Alexander, Prince of Orange

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Alexander
Prince of Orange
Alexander, Prince of Orange, Prince of the Netherlands.jpg
Born(1851-08-25)25 August 1851
Noordeinde Palace, The Hague, Netherlands
Died 21 June 1884(1884-06-21) (aged 32)
The Hague, Netherlands
Burial 17 July 1884
Nieuwe Kerk, Delft, Netherlands
Full name
Willem Alexander Karel Hendrik Frederik
House Orange-Nassau
Father William III of the Netherlands
Mother Sophie of Württemberg

Alexander, Prince of Orange (Willem Alexander Karel Hendrik Frederik; 25 August 1851 – 21 June 1884), was heir apparent to his father King William III of the Netherlands from 11 June 1879 until his death.

An heir apparent or heiress apparent is a person who is first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person. An heir presumptive, by contrast, is someone who is first in line to inherit a title but who can be displaced by the birth of a more eligible heir.

Contents

For a span of 116 years, from the birth of Alexander (1851) until the birth of the present king Willem-Alexander (1967), no male heirs were born into the Dutch Royal House.

Life

Prince Alexander of the Netherlands was born in The Hague on 25 August 1851. [1] He was the third child of King William III and Queen Sophie. His second brother, Prince Maurice had died the previous year. [2] Unlike his brother William, the heir-apparent, he was disciplined, intellectual and well-read. His mother, Queen Sophie died in 1877. After Prince William's death two years later on 11 June 1879, he became heir apparent to the Dutch throne and as such the Prince of Orange.

The Hague City and municipality in South Holland, Netherlands

The Hague is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland. It is also the seat of government of the Netherlands.

William III of the Netherlands King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg 1849 - 1890

William III was King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg from 1849 until his death in 1890. He was also the Duke of Limburg from 1849 until the abolition of the duchy in 1866.

Sophie of Württemberg Queen consort of the Netherlands

Sophie of Württemberg was Queen of the Netherlands as the first wife of King William III.

Alexander held the position of heir apparent until his own death, at age 32, on 21 June 1884 in The Hague from typhus. [1] Although he never married, negotiations were held for him to marry, firstly Princess Thyra of Denmark, and supposedly secondly the Infanta Marie Anne of Portugal. He was buried in the new royal burial vault in the Nieuwe Kerk in Delft on 17 July 1884. [3] After his death, his half-sister, the future Queen Wilhelmina, became heir presumptive to the Dutch throne. [4] Alexander's death meant that on the death of William III the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg came into the hands of Duke Adolphus from the Walram line of the House of Nassau, as under the terms of the house-treaty a princess could not succeed to that title.

Typhus group of infectious diseases

Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus. Common symptoms include fever, headache, and a rash. Typically these begin one to two weeks after exposure.

Princess Thyra of Denmark youngest daughter of Christian IX of Denmark and Louise of Hesse-Kassel

Princess Thyra of Denmark, Danish pronunciation: [ˈtyːʁə], was the youngest daughter and fifth child of Christian IX of Denmark and Louise of Hesse-Kassel. In 1878, she married Ernest Augustus, the exiled heir to the Kingdom of Hanover. As the Kingdom of Hanover had been annexed by Prussia in 1866, she spent most of her life in exile with her husband in Austria.

Infanta Marie Anne of Portugal Grand Duchess consort and regent of Luxembourg

Infanta Marie Anne of Portugal was Grand Duchess of Luxembourg as the wife of Grand Duke Guillaume IV and the country's regent in the name of their daughter, Grand Duchess Marie-Adélaïde. She was a member of the House of Braganza.

Prince Alexander was Grand Master of the Grand Orient of the Netherlands.

A Grand Master is a title of honour as well as an office in Freemasonry, given to a freemason elected to oversee a Masonic jurisdiction, derived from the office of Grand Masters in chivalric orders. He presides over a Grand Lodge, and has certain rights in the constituent Lodges that form his jurisdiction. In most, but not all cases, the Grand Master is styled "Most Worshipful Grand Master." One example of a differing title exists in the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, where the Grand Master is titled "Right Worshipful". Under the Grand Lodge of Scotland the role is titled "Grand Master Mason".

The Grand Orient of the Netherlands or Grand East of the Netherlands is a Masonic Grand Lodge in the Netherlands. It falls within the mainstream Anglo-American tradition of Freemasonry, being recognized by The United Grand Lodge of England and the 51 Grand Lodges in the United States. In addition to its jurisdiction over nine districts in the Netherlands, it also administers three Lodges in Suriname through the Provincial Grand Lodge of Suriname, three lodges in Curaçao, one in South Africa, one in Thailand, and through the Provincial Grand Lodge of the Caribbean, three lodges in Aruba and one in St. Maarten. In the Netherlands it claims to have 145 lodges with 5,792 members.

Titles and styles

Kingdom of the Netherlands Sovereign state in Europe and the Caribbean

The Kingdom of the Netherlands, commonly known as the Netherlands, is a sovereign state and constitutional monarchy with the large majority of its territory in Western Europe and with several small island territories in the Caribbean Sea, in the West Indies islands.

House of Orange-Nassau branch of the European House of Nassau

The House of Orange-Nassau, a branch of the European House of Nassau, has played a central role in the politics and government of the Netherlands and Europe especially since William the Silent organized the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule, which after the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) led to an independent Dutch state.

Prince of Orange title originally from the Principality of Orange

Prince of Orange is a title originally associated with the sovereign Principality of Orange, in what is now southern France. Under the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713, Frederick William I of Prussia ceded the Principality of Orange to King Louis XIV of France. After William III of England died without children, a dispute arose between Johan Willem Friso and Frederick I of Prussia, which was settled in the Treaty of Partition (1732); consequently, Friso's son, William IV had to share use of the title "Prince of Orange" with Frederick William I of Prussia. The title is traditionally borne by the heir apparent of the Dutch monarch. The title descends via absolute primogeniture since 1983, meaning that its holder can be either Prince or Princess of Orange.

Ancestry

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References

  1. 1 2 (in Dutch) Prins Alexander (1851 -1884) Archived 2008-09-18 at the Wayback Machine .. Retrieved on 2008-07-28.
  2. (in Dutch) Stamboom Koninklijk Huis Archived 2008-07-26 at the Wayback Machine .. Retrieved on 2008-07-28.
  3. The royal burial vaults. Retrieved on 2008-07-28.
  4. "Genealogy of the Royal Family of the Netherlands". Archived from the original on 2009-10-28. Retrieved 2013-05-04.
Alexander, Prince of Orange
Born: 25 August 1851 Died: 21 June 1884
Dutch royalty
Preceded by
Willem
Prince of Orange
1879-1884
Vacant
Title next held by
Willem-Alexander