Alexander III of Scotland

Last updated

Alexander III
Alexander III and Ollamh Righ.JPG
Coronation of King Alexander on Moot Hill, Scone. He is being greeted by the ollamh rígh, the royal poet, who is addressing him with the proclamation "Benach De Re Albanne" (= Beannachd Dé Rígh Alban, "God Bless the King of Scotland"); the poet goes on to recite Alexander's genealogy. By Alexander's side is Maol Choluim II, Earl of Fife, holding the sword.
King of Scotland
Reign6 July 1249 – 19 March 1286
Coronation 13 July 1249
Predecessor Alexander II
Successor Margaret
Born4 September 1241
Roxburgh Castle, Roxburghshire, Scotland
Died19 March 1286(1286-03-19) (aged 44)
Kinghorn Ness, Fife, Scotland
Burial29 March 1286
(m. 1251;died 1275)
(m. 1285)
House Dunkeld
Father Alexander II
Mother Marie de Coucy

Alexander III (Medieval Scottish Gaelic : Alaxandair mac Alaxandair; Modern Gaelic: Alasdair mac Alasdair; 4 September 1241 – 19 March 1286) was King of Scots from 1249 until his death. He concluded the Treaty of Perth, by which Scotland acquired sovereignty over the Western Isles and the Isle of Man. His heir, Margaret, Maid of Norway, died before she could be crowned.



Alexander was born at Roxburgh, the only son of Alexander II by his second wife Marie de Coucy. [1] Alexander's father died on 6 July 1249 and he became king at the age of seven, inaugurated at Scone on 13 July 1249. [2]

The years of his minority featured an embittered struggle for the control of affairs between two rival parties, the one led by Walter Comyn, Earl of Menteith, the other by Alan Durward, Justiciar of Scotia. The former dominated the early years of Alexander's reign. At the marriage of Alexander to Margaret of England in 1251, Henry III of England seized the opportunity to demand homage from his son-in-law for the Scottish kingdom, but Alexander did not comply. In 1255, an interview between the English and Scottish kings at Kelso led to Menteith and his party losing to Durward's party. But though disgraced, they still retained great influence, and two years later, seizing the person of the king, they compelled their rivals to consent to the erection of a regency representative of both parties. [3]

On attaining his majority at the age of 21 in 1262, Alexander declared his intention of resuming the projects on the Western Isles which the death of his father thirteen years before had cut short. [3] He laid a formal claim before King Haakon IV of Norway. Haakon rejected the claim, and in the following year responded with a formidable invasion. Sailing around the west coast of Scotland he halted off the Isle of Arran, and negotiations commenced. Alexander artfully prolonged the talks until the autumn storms began. At length Haakon, weary of delay, attacked, only to encounter a terrific storm which greatly damaged his ships. The Battle of Largs (October 1263) proved indecisive, but even so, Haakon's position was hopeless. Baffled, he turned homewards, but died in Orkney on 15 December 1263. The Isles now lay at Alexander's feet, and in 1266 Haakon's successor concluded the Treaty of Perth by which he ceded the Isle of Man and the Western Isles to Scotland in return for a monetary payment. Norway retained Orkney and Shetland until 1469 when they became a dowry for James III's bride, Margaret of Denmark.

Death of Alexander III

Monument to Alexander III, west of Kinghorn, by Hippolyte Blanc Monument to Alexander III, west of Kinghorn, by Hippolyte Blanc.png
Monument to Alexander III, west of Kinghorn, by Hippolyte Blanc

Alexander had married Margaret, daughter of King Henry III of England and Eleanor of Provence, on 26 December 1251, when he was ten years old and she was eleven. [4] She died in 1275, after they had had three children. [5]

  1. Margaret (28 February 1261 – 9 April 1283), who married King Eric II of Norway [3]
  2. Alexander, Prince of Scotland (21 January 1264 Jedburgh – 28 January 1284 Lindores Abbey); buried in Dunfermline Abbey
  3. David (20 March 1272 – June 1281 Stirling Castle); buried in Dunfermline Abbey

