Aleksander Tõnisson

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Aleksander Tõnisson
Kindralmajor Aleksander Tonisson (17.04.1875 - lasti maha 30.06.1941), ERM Fk 2625-7.jpg
Born17 April 1875
Pööra, Tartu County, Russian Empire, (now Puurmani Parish, Jõgeva County, Estonia)
Died30 June 1941 (1941-07-01) (aged 66)
Tallinn, Estonia
AllegianceFlag of The Russian Empire 1883.svg  Russian Empire
Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia
Years of service1899–1917 Imperial Russian Army
1918–1934 Estonian Army
Rank Kindralmajor
Unit Imperial Russian Army
Estonian Army
Battles/wars Russo-Japanese war
World War I
Estonian War of Independence
Awards Cross of Liberty

Aleksander Tõnisson VR I/1 (17 April 1875 – 30 June 1941) was an Estonian military commander (Major General) during the Estonian War of Independence.


In 1899 he graduated from Vilnius Military Academy. Tõnisson participated in Russo-Japanese war and in World War I. In 1917 he participated in formation of Estonian national units and as commander of 1st Estonian regiment participated in battles at Riga front. In 1918 he escaped from German occupation to Finland, returned in autumn and became commander of 1st Division of Estonia. During Estonian Liberation War Tõnisson fought successfully at Viru Front. After war he served twice as minister of defence, in 1934 he retired from military and was mayor of Tartu 1934–1939 and Lord Mayor (ülemlinnapea) of Tallinn 1939–1940. In 1940 Soviet occupation authorities arrested Tõnisson and executed him the following year.

Honours and awards

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Political offices
Preceded by
August Hanko
Minister of War
Succeeded by
Ants Piip
Preceded by
August Kerem
Minister of Defence
Succeeded by
August Kerem
Preceded by
Hans Ainson
Mayor of Tartu
Succeeded by
Robert Sinka
Preceded by
Jaan Soots
Lord Mayor of Tallinn
Succeeded by
Aleksander Kiidelmaa