|Duke of Leuchtenberg|
A photograph of Alexander Georgievich, 7th Duke of Leuchtenberg in his youth.
|Born||13 November 1881|
St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
|Died||26 September 1942 60) (aged|
|Father||George Maximilianovich, 6th Duke of Leuchtenberg|
|Mother||Duchess Therese Petrovna of Oldenburg|
Alexander Georgievich, 7th Duke of Leuchtenberg, also known as Prince Alexander Georgievich Romanovsky or less commonly Alexander de Beauharnais (13 November 1881 – 26 September 1942) was the only son of George Maximilianovich, 6th Duke of Leuchtenberg by his first wife Duchess Therese of Oldenburg.He was a descendant of Paul I of Russia from both of his parents.
Prince George Maximilianovich Romanowsky, 6th Duke of Leuchtenberg, also known as Prince Georgii Romanovsky or Georges de Beauharnais, was the youngest son of Maximilian de Beauharnais, 3rd Duke of Leuchtenberg and his wife, Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia.
Paul I reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. Officially, he was the only son of Peter III and Catherine the Great, though Catherine hinted that he was fathered by her lover Sergei Saltykov, who also had Romanov blood, being a descendant of the first Romanov tsar's sister, Tatiana Feodorovna Romanova.
Alexander Georgievich ("Sandro") was born on 13 November 1881, as the only surviving child of George Maximilianovich, 6th Duke of Leuchtenberg by his first wife Duchess Therese Petrovna of Oldenburg.Like his father , Alexander was styled His Imperial Highness from birth. His mother died on 19 April 1883, leaving a widower and young son. His father would not remarry for six years, until he caught Princess Anastasia of Montenegro's eye at her sister Milica's wedding. They soon married and produced two children, Sergei and Elena.
Duchess Therese Wilhelmine Olga Friederike of Oldenburg was the youngest daughter of Duke Peter Georgievich of Oldenburg and his wife Princess Therese of Nassau-Weilburg.
Princess Anastasia Petrović-Njegoš of Montenegro was the daughter of King Nikola I Petrović-Njegoš of Montenegro (1841–1921) and his wife, Milena Vukotić (1847–1923). Through her second marriage, she became Grand Duchess Anastasia Nicholaievna Romanova of Russia. She and her sister "Militza", having married Russian royal brothers, were known colloquially as the "Montenegrin princesses" during the last days of Imperial Russia, and may have contributed to its downfall by the introduction of Grigori Rasputin to the Empress Alexandra.
Princess Milica Petrović-Njegoš of Montenegro, also known as Grand Duchess Militza Nikolaevna of Russia, was a Montenegrin princess. She was the daughter of King Nikola I Petrović-Njegoš of Montenegro and his wife, Milena Vukotić. Milica was the wife of Grand Duke Peter Nikolaevich of Russia, the younger brother of Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia, whose wife was Milica's sister, Anastasia.
Alexander served as a sub-Lieutenant of the Hussars of the guard, and as an aide-de-camp to the Russian emperor.Later he became attached to the Fourth Battalion of the Chasseurs of the Guard of the Imperial Family.
An aide-de-camp is a personal assistant or secretary to a person of high rank, usually a senior military, police or government officer, or to a member of a royal family or a head of state.
In 1909, Alexander featured in many newspapers after rumors spread that he would enter into a morganatic marriage with American Marjorie Gould, a daughter of wealthy railroad executive George Jay Gould I.They reported Alexander met Marjorie the previous summer in Paris, and that his father later approached George Gould and asked for his daughter's hand for his son. One stated Alexander's father "would not sanction a marriage merely for love, and would insist that the Prince's bride must bring with her a fortune suitable to the rank of an Imperial Princess". George Gould and others put down these rumors vehemently, stating there the two were mere friends and there was no engagement.
Morganatic marriage, sometimes called a left-handed marriage, is a marriage between people of unequal social rank, which in the context of royalty prevents the passage of the husband's titles and privileges to the wife and any children born of the marriage.
George Jay Gould I was a financier and the son of Jay Gould. He was himself a railroad executive, leading both the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad (DRGW) and the Western Pacific Railroad (WP).
