Alexander Cameron Rutherford

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Rutherford was now premier but had not yet faced the people in an election and did not yet have a legislature to which he could propose legislation. [30] Elections for the first Legislative Assembly of Alberta were accordingly fixed for November 9. [30] The Conservatives, the young province's only other political party, had already selected R. B. Bennett as their leader. [26] Bennett attacked the terms under which Alberta had been made a province, especially the clauses that left control of its lands and natural resources in the hands of the federal government and required the continued provincial funding of separate schools. [31] He pointed out that Canada's older provinces had control of their own natural resources and that education was a provincial responsibility under the British North America Act. [30] [31] The Liberals responded to such criticisms by highlighting the financial compensation the province received from the federal government in exchange for control of its natural resources, which amounted to $375,000 per year. [30] They further suggested that the Conservatives' concern for control of lands to be caused by desire to make favourable land concessions to the unpopular Canadian Pacific Railway, which had long been friendly with the Conservatives and for which Bennett had acted as solicitor. [32]

Conservative leader R. B. Bennett was Rutherford's opponent in the 1905 election. Young R. B. Bennett.JPG
Conservative leader R. B. Bennett was Rutherford's opponent in the 1905 election.

Besides the Conservatives' ties to the CPR, Rutherford's Liberals enjoyed the incumbent's advantage of controlling the levers of patronage, and the election's result was never really in doubt. [33] Before the election, Talbot predicted that the government would win 18 of the province's 25 seats. [34] Immediately after the election, it appeared that the Liberals had won 21. When all the votes had been counted, the Liberals won 23 seats to the Conservatives' two. [34] Bennett himself was defeated in his Calgary riding. [34] When the outcome was clear, the people of Strathcona feted Rutherford with a torchlight procession and bonfire. [35]

First legislature and regional tensions

One of the most contentious issues facing the newly-elected government was the decision of the province's capital city. The federal legislation creating the province had fixed Edmonton as the provisional capital, much to the chagrin of Calgary. [36] Neither party had taken a position on the divisive question during the campaign, [31] but selecting a permanent capital was high on the list of the new legislature's orders of business. [37] Calgary's case was made most enthusiastically by Minister of Public Works Cushing, Edmonton's by Attorney-General Cross. [37] Banff and Red Deer were also possibilities, but motions to select each failed to find seconders. [37] In the end, Edmonton was designated by a vote of sixteen members, including Rutherford, to eight. [37]

A personal priority of Rutherford had been the establishment of a university. [38] Though the Edmonton Bulletin opined that it would be unfair "that the people of the Province should be taxed for the special benefit of four per cent that they may be able to attach the cognomen of B.A. or M.A. to their names and flaunt the vanity of such over the taxpayer, who has to pay for it," Rutherford proceeded quickly. [38] He was concerned that delay might result in the creation of denominational colleges, striking a blow to his dream of a high-quality nonsectarian system of postsecondary education. [39] A bill establishing the university was passed by the legislature but left the government to decide the location. [40] Calgary felt that having lost the fight to be provincial capital, it could expect the university to be established there, [38] and it was not pleased when, a year late the government announced the founding of the University of Alberta in Rutherford's hometown, Strathcona. [40]

Rutherford as Premier Premier Rutherford.jpg
Rutherford as Premier

While the regionally-charged issues attracted much attention, they were far from the government's only initiatives during the legislature's first session. In 1906, it passed a series of acts dealing with the organization and administration of the new provincial government and incorporated the cities of Lethbridge, Medicine Hat, and Wetaskiwin. [41] It also established a speed limit of 20 miles per hour (32 km/h) for motorized vehicles and set up a regime for mine inspection. [42] Perhaps most significantly, it set up a court system, [43] with Arthur Lewis Sifton as the province's first Chief Justice. [44]

