Alexander Nevsky Square

Last updated
This article is about the square in Saint Petersburg. For the square in Moscow, see Red Square. For other uses, see Red Square (disambiguation).
The statue of Alexander Nevsky in the centre of Alexander Nevsky Square Ploshchad' Aleksandra Nevskogo.jpg
The statue of Alexander Nevsky in the centre of Alexander Nevsky Square

Alexander Nevsky Square (Russian :Площадь Александра Невского, tr. Ploshchad Aleksandra Nevskogo), formerly called Red Square, is a city square in Tsentralny District, Saint Petersburg. It is at the east end of Nevsky Prospekt, linking the street with the Alexander Nevsky Lavra.

Russian language East Slavic language


Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.

Romanization of Russian Romanization of the Russian alphabet

Romanization of Russian is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic script into the Latin script.

Tsentralny District, Saint Petersburg District in federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia

Tsentralny District is a district of the federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 214,625; down from 236,856 recorded in the 2002 Census.

Contents

Designed as part of the development of the monastery in the late eighteenth century, the square had received its name by at least 1784, and was laid out in the 1790s with the building of the Gate Church, and the establishment of a stone wall boundary. Several apartment buildings and an almshouse owned by the monastery were built fronting the square and Nevsky Prospekt. The alternative name Alexander Nevsky Lavra Square entered usage in the mid-nineteenth century. By the early twentieth century the square was considerably neglected and rundown. It was considered unsafe to walk through at night due to the likelihood of being robbed, while urban legends about voracious rats circulated. It was renamed Red Square in the early Soviet period, but reverted to Alexander Nevsky Square in 1952.

Gate Church Church in St. Petersburg, Russia

The Gate Church, or formally the Church of the Icon of the Mother of God Joy of All Who Sorrow is a Russian Orthodox church in Saint Petersburg. It is in the Diocese of Saint Petersburg and is part of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra.

Almshouse charitable housing

An almshouse is charitable housing provided to people in a particular community. They are often targeted at the poor of a locality, at those from certain forms of previous employment, or their widows, and at elderly people who can no longer pay rent, and are generally maintained by a charity or the trustees of a bequest. Almshouses were originally formed as extensions of the church system and were later adapted by local officials and authorities.

An urban legend, urban myth, urban tale, or contemporary legend is a modern genre of folklore rooted in local popular culture, usually comprising fictional stories that are often presented as true, with macabre or humorous elements. These legends can be used for entertainment purposes, as well as semi-serious explanations for seemingly-mysterious events, such as disappearances and strange objects.

The area was redeveloped in the 1960s with the completion of the Alexander Nevsky Bridge, and the opening of the Hotel Moscow  [ ru ] and the metro station Ploshchad Alexandra Nevskogo. Another metro station, Ploshchad Alexandra Nevskogo-2, opened in the 1980s and in 2002 long-held plans for a monument to Alexander Nevsky came to fruition with the installation of a bronze equestrian sculpture in the square.

Alexander Nevsky Bridge Road bridge in St Petersburg, Russia

The Alexander Nevsky Bridge in St Petersburg, Russia is named after the legendary Russian military commander and politician Alexander Nevsky. The bridge connects Alexander Nevsky Square and Zanevsky prospect thus linking the southern and the northern parts of the city. Until 2004, when the Big Obukhovsky Bridge was built, the Alexander Nevsky bridge was the longest bridge across the Neva River in Saint Petersburg. Its length is 905.7 meters, and it is 35 meters wide. The bridge was built from 1960 to 1965 under the working name of Old Neva Bridge. Designed by the group of architects A. Zhuk, S. Mayofis and Y. Sinitsa, the bridge has complemented the look of adjacent buildings in surrounding area. The project was led by a team of engineers of the "Lengiprotransmost" institute. Proof-testing was done by means of a column of army tanks. On November 5, 1965, the bridge was open for traffic.

Ploshchad Alexandra Nevskogo I (Saint Petersburg Metro) Saint Petersburg Metro Station

Ploshchad Alexandra Nevskogo I is a station on the Nevsko-Vasileostrovskaya Line of Saint Petersburg Metro, opened on November 3, 1967.

Ploshchad Alexandra Nevskogo II (Saint Petersburg Metro) Saint Petersburg Metro Station

Ploshchad Alexandra Nevskogo II is a station on the Pravoberezhnaya Line of Saint Petersburg Metro, opened on December 30, 1985.

Development

Starov's Gate Church at one end of the square forms the access point into the Alexander Nevsky Lavra Ts.Bozhiei materi vsekh skorbiashchikh radosti (nadvratnaia).jpg
Starov's Gate Church at one end of the square forms the access point into the Alexander Nevsky Lavra

The Alexander Nevsky Monastery was established by Peter the Great in the 1710s, marking the site where he believed Alexander Nevsky had defeated the Swedes at the Battle of the Neva in 1240. The space between the monastery and the route of Nevsky Prospekt remained largely undeveloped during the seventeenth century, with the boundary marked only with a wooden fence and a wooden bell tower built in 1754 on the edge of what later became Alexander Nevsky Square. By the late seventeenth century the houses of Nevsky Prospekt had begun to encroach on this space. [1] While Empress Elizabeth I had patronized the Smolny Convent, the accession of Empress Catherine II brought a renewed interest in completing the Alexander Nevsky Monastery. [1]