According to the Lanercost Chronicle , Alexander did not spend his decade as a widower alone: "he used never to forbear on account of season nor storm, nor for perils of flood or rocky cliffs, but would visit none too creditably nuns or matrons, virgins or widows as the fancy seized him, sometimes in disguise." [6]

Towards the end of Alexander's reign, the death of all three of his children within a few years made the question of the succession one of pressing importance. In 1284 he induced the Estates to recognize as his heir-presumptive his granddaughter Margaret, the "Maid of Norway". The need for a male heir led him to contract a second marriage to Yolande de Dreux [7] on 1 November 1285. [8]

Alexander died in a fall from his horse while riding in the dark to visit the queen at Kinghorn in Fife on 19 March 1286 because it was her birthday the next day. [9] He had spent the evening at Edinburgh Castle celebrating his second marriage and overseeing a meeting with royal advisors. He was cautioned against making the journey to Fife because of weather conditions, but crossed the Forth from Dalmeny to Inverkeithing anyway. [10] On arriving in Inverkeithing, he insisted on not stopping for the night, despite the pleas of the nobles accompanying him and one of the burgesses of the town, Alexander Le Saucier. Le Saucier (who was either linked to the King's kitchen or the master of the local saltpans) must have been known to the King, since his rather blunt warning to the King lacks the usual deference: "My lord, what are you doing out in such weather and darkness? How many times have I tried to persuade you that midnight travelling will do you no good?" [11]

However, Alexander ignored the repeated warnings about travelling in a storm, and set off with his retinue and two local guides. [10] The king became separated from his party near Kinghorn, and was found dead with a broken neck near the shore the following morning. It is assumed that his horse lost its footing in the dark. While some texts say that he fell off a cliff, [12] there is none at the site where his body was found; however, there is a very steep rocky embankment, which "would have been fatal in the dark." [13] After Alexander's death, his realm was plunged into a period of darkness that would eventually lead to war with England. He was buried in Dunfermline Abbey.

As Alexander left no surviving children, the heir to the throne was his unborn child by Queen Yolande. When Yolande's pregnancy ended, probably with a miscarriage, Alexander's three-year-old granddaughter Margaret, Maid of Norway, became the heir. Margaret died, still uncrowned, on her way to Scotland in 1290. The inauguration of John Balliol as king on 30 November 1292 ended the six years of the Guardians of Scotland governing the land.

The death of Alexander and the subsequent period of instability in Scotland was lamented in an early Scots poem recorded by Andrew of Wyntoun in his Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland.

Quhen Alexander our kynge was dede,
That Scotlande lede in lauche and le,
Away was sons of alle and brede,
Off wyne and wax, of gamyn and gle.
Our golde was changit into lede.
Crist, borne in virgynyte,
Succoure Scotlande, and ramede,

That is stade in perplexite. [14]

In 1886, a monument to Alexander III was erected at the approximate location of his death in Kinghorn. [15]

Fictional portrayals

Statue of Alexander on the west door of St Giles' Cathedral, Edinburgh Alexander III statue, West door of St. Giles, Edinburgh.jpg
Statue of Alexander on the west door of St Giles' Cathedral, Edinburgh

Alexander III has been depicted in historical novels. They include: [16]