Though the founding of the University of Alberta was the centrepiece of Rutherford's educational policy, his activity as Minister of Education extended well beyond it. In the first year of Alberta's existence, 140 new schools were established, and a normal school was set up in Calgary to train teachers. [41] Rutherford put great emphasis on the creation of English-language schools in the large portions of the province that were occupied primarily by Central and Eastern European immigrants. [41] The immigrants themselves were often unable to speak English, and the provision of these schools for their children was a major factor in their rapid assimilation into Albertan society. [45] They were also in lieu of separate religious schools for groups such as Mennonites. While the continued existence of Roman Catholic separate schools was mandated by the terms of Alberta's admission into Confederation, the government's policy was otherwise to encourage a unified and secular public school system. [45] Rutherford also introduced free school texts in the province but was criticized for commissioning the texts from a Toronto publisher, which printed them in New York, rather than locally. [46]

Labour unrest

The winter of 1906–07 was the coldest in [[Alberta's history and was exacerbated by a shortage of coal. [47] One cause of this shortage was the strained relationship between coal miners and mine operators in the province. [47] At the beginning of April 1907, the Canada West Coal and Coke Company locked out the miners from its mine near Taber. [48] The same company was also facing a work stoppage at its mine in the Crow's Nest Pass, where miners were refusing to sign a new contract. [48] The problem spread until by April 22, all 3,400 miners working for member-companies of the Western Coal Operators' Association were off work. [48] Miners' demands included increased wages, [48] a reduction in working hours to eight per day (from ten), the posting of mine inspection reports, the isolated storage of explosives, the use of non-freezing explosives, and semi-monthly rather than monthly pay. The mine operators objected to this last point on the basis that since many miners did not report to work the day after payday, it desirable to keep paydays to a minimum. [44]

Arthur Sifton chaired the commission inquiring into conditions in Alberta's coal mines and later succeeded Rutherford as Premier. Arthur Sifton2.jpg
Arthur Sifton chaired the commission inquiring into conditions in Alberta's coal mines and later succeeded Rutherford as Premier.

Rutherford's government appointed a commission in February, but it was not until May that it met. [44] It consisted of Chief Justice Arthur Sifton, mining executive Lewis Stockett, and miners' union executive William Haysom. [44] It began taking evidence in July. [44] In the meantime, a May agreement saw most miners return to work at increased rates of pay. Coal supply promptly increased, as did its price. [44] In August, the commission released its recommendations, which included a prohibition on children under 16 working in mines, the posting of inspectors' reports, mandatory bath houses at mine sites, and improved ventilation inspection. It also recommended for Albertans to keep a supply of coal on hand during the summer for winter use. [44] The commission was silent on wages (other than to say that these should not be fixed by legislation), the operation of company stores (a sore point among the miners), and the incorporation of miners' unions, which was recommended by mine management but opposed by the unions. [49]

The committee also made no recommendation about working hours, but Rutherford's government legislated an eight-hour day anyway. [50] As well, Rutherford's government also passed workers' compensation legislation designed to make such compensation automatic, rather than requiring the injured worker to sue his employer. [51] Labour representatives criticized the bill for failing to impose fines on negligent employers, for limiting construction workers' eligibility under the program to injuries sustained while they were working on buildings more than 40 feet (12 m) high, and for exempting casual labourers. It also viewed the maximum payout of $1,500 as inadequate. [52] In response to these concerns, the maximum was increased to $1,800 and the minimum building height reduced to 30 feet (9.1 m). [52] In response to farmers' concerns, farm labourers were made exempt from the bill entirely. [52]

Rutherford's relationship with organized labour was never easy. Historian L.G. Thomas argued that there was little indication that Rutherford had any interest in courting the labour vote. [50] In 1908, Labour candidate Donald McNabb was elected in a Lethbridge by-election; the riding had previously been held by a Liberal. [50] McNabb was the first Labour MLA elected in Alberta (he was defeated in his 1909 re-election bid). [53]