In 1912, Alexander was reported to have gained the reluctant consent of Emperor Nicholas to marry the wealthy Marianne Friedländer-Fuld, but only on the condition that the union would be considered unequal, with none of his titles being passed onto his wife or possible children.Despite being the senior descendant of Eugène de Beauharnais (son of Empress Joséphine), Alexander was far from rich, and served as a captain of the Russian Hussars of the guard and as an aide-de-camp to the Emperor. He was however the principal heir to his grandfather.
Nicholas II or Nikolai II, known as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917. His reign saw the fall of the Russian Empire from one of the foremost great powers of the world to economic and military collapse. He was given the nickname Nicholas the Bloody or Vile Nicholas by his political adversaries due to the Khodynka Tragedy, anti-Semitic pogroms, Bloody Sunday, the violent suppression of the 1905 Russian Revolution, the execution of political opponents, and his perceived responsibility for the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905). Soviet historians portrayed Nicholas as a weak and incompetent leader whose decisions led to military defeats and the deaths of millions of his subjects.
Eugène Rose de Beauharnais, Duke of Leuchtenberg was the first child and only son of Alexandre de Beauharnais and Joséphine Tascher de la Pagerie, first wife of Napoleon I.
Joséphine was the first wife of Napoleon, and the first Empress of the French after he proclaimed himself Emperor.
Alexander later morganatically married to Nadezhda (or Nadejda) Nicolaevna Caralli on 22 January 1917 in Petrograd.
As he was closely related to the Russian royal family, Alexander made several attempts to save Tsar Nicholas II and his family. Several days after Nicholas' abdication on 15 March 1917, Alexander visited Muriel Buchanan, the daughter of Sir George Buchanan, British ambassador to the Russian court, with the hopes of gaining her father's help. She noticed that the duke seem distracted and somehow different, "then I realized suddenly that he had discarded all his decorations, and no longer wore the golden aiguilettes. Russia had no Emperor now, I remembered". Alexander said he had come to urge her father, Sir George, to take swift action and get the tsar and his family out of Russia. He continued that the family was in "the gravest danger", and that if they did not leave soon, it would be too late to get them away and save them from possible disaster. Muriel subsequently called her father over, where he and Alexander discussed the situation; Sir George agreed to do all he could, but stated he had already sent several messages to London warning of the dangers.
In 1918, the year the family was murdered, Alexander traveled to Berlin and tried to get the help of Wilhelm II, German Emperor, who was a cousin of Nicholas'; in this attempt, the duke tried to persuade Nicholas to agree to a plan based on German help.Alexander was in favor of spiriting the family away to Berlin, but Nicholas refused, causing rumors that Wilhelm's government was considering "kidnapping the Tsar and his family and bringing them to Germany". Empress Alexandra insisted she "would rather die in Russia than be rescued by the Germans". In the end, nothing came of these plans, as monarchist groups could not decide whether to restore Nicholas or his son Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich.
Near the end of 1917, while lodging with Prince Felix Yusupov, Alexander was arrested by Bolshevik authorities, along with four or five prominent members of the monarchical party. In 1919, a Bolshevik wireless message sent to The Washington Post asserted that after a meeting of Russian monarchists in Siberia, Alexander was offered and accepted the Russian throne, though no further reports confirmed this.
Alexander died in exile on 26 September 1942 in Salies-de-Béarn, France.He was succeeded as Duke of Leuchtenberg by his younger half-brother Prince Sergei.
|Ancestors of Alexander Georgievich, 7th Duke of Leuchtenberg|
Maximilian Joseph Eugene Auguste Napoleon de Beauharnais, 3rd Duke of Leuchtenberg, Prince Romanowsky was the husband of Grand Duchess Maria Nikolayevna of Russia and first cousin of Emperors Napoleon III of the French and Francis Joseph I of Austria. He was a grandson of Napoleon I's first wife, the Empress Josephine, by her prior marriage to Alexandre de Beauharnais.
The Monarchy of Russia was abolished in 1917 following the February Revolution, which forced Emperor Nicholas II (1868–1918) to abdicate. Claims made on behalf of different persons to be the rightful current pretender continue to be debated.
Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaievna of Russia was a daughter of Emperor Nicholas I of Russia, and sister of Alexander II. In 1839 she married Maximilian, Duke of Leuchtenberg. She was an art collector and President of the Imperial Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg.
