Alexander I of Macedon

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Alexander I
Vassal of Achaemenid Persia
Subordinate King to Achaemenid Persia
KINGS of MACEDON. Alexander I. 498-454 BC. AR Obol (8mm, 0.46 g). Struck circa 460-450 BC. Young male head right, wearing petasos.jpg
Coin from the end of the reign of Alexander I, struck circa 460-450 BC. Young male head right, wearing petasos.
King of Macedon
Reign498–454 BC
Predecessor Amyntas I
Successor
Spouseunknown
Issue Alcetas II
Perdiccas II
Philip
Menelaus
Amyntas
Stratonice
House Macedon (Ancient Greece)
Dynasty Argead
Father Amyntas I
MotherQueen Eurydice
Religion Ancient Greek religion

Alexander I of Macedon (Greek : Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μακεδών), known with the title Philhellene (Greek: φιλέλλην, literally "lover of the Greeks", meaning "patriot") was the ruler of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from c. 498 BC until his death in 454 BC. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Alcetas II.

Contents

Biography

Early coinage of Alexander I, under Achaemenid Macedonia, Aegae, circa 500-480 BC. Goat kneeling right, head reverted; pellet above and before / Quadripartite incuse square. MACEDON, Aegae. Circa 500-480 BC.jpg
Early coinage of Alexander I, under Achaemenid Macedonia, Aegae, circa 500-480 BC. Goat kneeling right, head reverted; pellet above and before / Quadripartite incuse square.

Alexander was the son of Amyntas I and Queen Eurydice (Greek : Εὐρυδίκη). He had a sister named Gygaea (Greek : Γυγαίη). [1]

He gave his sister for marriage to the Persian general Bubares, in the late 6th century BC who was in Macedon at the time, in order to stop him from searching for Persian soldiers who had been killed by Alexander's men following his commands. [2] [3]

Coin of Alexander I in the decade following the Second Persian invasion of Greece (struck in 480-470 BC). KINGS of MACEDON. Alexander I. 498-454 BC. AR Tetradrachm (13.38 gm, 3h). Struck circa 480-470 BC.jpg
Coin of Alexander I in the decade following the Second Persian invasion of Greece (struck in 480-470 BC).
Silver tetradrachm of Alexander I, struck at the end of his reign, circa 465-460 BC. Oktadrachm of Alexander I 498 - 454 BCE.jpg
Silver tetradrachm of Alexander I, struck at the end of his reign, circa 465-460 BC.

Alexander I came to the throne during the era of the kingdom's vassalage at the hand of Achaemenid Persia, dating back to the time of his father, Amyntas I, although Macedon retained a broad scope of autonomy. [4] In 492 BC it was made to a fully subordinate part of the Persian Kingdom by Mardonius' campaign. [5] At that time, Alexander was on the nominal Macedonian throne. Alexander further acted as a representative of the Persian governor Mardonius during peace negotiations after the Persian defeat at the Battle of Salamis in 480 BC. In later events, Herodotus several times mentions Alexander as a man who is on Xerxes' side and follows the assigned tasks. [6]

Aristides, commander of the Athenians, informed by Alexander I of Macedon that delaying the encounter with the Persians would help further diminish their already low supplies. Battle of Plataea, 479 BC. Aristides and Alexander 479 BCE.jpg
Aristides, commander of the Athenians, informed by Alexander I of Macedon that delaying the encounter with the Persians would help further diminish their already low supplies. Battle of Plataea, 479 BC.

From the time of Mardonius' conquest of Macedon, Alexander I is referred to as hyparchos by Herodotus, meaning subordinate governor. [7] Despite his cooperation with Persia, Alexander I frequently gave supplies and advice to the Greek city states, and warned them of Mardonius' plans before the Battle of Plataea in 479 BC. For example, Alexander I warned the Greeks in Tempe to leave before the arrival of Xerxes' troops, as well as notified them of an alternate route into Thessaly through upper Macedonia. [8] After their defeat in Plataea, the Persian army under the command of Artabazus tried to retreat all the way back to Asia Minor. Most of the 43,000 survivors were attacked and killed by the forces of Alexander at the estuary of the Strymon river. Alexander eventually regained Macedonian independence after the end of the Persian Wars.