Public works

Rutherford's Liberals self-identified as the party of free enterprise, in contrast to the Conservatives, who supported public ownership [54] Still the Liberals made a limited number of large-scale forays into government operation of utilities, the most notable of which being the creation of Alberta Government Telephones. [40] In 1906, Alberta's municipalities legislation was passed and included a provision authorizing municipalities to operate telephone companies. [55] Several, including Edmonton, did so, alongside private companies. [55] The largest private company was the Bell Telephone Company, which held a monopoly over service in Calgary. [55] Such monopolies and the private firms' refusal to extend their services into sparsely-populated and unprofitable rural areas aroused demand for provincial entry into the market, which was effected in 1907. [56] The government constructed a number of lines, beginning with one between Calgary and Banff, and it also purchased Bell's lines for $675,000. [57]

Alberta's public telephone system was financed by debt, which was unusual for a government like Rutherford's, which was generally committed to the principle of "pay as you go". [58] Rutherford's stated rationale was that the cost of such a large capital project should borne by a single generation and that incurring debt to finance a corresponding asset was, in contrast to operating deficits, acceptable. [57] Though the move was popular at the time, it would prove not to be financially astute. By focusing on areas neglected by existing companies, the government was entering into the most expensive and least profitable fields of telecommunication. [55] Such problems would not come to fruition until Rutherford had left office, however. In the short term, the government's involvement in the telephone business helped it to a sweeping victory in the 1909 election. [59] The Liberals won 37 of 41 seats in the newly expanded legislature. [60]

Of equal profile was Rutherford's government's management of the province's railways. Alberta's early years were optimistic and manifested itself in a pronounced enthusiasm for the construction of new railway lines. [61] Every town wanted to be a railway centre, and the government had great confidence in the ability of the free market to provide low freight rates to the province's farmers if sufficient charters were issued to competing companies. [62] The legislature passed government-sponsored legislation setting out a framework for new railways in 1907, but interest from private firms in actually building the lines was limited. [63]

In the face of public demand and support by legislators of all parties for as rapid as possible an expansion of the province's lines, the government offered loan guarantees to several companies in exchange for commitments to build lines. [64] Rutherford justified this in part by his conviction that railways needed to expand along with population, rather than have railway expansion follow population growth, which would be the case without government intervention. [64] The Conservatives argued that the strategy did not go far enough, and they called for direct government ownership. [61]

Rutherford's official portrait. Alexander Rutherford.jpg
Rutherford's official portrait.

While most public works issues were handled by Public Works Minister Cushing, but after the 1909 election, Rutherford named himself as the province's first Minister of Railways. [65]

Railway scandal

John R. Boyle led the dissident Liberals during the railway scandal. John R. Boyle, lawyer.jpg
John R. Boyle led the dissident Liberals during the railway scandal.

When the legislature met for the first time after the 1909 election, things seemed to be going well for Rutherford and his government. [60] He controlled a huge majority, albeit slightly reduced from the 1905 election, and enjoyed widespread popularity. [60] His government had achieved significant success in setting up a new province, and success looked poised to continue. [59] Early in this new legislative session, however, two signs of trouble appeared: Liberal backbencher John R. Boyle began to ask questions about the agreement between the government and the Alberta and Great Waterways Railway Company, and Cushing resigned from cabinet over his views of this same agreement. [66]

The Alberta and Great Waterways Railway was one of several companies that had been granted charters and assistance by the legislature to build new railways in the province. [64] The government support that it received was more generous than that received by the more established railways, such as the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway and the Canadian Northern Railway. [64] Boyle, Cushing, and Bennett alleged favouritism or ineptitude by Rutherford and his government, and they pointed to the sale of government-guaranteed bonds in support of the company as further evidence. [67] Because of the high interest rate they paid, the bonds were sold at above par value, but the government received only par for them and left the company to pocket the difference. [68]

Boyle sponsored a motion of non-confidence against the government. [69] Despite enjoying the support of twelve Liberals, including Cushing, the motion was defeated and the government upheld. [70] Rutherford attempted to quell the controversy by calling a royal commission, [71] but pressure from many Liberals, including Bulyea, led him to resign May 26, 1910. He was replaced by Arthur Sifton, hitherto the province's chief judge. [72]