Duke of Leuchtenberg was a title created twice by the monarchs of Bavaria for their relatives. The first creation was awarded by Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria to his son Maximilian Philipp Hieronymus, upon whose death without children the lands passed back to his nephew Elector Maximilian II. It was re-created by Maximilian I Joseph, King of Bavaria on 14 November 1817 and awarded to his son-in-law Eugène de Beauharnais. Eugène was the adopted stepson of the deposed Emperor Napoleon I of France, and Eugène had been his heir in Frankfurt and briefly in Italy. King Maximilian Joseph compensated his son-in-law after he lost his other titles and named him heir to the kingdom after the male-line descendants of the royal house and next in precedence after the Royal Family.
Auguste Charles Eugène Napoléon, Duke of Leuchtenberg was the first prince consort of Maria II of Portugal. Besides being the 2nd Duke of Leuchtenberg and 2nd Prince of Eichstätt, he also held the Brazilian noble title of Duke of Santa Cruz.
Duke Constantine Frederick Peter of Oldenburg was a Duke of the House of Oldenburg. He was the grandfather of Duke Peter of Oldenburg as well as grandfather of Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich, General of the Imperial Russian Army during World War I. His great-great grandson, Nicholas Romanov, was the President of the Romanov Family Association until his death in 2014.
Princess Augusta of Bavaria, Duchess of Leuchtenberg was the second child and eldest daughter of Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria and Princess Augusta Wilhelmine of Hesse-Darmstadt. By marriage, she was a French Princess.
Prince Vsevolod Ivanovich of Russia was a great-great-grandson of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia and a nephew of King Alexander I of Yugoslavia. He was the last male member of the Romanov family born in Imperial Russia. He was a distant cousin and godson of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia.
Duke Peter Frederick George of Oldenburg was a younger son of Peter I, Grand Duke of Oldenburg and his wife Duchess Frederica of Württemberg. He was a son-in-law of Paul I of Russia through marriage to his daughter Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna of Russia. He was referred to as a prince in Russia, Prince Georgy Petrovich Oldenburgsky.
Princess Maria Maximilianovna of Leuchtenberg, also known as Princess Maria Romanovskya, Maria, Princess Romanovskaja, Maria Herzogin von Leuchtenberg or Marie Maximiliane was the eldest daughter of Maximilian de Beauharnais, 3rd Duke of Leuchtenberg and his wife Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia. She married Prince Wilhelm of Baden. The couple's son, Prince Maximilian of Baden, was Germany's last Imperial chancellor.
Princess Eugenia Maximilianovna of Leuchtenberg was a daughter of Maximilian de Beauharnais, 3rd Duke of Leuchtenberg and his wife Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia. Although she was a member of the French House of Beauharnais, she was born and raised in her mother's native country, Russia.
Duke Alexander Friedrich Konstantin of Oldenburg was the second son of Duke Peter Georgievich of Oldenburg and his wife Princess Therese of Nassau-Weilburg. Though he had a German title and ancestry, Alexander and his siblings were born and raised in St. Petersburg as the grandchildren of Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna of Russia.
Duke Constantine Frederick Peter of Oldenburg was a son of Duke Peter Georgievich of Oldenburg and his wife Princess Therese of Nassau-Weilburg Known in the court of Tsar Nicholas II as Prince Constantine Petrovich Oldenburgsky, he was the father of the Russian Counts and Countesses von Zarnekau.
Prince Sergei Georgievich Romanowsky, 8th Duke of Leuchtenberg was the son of Prince George Maximilianovich Romanowsky, 6th Duke of Leuchtenberg and his second wife Princess Anastasia of Montenegro. He succeeded his half-brother Alexander Georgievich as Duke of Leuchtenberg from 1942 until his death.
Eugen Maximilianovich Romanowsky, 5th Duke of Leuchtenberg, Prince Romanowsky was a son of Maximilian de Beauharnais, 3rd Duke of Leuchtenberg and Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia Duke of Leuchtenberg. He succeeded his brother Nicholas Maximilianovich as Duke of Leuchtenberg from 1891 until his death.
Meriel Buchanan was British memorialist. The daughter of the last British Ambassador to Imperial Russia, she wrote a number of articles and books about her experiences during that time, most notably: Recollections of imperial Russia ( 1923) and Ambassador's daughter (1958).
Alexander Georgievich, 7th Duke of LeuchtenbergBorn: 13 November 1881 Died: 26 September 1942
| Duke of Leuchtenberg |
16 May 1912 – 26 September 1942