  1. Reid, Norman H. (2004). "Alexander III (1241–1286), king of Scots" . Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/323. ISBN   978-0-19-861412-8 . Retrieved 9 June 2020.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  2. Panton, James (2011). Historical Dictionary of the British Monarchy. Scarecrow Press. p. 538. ISBN   978-0-8108-7497-8.
  3. 1 2 3 "Alexander III, King of Scots 1249–1286". Scotland's History, BBC.
  4. Margaret MacArthur (12 July 2017). History of Scotland. Merkaba Press via PublishDrive. pp. 25–. PKEY:6610000020409.[ permanent dead link ]
  5. Ashley, Mike (2012). The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens. Little, Brown Book Group. ISBN   978-1-4721-0113-6.
  6. Maxwell, Herbert, ed. (1909). "Chronicle of Lanercost". The Scottish Historical Review. 6: 184. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  7. ""Death of Alexander III", Foghlam Alba". Archived from the original on 14 July 2015. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
  8. Duncan 2016, p. 347.
  9. Marshall, Rosalind K. (2003). Scottish Queens, 1034–1714. Tuckwell Press. p. 27.
  10. 1 2 Bonner, Elizabeth Ann (1997). "The Origins of the Wars of Independence in Scotland, 1290–1296". Journal of the Sydney Society for Scottish History. 5. ISSN   1320-4246.
  11. Moffat, Alistair (2015). Scotland: A history from earliest times. Edinburgh: Birlinn Ltd. ISBN   978-1-78027-280-1. OCLC   931094353.
  12. Wood, James, ed. (1920). The Nuttall Encyclopaedia. London: Warne. p. 13. Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  13. Mount, Toni (2015). Dragon's Blood & Willow Bark: The Mysteries of Medieval Medicine. Stroud, Glos.: Amberley. p. n.p. ISBN   978-1445643830 . Retrieved 8 August 2016.
  14. Watson, Roderick (2007). Literature of Scotland: The Middle Ages to the Nineteenth Century (2nd ed.). Basingstoke, Hants.: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 26. ISBN   978-0230000377 . Retrieved 8 August 2016.[ permanent dead link ]
  15. ""Alexander III Monument, Kinghorn", British Listed Buildings".
  16. 1 2 Nield (1968), p. 37
  17. ""Historical Novel:Medieval Celts"".
  18. ""Alexander the Glorious", review". Amazon.
  19. Browne, Kreiser (2000), p. 78, 80–81
  20. "Insurrection".


Further reading

Alexander III of Scotland
Born: 4 September 1241 Died: 19 March 1286
Regnal titles
Preceded by King of Scots
Succeeded by

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alexander II of Scotland</span> King of Scotland from 1214 to 1249

Alexander II was King of Scotland from 1214 until his death. He concluded the Treaty of York (1237) which defined the boundary between England and Scotland, virtually unchanged today.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">William the Lion</span> King of Scotland from 1165 to 1214

William the Lion, sometimes styled William I and also known by the nickname Garbh, 'the Rough', reigned as King of Scots from 1165 to 1214. His 48-year-long reign was the second longest in Scottish history, and the longest for a Scottish monarch before the Union of the Crowns in 1603.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Margaret, Maid of Norway</span> Queen of Scots (disputed) from 1286 to 1290

Margaret, known as the Maid of Norway, was the queen-designate of Scotland from 1286 until her death. As she was never inaugurated, her status as monarch is uncertain and has been debated by historians.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">John Balliol</span> King of Scotland from 1292 to 1296

John Balliol or John de Balliol, known derisively as Toom Tabard, was King of Scots from 1292 to 1296. Little is known of his early life. After the death of Margaret, Maid of Norway, Scotland entered an interregnum during which several competitors for the Crown of Scotland put forward claims. Balliol was chosen from among them as the new King of Scotland by a group of selected noblemen headed by King Edward I of England.

The House of Dunkeld is a historiographical and genealogical construct to illustrate the clear succession of Scottish kings from 1034 to 1040 and from 1058 to 1286. The line is also variously referred to by historians as "The Canmores" and "MacMalcolm".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Battle of Largs</span> 1263 battle of the Scottish-Norwegian War

The Battle of Largs was a battle between the kingdoms of Norway and Scotland, on the Firth of Clyde near Largs, Scotland. The conflict formed part of the Norwegian expedition against Scotland in 1263, in which Haakon Haakonsson, King of Norway attempted to reassert Norwegian sovereignty over the western seaboard of Scotland. Victory was achieved by the Scots with a crafty three-tiered strategy on the part of the young Scottish king, Alexander III: plodding diplomacy forced the campaign to bad weather months and a ferocious storm ravaged the Norwegian fleet, stripping it of many vessels and supplies and making the forces on the Scottish coast vulnerable to an attack that forced the Norwegians into a hasty retreat that was to end their 500-year history of invasion, and leaving Scotland to consolidate its resources into building the nation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale</span> Regent of Scotland and competitor for the Scottish throne