In November, the royal commission issued its report [73] that found that the evidence did not show a conflict of interest on Rutherford's part, but the majority report was nevertheless highly critical of the former premier. [74] A minority report was much kinder by avowing perfect satisfaction with Rutherford's version of events. [75]

Later life

Later political career

Before the 1911 federal election, several local Liberals opposed to Frank Oliver asked Rutherford to run against him in Strathcona. [76] Relations between Oliver and Rutherford had always been chilly. Oliver was implacably opposed to Cross and viewed him as a rival for dominance of the Liberal Party in Alberta, [77] and his Edmonton Bulletin had taken the side of the dissidents during the railway scandal. [76] A nominating meeting unanimously nominated Rutherford as Liberal candidate, but Oliver refused to accept its legitimacy and awaited a later meeting. [76] Before the meeting came to pass, however, Rutherford abruptly withdrew. [78] Historian Douglas Babcock suggested that to be caused by the Conservatives' nomination of William Antrobus Griesbach, dashing Rutherford's hopes that his popularity among Conservatives would preclude them from opposing him. [79] Rumours at the time alleged that Rutherford had been asked to make a personal contribution of $15,000 to his campaign fund and had balked. [78] Rutherford himself cited a desire to avoid splitting the vote on reciprocity, which he and Oliver both favoured but Griesbach opposed. [79] Whatever the reason for Rutherford's standing aloof from the election, Oliver was nominated as Liberal candidate and was re-elected. [79]

After resigning as premier, Rutherford continued to sit as a Liberal MLA. [76] He commanded the loyalty of many Liberals who had supported his government through the Alberta and Great Waterways issue, [80] but the faction began increasingly to see Cross as its real leader. [81] Rutherford opposed the Sifton government's decision to confiscate the Alberta and Great Waterways bond money and revoke its charter, [80] and in 1913, he was one of only two Liberals to support a non-confidence motion against the government [79] (Cross had by now joined the Sifton cabinet, which placated most members of the Cross-Rutherford faction. [76]

In the 1913 election, Rutherford was again nominated as the Liberal candidate in Edmonton South (Strathcona had been amalgamated into Edmonton in 1912), [82] despite pledging opposition to the Sifton government and offering to campaign around the province for the Conservatives if they agreed not to run a candidate against him. [83] At the nomination meeting, he stated that he was "not running as a Sifton candidate" and was "a good independent candidate ... and a good Liberal too". [84] Despite his opposition to the government, Conservatives declined his offer of support and nominated Herbert Crawford to run against him. [83] After a vigorous campaign, Crawford defeated Rutherford by fewer than 250 votes. [84] Cross lobbied Prime Minister Laurier for Rutherford to be appointed to the Senate. He was unsuccessful, but Rutherford was made King's Counsel shortly after his electoral defeat. [85]

Rutherford took a strong line against the Sifton government and was nominated as Conservative candidate for the 1917 provincial election but stood down after being named as Alberta director of the National Service (conscription). (EB, November 6, 1916)

In the 1921 Alberta general election, he campaigned actively for the Conservatives, including for Crawford, who had defeated him eight years earlier. [86] Rutherford continued to call himself a Liberal but criticized the incumbent administration for the growth of the provincial debt and for letting the party fall into disarray. [86] Calling the Charles Stewart government "rotten" and holding a grudge against cabinet minister John R. Boyle in particular, he offered voters the slogan "get rid of the barnacles and the Boyles", a homonymic reference to the parasitic growth on the side of a ship. [86] He may have been thrilled to see the Liberal government fall in the election but probably less so when he saw that the triumphant United Farmers of Alberta had also whittled the Conservatives down to only one seat. [87]

