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Alexander Gardens (Russian : Александровский сад) was one of the first urban public parks in Moscow, Russia. The park comprises three separate gardens, which stretch along all the length of the western Kremlin wall for 865 metres (2,838 ft) between the building of the Moscow Manege and the Kremlin.
Until the 18th century, the Neglinnaya River flowed on the site of Alexandrovsky Gardens, over which four bridges were built. Historically, folk festivals were held on the river banks, its water was clean and famous for fishing.After the end of the Napoleonic Wars, Emperor Alexander I decided to take the river underground and enclose it in a pipe three kilometres long. Gardens were laid out in the vacated place, designed by the architect Osip Bove as part of a plan to restore Moscow after the fire of 1812.
The gardens were built from 1819 to 1823 and were originally called the Kremlin Gardens. After the coronation of Alexander II in 1856, the gardens were renamed the Alexander Gardens.
Towards the main entrance to the park is the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier with an eternal flame brought from the Field of Mars in Leningrad. Created in 1967, it contains the body of a soldier who fell during the Great Patriotic War at the kilometer 41 marker of Leningradskoe Shosse, the nearest point the forces of Nazi Germany penetrated towards Moscow. Post Number One, where the honor sentinels stand on guard, used to be located in front of Lenin's Mausoleum, but was moved to the Tomb of The Unknown Soldier in the 1990s. The middle section of the upper garden contains a faux ruined grotto built underneath the Middle Arsenal Tower. Although not constructed until 1841, this was part of Bove's original design. The garden's cast iron gate and grille were designed to commemorate the Russian victories over Napoleon, and its rocks are rubble from buildings destroyed during the French occupation of Moscow.
In front of the grotto is an obelisk erected on July 10, 1914, a year after the tercentenary of the Romanov dynasty was celebrated. The monument made of granite from Finland listed all of the Romanov Tsars and had the coats of arms of the (Russian) provinces. Four years later, the dynasty was gone, and the Bolsheviks (per Lenin’s directive on Monumental propaganda) removed the imperial eagle, and re-carved the monument with a list of 19 socialist and communist philosophers and political leaders, personally approved by Lenin. Originally in the Lower Garden, it was relocated to its present location in 1966. There is discussion to remove Lenin's and reinstall an obelisk duplicating the original.
The wrought iron grille, enclosing this part of the garden, has a design of fasces, which are intended to commemorate the military victory over Napoleon.
The northern part of the garden is adjacent to the large underground shopping complex at Manege Square.
The most prominent feature of the Middle Garden is the outlying Kutafya Tower of the Moscow Kremlin. There is an entrance to the park opposite the tower directly to the Moscow Metro system.
Laid out in 1823, the Lower Garden stretches to the road leading to the Borovitskaya Tower, one of two vehicular and pedestrian entrances to the Kremlin.
Red Square is one of the oldest and largest squares in Moscow, the capital of Russia. Owing to its historical significance and the adjacent historical buildings, it is regarded as one of the most famous squares in Europe and the world. It is located in Moscow's historic centre, in the eastern walls of the Kremlin. It is the city landmark of Moscow, with iconic buildings such as Saint Basil's Cathedral, Lenin's Mausoleum and the GUM. In addition, it has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1990.
The Kremlin is a fortified complex in the centre of Moscow founded by the Rurikids ruling dynasty. It is the best known of the kremlins, and includes five palaces, four cathedrals, and the enclosing Kremlin Wall with Kremlin towers. In addition, within this complex is the Grand Kremlin Palace that was formerly the Tsar's Moscow residence. The complex now serves as the official residence of the President of the Russian Federation and as a museum with almost 3 million visitors in 2017. The Kremlin overlooks the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west.
Lenin's Mausoleum, also known as Lenin's Tomb, situated on Red Square in the centre of Moscow, is a mausoleum that serves as the resting place of Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin. His preserved body has been on public display there since shortly after his death in 1924, with rare exceptions in wartime. Alexey Shchusev's granite structure incorporates some elements from ancient mausoleums, such as the Step Pyramid, the Tomb of Cyrus the Great and, to some degree, the Temple of the Inscriptions.
The Moscow Manege is an oblong building along the west side of Manege Square, which was cleared in the 1930s and lies adjacent to Red Square. It is the site of Moscow Design Museum since 2012.
Tsarskoye Selo was the town containing a former residence of the Russian imperial family and visiting nobility, located 24 kilometers (15 mi) south from the center of Saint Petersburg. The residence now forms part of the town of Pushkin. Tsarskoye Selo forms one of the World Heritage Site Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments.
Joseph Bové was an Italian-Russian neoclassical architect who supervised reconstruction of Moscow after the Fire of 1812.