Robert V de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale, was a feudal lord, justice and constable of Scotland and England, a regent of Scotland, and a competitor for the Scottish throne in 1290/92 in the Great Cause. He is commonly known as "Robert the Competitor". His grandson Robert the Bruce eventually became King of Scots.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yolande of Dreux, Queen of Scotland</span> Countess of Montfort, Queen of Scots, Duchess of Brittany

Yolande of Dreux was a sovereign Countess of Montfort from 1311 until 1322. Through her first marriage to Alexander III of Scotland, Yolande became Queen of Scotland. Through her second marriage to Arthur II, Duke of Brittany, she became Duchess of Brittany.

Magnús Óláfsson was a King of Mann and the Isles. He was a son of Óláfr Guðrøðarson, King of the Isles, and a member of the Crovan dynasty. Magnús' realm encompassed Mann and parts of the Hebrides. Some leading members of Magnús' family—such as his father—styled themselves "King of the Isles"; other members—such as Magnús and his brothers—styled themselves "King of Mann and the Isles". Although kings in their own right, leading members of the Crovan dynasty paid tribute to the Kings of Norway and generally recognised a nominal Norwegian overlordship of Mann and the Hebrides. Magnus was driven out by King Alexander III.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alexander Comyn, Earl of Buchan</span> Scoto-Norman magnate in 13th century Kingdom of Scotland

Alexander Comyn, 2nd Earl of Buchan was a Scoto-Norman magnate who was one of the most important figures in the 13th century Kingdom of Scotland. He was the son of William Comyn, jure uxoris Earl of Buchan, and Marjory, Countess of Buchan, the heiress of the last native Scottish Mormaer of Buchan, Fergus. He was the chief counsellor of Alexander III, King of Scots for the entire period of the king's majority and, as Scotland's leading magnate, played a key role in safeguarding the independence of the Scottish monarchy. During his long career, Alexander Comyn was Justiciar of Scotia (1258–89), Constable of Scotland (1275–89), Sheriff of Wigtown (1263–66), Sheriff of Dingwall (1264–66), Ballie of Inverie and finally, Guardian of Scotland (1286–89) during the first interregnum following the death of Alexander III. In 1284 he joined with other Scottish noblemen who acknowledged Margaret of Norway as the heiress to King Alexander. He died sometime after 10 July 1289.

Isabel Bruce was Queen of Norway as the wife of King Eric II.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Walter Bailloch</span> Earl of Menteith jure uxoris

Walter Bailloch, also known as Walter Bailloch Stewart, was distinguished by the sobriquet Bailloch or Balloch, a Gaelic nickname roughly translated as "the freckled". He was the Earl of Menteith jure uxoris.

Alexander was an heir apparent to the throne of the Kingdom of Scotland who never acceded due to his early death.

The Scottish–Norwegian War lasted from 1262 to 1266. The conflict arose because of disagreement over the ownership of the Hebrides. The war consisted of mainly skirmishes and feuds between the kings, and the only major battle was the indecisive Battle of Largs.

The Manx revolt of 1275 was an uprising on the Isle of Man in 1275, led by Guðrøðr Magnússon. The uprising initially expelled the Scots, who had received the Isle of Man in 1266 by the Treaty of Perth from the Kingdom of Norway. King Alexander III of Scotland responded by sending a large fleet and troops to crush the rebellion.

Margaret of Flanders was a consort of Alexander, Prince of Scotland and later wife of Reinauld I, Count of Guelders.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">William St. Clair, 6th Baron of Roslin</span> Thirteenth-century Scottish noble

William St. Clair, 6th Baron of Roslin was a Scottish nobleman of the late 13th century.

Events from the 1280s in the Kingdom of Scotland.

Events from the 1260s in the Kingdom of Scotland.