Professional career

Once out of politics, Rutherford returned to his law practice. His partnership with Jamieson saw partners come and go. [88] Rutherford divided his time between the original Strathcona office and the Edmonton office that he opened in 1910. His practice focussed on contracts, real estate, wills and estates, and incorporations. [88] In 1923, Rutherford's son Cecil joined the firm, along with Stanley Harwood McCuaig, who, in 1919, would marry Rutherford's daughter Hazel. [89] In 1925, Jamieson left the partnership to establish his own firm. [89] In 1939, McCuaig did the same. [89] Cecil's partnership with his father continued until the latter's death. [90]

Rutherford in his law office, 1911 Rutherford in law office.jpg
Rutherford in his law office, 1911

Besides his work as a lawyer, Alexander Rutherford was involved in a number of business enterprises. [89] He was President of the Edmonton Mortgage Corporation and Vice President and solicitor of the Great Western Garment Company. [89] The latter enterprise, which Rutherford co-founded, was a great success: established in 1911 with eight seamstresses, it had quadrupled in size within a year. [89] During the Second World War, it made military uniforms and was reputed to be the largest garment operation in the British Empire. [91] It was acquired by Levi Strauss & Co. in 1961 but continued to manufacture garments in Edmonton until 2004. [92]

Rutherford also acted as director of the Canada National Fire Insurance Company, the Imperial Canadian Trust Company, the Great West Permanent Loan Company, and the Monarch Life Assurance Company. [89]

University of Alberta

Education was a personal priority of Rutherford, as evidenced by his retention of the office of Education Minister for his entire time as Premier and by his enthusiastic work in founding the University of Alberta. [93] In 1911, he was elected by Alberta's university graduates to the University of Alberta Senate, responsible for the institution's academic affairs. [76] In 1912, he established the Rutherford Gold Medal in English for the senior year honours English student with the highest standing; [94] the prize still exists today as the Rutherford Memorial Medal in English. [95] In 1912, with the University's first graduating class, Rutherford instituted a tradition of inviting convocating students to his house for tea; this tradition would last for 26 years. [96]

Rutherford in his Chancellor's robes Chancellor Rutherford.jpg
Rutherford in his Chancellor's robes

Convocation was not the only reason that students visited Rutherford's home. He had a wealth of both knowledge and books on Canadian subjects and welcomed students to consult his private library. [97] The library eventually expanded beyond the room in his mansion devoted to it, to encompass the house's den, maid's sitting room, and garage as well. [97] After his death, the collection was donated and sold to the university's library system; it was described in 1967 as "still the most important rare collection in the library". [98]

Rutherford remained on the university's senate until 1927, when he was elected Chancellor. [99] The position was the titular head of the university, and its primary duty was presiding over convocations. [99] According to Rutherford biographer Douglas Babcock, it was the honour that Rutherford prized most. [99] He was acclaimed to the position every four years until his death. [99] It has been estimated that he awarded degrees to more than five thousand students. [99] His final convocation, however, was marred by controversy. It 1941, a committee of the university senate recommended awarding an honorary degree to Premier William Aberhart. [100] Aberhart was pleased and happily accepted University President William Alexander Robb Kerr's invitation to deliver the commencement address at convocation. [101] However, a week prior to convocation the full senate, responsible for all university academic affairs, met, and voted against awarding Aberhart a degree. [102] Aberhart rescinded his acceptance of Kerr's invitation and later removed the senate's authority except, ironically, the authority to award honorary degrees [103] and Kerr resigned in protest. [104] Rutherford was mortified but presided over convocation nonetheless. [104]

Community involvement and family life

Rutherford remained active in a wide range of community organizations well after his departure from politics. [90] He was a deacon in his church until well into his dotage, was a member of the Young Women's Christian Association advisory board from 1913 until his death, was Edmonton's first exalted ruler of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, and was for three years the grand exalted ruler of the Elk Order of Canada. [90]