Alexander claimed descent from Argive Greeks and Heracles. After a court of Elean hellanodikai determined his claim to be true, he was permitted to participate in the Olympic Games [9] [10] [11] possibly in 504 BC, [12] an honour reserved only for Greeks. He modelled his court after Athens and was a patron of the poets Pindar and Bacchylides, both of whom dedicated poems to Alexander. [13] The earliest reference to an Athenian proxenos, who lived during the time of the Persian wars (c. 490 BC), is that of Alexander I. [14] Alexander I was given the title "philhellene" (Greek: "φιλέλλην", fond of the Greeks, lover of the Greeks), a title used for Greek patriots. [15] [16]

Family

Alexander had four sons and a daughter:

See also

Related Research Articles

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Amyntas I was king of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and then a vassal of Darius I from 512/511 to his death 498 BC, at the time of Achaemenid Macedonia. He was a son of Alcetas I of Macedon. He married Eurydice and they had a son Alexander.

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Macedonia (ancient kingdom) Ancient kingdom in the Balkans

Macedonia, also called Macedon, was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece. The kingdom was founded and initially ruled by the royal Argead dynasty, which was followed by the Antipatrid and Antigonid dynasties. Home to the ancient Macedonians, the earliest kingdom was centered on the northeastern part of the Greek peninsula, and bordered by Epirus to the west, Paeonia to the north, Thrace to the east and Thessaly to the south.

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Ancient Macedonians Ancient ethnic group from the northeastern part of mainland Greece

The Macedonians were an ancient tribe that lived on the alluvial plain around the rivers Haliacmon and lower Axios in the northeastern part of mainland Greece. Essentially an ancient Greek people, they gradually expanded from their homeland along the Haliacmon valley on the northern edge of the Greek world, absorbing or driving out neighbouring non-Greek tribes, primarily Thracian and Illyrian. They spoke Ancient Macedonian, a language closely related to Ancient Greek or a Doric Greek dialect, although the prestige language of the region was at first Attic and then Koine Greek. Their religious beliefs mirrored those of other Greeks, following the main deities of the Greek pantheon, although the Macedonians continued Archaic burial practices that had ceased in other parts of Greece after the 6th century BC. Aside from the monarchy, the core of Macedonian society was its nobility. Similar to the aristocracy of neighboring Thessaly, their wealth was largely built on herding horses and cattle.

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Argaeus or Araeus, was according to 5th-century BC Greek writer Herodotus one of six predecessors of his contemporary, king Alexander I of Macedon. Alexander I's predecessors, starting from the nearest, were according to Herodotus: Amyntas, Alcetas, Aëropus, Philip I, Argaeus, and Perdiccas I. A rival tradition is held by Livy, Pausanias, Suidas and Junianus Justinus, with Caranus as the first Macedon king.

Alcetas I of Macedon was a son of Aeropus I of Macedon and the 8th king of the ancient Greek kingdom of Μacedon, counting from Karanus, and the 5th, counting from Perdiccas, reigning, according to Eusebius, 29 years. He was the father of Amyntas I, who reigned in the latter part of the 6th century BC.

Alcetas II was king of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon.

Skudra

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Gygaea was a daughter of Amyntas I and sister of Alexander I of Macedon. She was given away in marriage by her brother to the Persian General Bubares. Herodotus also mentions a son of Bubares and Gygaea, called Amyntas, who was later given the city Alabanda in Caria by Xerxes I.

Sirras or Sirrhas was a prince, royal member and perhaps prince-regent of Lynkestis (Lyncestis) in Upper Macedonia for his father-in-law King Arrhabaeus. He participated in the Pelopponesian War against Sparta.

Achaemenid Macedonia

Achaemenid Macedonia refers to the period in which the ancient Greek Kingdom of Macedonia was under the sway of the Achaemenid Persians. In 512/511 BC, Megabyzus forced the Macedonian king Amyntas I to make his kingdom a vassal of the Achaemenids. In 492 BC, following the Ionian Revolt, Mardonius firmly re-tightened the Persian grip in the Balkans, making Macedon a fully subordinate kingdom within the Achaemenid domains and part of its administrative system, until the definite withdrawal of the Persians from their European territories following the failure of the Second Persian invasion of Greece.

Amyntas II (son of Bubares)

Amyntas II was the son of the Persian official Bubares by his Macedonian wife Gygaea. He was named after his maternal grandfather, Amyntas I of Macedon, who ruled Macedon as a Persian subject since 512/511 BC. Later, king Xerxes I gave him the Carian city of Alabanda. Amyntas was possibly the direct successor of the tyrant Aridolis.

Bubares, a Persian, had taken to wife Gygaea, Alexander's sister and Amyntas' daughter, who had borne to him that Amyntas of Asia who was called by the name of his mother's father, and to whom the king gave Alabanda, a great city in Phrygia, for his dwelling.