The Kremlin Wall Necropolis was the national cemetery for the Soviet Union. Burials in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis in Moscow began in November 1917, when 240 pro-Bolshevik victims of the October Revolution in Moscow were buried in mass graves at Red Square. The improvised burial site gradually transformed into the centerpiece of military and civilian honor during the Second World War. It is centered on both sides of Lenin's Mausoleum, initially built in wood in 1924 and rebuilt in granite in 1929–1930. After the last mass burial made in 1921, funerals in Red Square were usually conducted as state ceremonies and reserved as the last honor for highly venerated politicians, military leaders, cosmonauts, and scientists. In 1925–1927, burials in the ground were stopped; funerals were now conducted as burials of cremated ash in the Kremlin wall itself. Burials in the ground began with Mikhail Kalinin's funeral in 1946.
The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is a war memorial dedicated to the Soviet soldiers killed during World War II. It was designed by architects D. I. Burdin, V. A. Klimov, Yu. R. Rabayev and sculptor Nikolai Tomsky.
Poklonnaya Gora is, at 171.5 meters, one of the highest natural spots in Moscow. Its two summits used to be separated by the Setun River, until one of the summits was razed in 1987. Since 1936, the area has been part of Moscow and now contains the Victory Park with many tanks and other vehicles used in the Second World War on display.
Aleksandrovsky Sad is a station of the Filyovskaya line of the Moscow Metro. It was designed by A. I. Gontskevich and S. Sulin and opened on 15 May 1935 along with the first stage of the metro.
Tverskaya Street, known between 1935 and 1990 as Gorky Street, is the main radial street in Moscow. The street runs Northwest from the central Manege Square in the direction of Saint Petersburg and terminates at the Garden Ring, giving the name to Tverskoy District. The route continues further as First Tverskaya-Yamskaya Street, Leningradsky Avenue and Leningradskoye Highway.
The Kremlin Regiment, also called the Presidential Regiment, is a unique military regiment and part of the Russian Federal Protective Service with the status of a special unit. The regiment ensures the security of the Kremlin, its treasures, and state officials. In accordance with the federal law of December 8, 1997 "On Immortalizing the Soviet People’s Victory in the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945", the regiment also maintains a guard of honor at the eternal flame of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. The regiment is housed in the historic Kremlin Arsenal.
Mokhovaya Street is a one-way street in central Moscow, Russia, a part of Moscow's innermost ring road - Central Squares of Moscow. Between 1961 and 1990 it formed part of Karl Marx Avenue. The street runs from the Borovitskaya Square in the south past Vozdvizhenka Street, Bolshaya Nikitskaya Street and Manege Square, ending at Tverskaya Street in the north.
The Alexander Garden lies along the south and west façades of the Russian Admiralty in St. Petersburg, parallel to the Neva River and Admiralty Quay, extending from Palace Square in the east to St. Isaac's Cathedral in the west. The English park is named after Alexander II of Russia who ordered some 52 species of trees to be planted there. It was formerly known as the Admiralty Boulevard, the Admiralty Meadow, and the Labourers Garden.
Michael Manege is the Neoclassical building of an early 19th-century riding academy in the historic center of Saint Petersburg, Russia. It was converted into an indoor sporting arena in 1949 and was renamed Zimniy Stadion.
Taynitsky Garden is an urban park located within the walls of the Moscow Kremlin, in Russia. The park is named after the Taynitskaya Tower in the Kremlin Wall, and is part of the portion of the Kremlin which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Alexander Garden Obelisk is an obelisk located within the Alexander Garden, near the walls of Kremlin, in Moscow, Russia. The obelisk was initially designed by S. A. Vlasev and erected on July 10, 1914, at the entrance of the garden. It was created as a celebration of the tercentenary of the House of Romanov. The obelisk was moved closer to the center of the garden in 1966.
Alexander Garden is a central urban park in Novocherkassk, Rostov oblast, Russia, named after Emperor of Russia Alexander I. It is the eldest park in the city. The park was established in 1832 on 9 ha city-owned land. It is located in the south-east of Novocherkassk between Platovsky avenue, Aleksandrovskaya street, Pushkinskaya and Atamanskaya street.
The Monument to Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich(Russian: Памятник великому князю Сергею Александровичу) is a monument dedicated to Sergei Alexandrovich, it was consecrated on April 2, 1908 in the exact spot of his assassination. After the Bolshevik Revolution, the monument was destroyed in 1918, but was restored in 1998 in the Novospassky Monastery, where Sergei's remains are buried. The second restored monument was consecrated in the Moscow Kremlin in 2017, where the original monument once stood.