During World War I, he was Alberta director of the National Service Commission, which oversaw conscription from 1916 until 1918, and in 1916, he was appointed Honorary Colonel of the 194th Highland Battalion of the Canadian Expeditionary Force. [90] Rutherford served on the Loan Advisory Committee of the Soldier Settlement Board after the war, was President of the Alberta Historical Society (which had been created by his government) from 1919 to his death, was elected President of the McGill University Alumni Association of Alberta in 1922, and spent the last years of his life as honorary president of the Canadian Authors Association. [90] He was also a member of the Northern Alberta Pioneers and Old-Timers Association, the British Association for the Advancement of Science, the Royal Colonial Institute of London, and the Masons. [90]

He continued to play curling and tennis into his late fifties, and he took up golf at the age of sixty-four, becoming a charter member of the Mayfair Golf and Country Club. [100]

He received honorary doctorates of laws from four universities: McGill, the University of Alberta, McMaster University, and the University of Toronto. [105]

Alexander Rutherford and Mattie Rutherford on their fiftieth wedding anniversary, December 19, 1938 Rutherford anniversary.jpg
Alexander Rutherford and Mattie Rutherford on their fiftieth wedding anniversary, December 19, 1938

In 1911, the Rutherfords built a new house adjacent to the University of Alberta campus. [106] Rutherford named it "Archnacarry", after his ancestral homeland in Scotland. [107] Now known as Rutherford House, it serves as a museum. [108] He made several trips to the United Kingdom and was invited to attend the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, but he had to return to Canada before the event. [109] On December 19, 1938, the Rutherfords celebrated their fiftieth wedding anniversary; tributes and well wishes arrived from across Canada. [100]

Death and legacy

Besides his bronchitis, Rutherford developed diabetes in later years. [100] His wife monitored his sugar intake, but when they were apart, Rutherford sometimes took less care than she would have liked him to. [100] In 1938, possibly as a result of diabetes, he suffered a stroke that left him paralysed and mute. [100] He learned to walk again and, with the help of a grade 1 reader, got his speech back. [100]

On September 13, 1940, Mattie Rutherford died of cancer. [100] Less than a year later, June 11, 1941, Rutherford suffered a fatal heart attack while he was in hospital for insulin treatment. [100] He was 84 years old. [100] He was buried in Mount Pleasant Cemetery in Edmonton, alongside his family. [100]

His name was attached to many institutions both during his life and later. Rutherford Elementary School in Edmonton was established in 1911 [76] and the University of Alberta's Rutherford Library in 1951. [110]

In 1954, a mountain in Jasper National Park was named Mount Rutherford. [111]

In 1980, the government of Alberta created the Alexander Rutherford Scholarship, which awards more than $20 million annually to high school students selected on the basis of a minimum of a 75% average. The top ten students receiving Alexander Rutherford scholarships are recognized as Rutherford Scholars and are presented with an additional scholarship and plaque. [112]

Rutherford's policy legacy is mixed. L. G. Thomas concludes that he was a weak leader, unable to dominate the ambitions of his lieutenants and with very little skill at debate. [108] Still, Thomas recognizes the Rutherford government's legacy of province building. [59]

Douglas Babcock suggests that Rutherford, while himself honourable, left himself at the mercy of unscrupulous men who ultimately ruined his political career. [113] Bennett, Rutherford's rival and later Prime Minister, concurred with this assessment, calling Rutherford "a gentleman of the old school ... not equipped by experience or temperament for the rough and tumble of western politics". [114]

There is general agreement that Rutherford's greatest legacy and the one in which he took the most pride lies in his contributions to Alberta's education. As Mount Royal College historian Patricia Roome concludes her chapter on Rutherford in a book about Alberta's first twelve premiers, "Rutherford's educational contribution remains his ultimate legacy to Albertans." [115]

Electoral record

As party leader

Alexander Cameron Rutherford
Alexander Cameron Rutherford - Elliott And Fry (cropped).jpg
Portrait by Elliott & Fry, c.1908–1910
1st Premier of Alberta
In office
September 2, 1905 May 26, 1910
1909 Alberta provincial election [116]
PartyParty leader# of
SeatsPopular vote
1905 1909 % Change#%% Change
Alexander C. Rutherford
Conservative 29220%15,84831.7%−5.4%
 Independent Liberal211,3112.6%
Socialist 211,3022.6%
Labour 12140.4%
1905 Alberta provincial election [116]
PartyParty leader# of
SeatsPopular vote
Alexander C. Rutherford
  Conservative 23 2 9,31637.1%
Labour 2843%