History of Macedonia (ancient kingdom)

The kingdom of Macedonia was an ancient state in what is now the Macedonian region of northern Greece, founded in the mid-7th century BC during the period of Archaic Greece and lasting until the mid-2nd century BC. Led first by the Argead dynasty of kings, Macedonia became a vassal state of the Achaemenid Empire of ancient Persia during the reigns of Amyntas I of Macedon and his son Alexander I of Macedon. The period of Achaemenid Macedonia came to an end in roughly 479 BC with the ultimate Greek victory against the second Persian invasion of Greece led by Xerxes I and the withdrawal of Persian forces from the European mainland.

Government of Macedonia (ancient kingdom) government of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia

The earliest government of Macedonia was established by the Argead dynasty of Macedonian kings some time during the period of Archaic Greece. Due to shortcomings in the historical record, very little is known about the origins of Macedonian governmental institutions before the reign of Philip II of Macedon, during the final phase of Classical Greece. These institutions continued to evolve under his successor Alexander the Great and the subsequent Antipatrid and Antigonid dynasties of Hellenistic Greece. Following the Roman victory in the Third Macedonian War and house arrest of Perseus of Macedon in 168 BC, the Macedonian monarchy was abolished and replaced by four client state republics. However, the monarchy was briefly revived by the pretender to the throne Andriscus in 150–148 BC, followed by the Roman victory in the Fourth Macedonian War and establishment of the Roman province of Macedonia.

Bubares Ancient Persian nobleman

Bubares was a Persian nobleman and engineer in the service of the Achaemenid Empire of the 5th century BC. He was one of the sons of Megabazus, and a second-degree cousin of Xerxes I.

References

  1. Herodotus, Book 5: Terpsichore, 21
  2. Joseph Roisman,Ian Worthington. "A Companion to Ancient Macedonia" p136
  3. Herodotus, Book 5: Terpsichore, 21
  4. Joseph Roisman,Ian Worthington. "A companion to Ancient Macedonia" John Wiley & Sons, 2011. ISBN   144435163X pp 343
  5. Joseph Roisman,Ian Worthington. "A companion to Ancient Macedonia" John Wiley & Sons, 2011. ISBN   144435163X pp 135-138
  6. Joseph Roisman,Ian Worthington. "A Companion to Ancient Macedonia" p138
  7. Joseph Roisman,Ian Worthington. "A Companion to Ancient Macedonia" p138
  8. Herodotus (1954). The Histories . Aubrey De Selincourt (trans.). Penguin Group. p.  477. ISBN   9780140449082.
  9. Malcolm Errington, "A History of Macedonia", University of California Press, 1993, p.4: "Ancient allegations that the Macedonians were non-Greeks all had their origin in Athens at the time of the struggle with Philip II. Then as now, political struggle created the prejudice. The orator Aeschines once even found it necessary, in order to counteract the prejudice vigorously fomented by his opponents, to defend Philip on this issue and describe him at a meeting of the Athenian Popular Assembly as being 'Entirely Greek'. Demosthenes' allegations were lent an appearance of credibility by the fact, apparent to every observer, that the life-style of the Macedonians, being determined by specific geographical and historical conditions, was different from that of a Greek city-state. This alien way of life was, however, common to western Greeks of Epiros, Akarnania and Aitolia, as well as to the Macedonians, and their fundamental Greek nationality was never doubted. Only as a consequence of the political disagreement with Macedonia was the issue raised at all."
  10. Herodotus 5.22
  11. Justin-7.2.14
  12. A History of Macedonia. Volume 2 Review: John Cole
  13. Thucydides and Pindar: Historical Narrative and the World of Epinikian Poetry Page 180 By Simon Hornblower ISBN   0-19-924919-9
  14. Conrad Lashley; Paul Lynch; Alison J. Morrison, eds. (2006). Hospitality : a social lens (1st ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier. p. 25. ISBN   0-08-045093-8.
  15. φιλέλλην, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  16. Plato, Republic, 5.470e, Xenophon Agesilaus, 7.4 (in Greek)
  17. 1 2 Roisman, Joseph (2010), "Classical Macedonia to Perdiccas III", in Roisman, Joseph; Worthington, Ian (eds.), A Companion to Ancient Macedonia, Blackwell Publishing, pp. 145–165, ISBN   978-1-4051-7936-2
  18. Satyrus the Peripatetic, FGrH 631 fr 2
  19. Carney, Elizabeth (2000). Women and Monarchy in Macedonia. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN   0-8061-3212-4.
Alexander I
 Died: 454 BC
Royal titles
Preceded by
Amyntas I
King of Macedon
498–454 BC
Succeeded by
Alcetas II