges is more than 1.5 million km². The South Siberian Mountains are located in the Siberian and Far Eastern Federal Districts of Russia, as well as partly in Mongolia. The territory of the mountain system is one of the Great Russian Regions.

Patom Highlands

The Patom Highlands are a mountainous area in Eastern Siberia, Russia. Administratively most of the territory of the uplands is part of Irkutsk Oblast, with a smaller section in northern Transbaikal Krai.

References

  1. The tectonics and metallogeny of the Precambrian of the Aldan-Stanovoy Shield
  2. Геоморфология России (Geomorphology of Russia)
  3. "Olyokma Zapovednik (Official Site)" (in Russian). Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (Russia). Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
  4. Essays on the History of Geographical Discoveries (in Russian)
  5. 1 2 Алданское нагорье / Great Russian Encyclopedia; in 35 vol.] / Ch. ed. Yu.S. Osipov . - M .: Great Russian Encyclopedia, 2004—2017.
  6. Google Earth
  7. Oleg Leonidovič Kryžanovskij, A Checklist of the Ground-beetles of Russia and Adjacent Lands. p. 15
  8. Archean crustal evolution of the Aldan Shield, Siberia: Geochemical and Isotopic Constraints