1913 Alberta general election results (Edmonton South) [117] Turnout
Conservative Herbert Crawford 1,52354.4%
Liberal Alexander C. Rutherford1,27545.6%
1909 Alberta general election results (Strathcona) [118] Turnout
Liberal Alexander C. Rutherford1,03485.9%
Conservative Rice Sheppard 17314.1%
1905 Alberta general election results (Strathcona) [118] Turnout
Liberal Alexander C. Rutherford62567.1%
Conservative Frank W. Crang30632.9%
1902 Northwest Territories general election results (Strathcona) [119] Turnout
Alexander C. Rutherford57789.5%
N.D. Mills6810.5%
1898 Northwest Territories general election results (Edmonton) [119] Turnout
Matthew McCauley 58248.8%
Alexander C. Rutherford49841.8%
Harry Havelock Robertson1129.4%
1896 by-election results (Edmonton) [119] Turnout
Matthew McCauley 56758.6%
Alexander C. Rutherford40041.4%

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Albert John Robertson was a Canadian politician from Alberta and the first Leader of the Opposition in the province's history. He led the Conservatives in the Legislative Assembly of Alberta from 1905 to 1909, before being defeated in the 1909 election.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rutherford House</span> Historic building in Edmonton, Alberta, Australia

Rutherford House is a historic building and museum in the Strathcona area of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The structure was the home of the first Premier of Alberta, Alexander Cameron Rutherford, from 1911 to 1941, and has subsequently been designated as an Alberta provincial historic site.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">John Robert Boyle</span> Canadian politician and judge (1871–1936)

John Robert Boyle, was a Canadian politician and jurist who served as a Member of the Legislative Assembly of Alberta, a cabinet minister in the Government of Alberta, and a judge on the Supreme Court of Alberta. Born in Ontario, he came west and eventually settled in Edmonton, where he practiced law. After a brief stint on Edmonton's first city council, he was elected in Alberta's inaugural provincial election as a Liberal. During the Alberta and Great Waterways Railway scandal, he was a leader of the Liberal insurgency that forced Premier Alexander Cameron Rutherford from office.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Malcolm McKenzie</span> Canadian politician (1863–1913)

Malcolm McKenzie was a Canadian politician who served as a member of the Legislative Assembly of Alberta and, briefly, as Alberta Provincial Treasurer.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">William Puffer</span> Canadian politician (1861–1948)

William Franklin Puffer was a Canadian politician who served in the Legislative Assembly of Alberta from 1905 until 1917. Born in Ontario, he came west and settled in Lacombe, where he operated a butchery, among other interests. He was elected to the legislature in Alberta's first provincial election, and returned to office in each of the next two before being defeated in the 1917 election. He subsequently made two unsuccessful attempts to reclaim his seat.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alberta and Great Waterways Railway scandal</span> 1910 political scandal in Alberta, Canada

The Alberta and Great Waterways Railway Scandal was a political scandal in Alberta, Canada in 1910, which forced the resignation of Liberal premier Alexander Cameron Rutherford. Rutherford and his government were accused of giving loan guarantees to private interests for the construction of the Alberta and Great Waterways (A&GW) Railway that substantially exceeded the cost of construction, and which paid interest considerably above the market rate. They were also accused of exercising insufficient oversight over the railway's operations.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Edmonton-Whitemud</span> Provincial electoral district in Alberta, Canada

Edmonton-Whitemud is a provincial electoral district for the Legislative Assembly of Alberta, Canada. In 1989, its constituents unseated the Premier of the day, Donald Getty, by voting for Liberal candidate Percy Wickman.



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Works cited