Peter the Great Tsar and 1st Emperor, founder of the Russian Empire

Peter the Great, Peter I or Peter Alexeyevich ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire from 7 May [O.S. 27 April] 1682 until his death in 1725, jointly ruling before 1696 with his elder half-brother, Ivan V. Through a number of successful wars, he expanded the Tsardom into a much larger empire that became a major European power and also laid the groundwork for the Russian navy after capturing ports at Azov and the Baltic Sea. He led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political systems with ones that were modern, scientific, Westernised and based on the Enlightenment. Peter's reforms made a lasting impact on Russia, and many institutions of Russian government trace their origins to his reign. He is also known for founding and developing the city of Saint Petersburg, which remained the capital of Russia until 1917.

Battle of the Neva battle

The Battle of the Neva was fought between the Novgorod Republic and Karelians against Swedish, Norwegian, Finnish and Tavastian armies on the Neva River, near the settlement of Ust-Izhora, on 15 July 1240.

Smolny Convent

Smolny Convent or Smolny Convent of the Resurrection (Voskresensky), located on Ploschad Rastrelli, on the bank of the River Neva in Saint Petersburg, Russia, consists of a cathedral (sobor) and a complex of buildings surrounding it, originally intended for a convent.

In 1784 a commission examined the options for further developing the monastery. The square was likely laid out by the diocese architect Ivan Starov in the latter half of the eighteenth century to provide access from the main road through the city, Nevsky Prospekt, and the developing monastery complex. [2] Starov was also working on several buildings for the monastery, including its main cathedral, the Holy Trinity Cathedral, and the Gate Church, which fronted the square. [3] His assistant, Mikhail Melentyev, built a semi-circular stone wall around the square, and by 1784 it had become known as the Alexander Nevsky Square, referring to the monastery, whose buildings now framed all sides of the square. [2] Starov added further apartment buildings on Nevsky Prospekt, and an almshouse on the square. [4] From 1857 until at least the 1880s the name Alexander Nevsky Lavra Square was also in use. [1]

Ivan Starov Russian architect

Ivan Yegorovich Starov was a Russian architect from St. Petersburg who devised the master plans for Yaroslavl, Voronezh, Pskov, Dnipropetrovsk, Mykolaiv, and many other towns in Russia and Ukraine. His radial urban master plan for Yaroslavl (1778), cleverly highlighting dozens historic churches and towers, is recognized as one of the World Heritage Sites.

Holy Trinity Cathedral of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra

The Holy Trinity Cathedral of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra is a Russian Orthodox cathedral in Saint Petersburg. It is in the Diocese of Saint Petersburg and part of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra, where it is the cathedral church of the monastery complex.

The square in 1906. The Gate Church is visible, and in the distance rise the spires and domes of the lavra. Pl. A. Nevskogo (1906).jpg
The square in 1906. The Gate Church is visible, and in the distance rise the spires and domes of the lavra.

By the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries the square had become rundown and was considered a disreputable area, housing grain barns and tram tracks. [3] It was barely lit at night and became notorious for passers-by being robbed. [1] It was also well known for the large numbers of rats that came to feed on the grain, and at night moved to the nearby river to drink. [1] A popular urban legend of the 1920s recorded how a cab driver and his horse tried to pass through the area at night, with only their skeletons, gnawed clean by rats, found the following day. [1]

Soviet period

The space was renamed Red Square on 15 December 1923 as part of an ongoing anti-religious campaign. [1] [3] [4] In 1936 the square was part of the route of the first trolley bus line in the city. [4] On 15 December 1952 it was renamed Alexander Nevsky Square, this time after the saint rather than the monastery. [1] [3] [4] The area was redeveloped after the opening of the Alexander Nevsky Bridge on 5 November 1965, with the demolition of the older buildings and the construction of the Ploshchad Alexandra Nevskogo metro station and the Hotel Moscow  [ ru ]. [3] In 1985 a second metro station, Ploshchad Alexandra Nevskogo-2, was opened. [1] [2]

Statue

The bronze statue of Alexander Nevsky, and in the background, the Hotel Moscow [ru
]. Tsentralny District, St Petersburg, Russia - panoramio (403).jpg
The bronze statue of Alexander Nevsky, and in the background, the Hotel Moscow  [ ru ].

On 9 May 2002, as part of the 300th anniversary celebrations of Saint Petersburg, a bronze equestrian statue of Alexander Nevsky was unveiled in the square. [3] [5] Designed by architects Vladimir Popov  [ ru ] and Gennadiy Peychev  [ ru ], it was sculpted by Valentin Kozenyuk  [ ru ] and Aleksandr Palmin, with the assistance of Albert Charkin  [ ru ]. [5] The pedestal is 5 m (16 ft) high, and the statue 5.1 m (17 ft) high. [5] At its unveiling it was consecrated by Patriarch Alexy II of Moscow and Metropolitan Vladimir  [ ru ]. [2] On 12 September 2005 two bronze bas-reliefs were installed on the pedestal, the work of architect Vladimir Popov and sculptor Aleksandr Palmin, which depict the Battle of the Neva and the installation of the relics of Alexander Nevsky in the Alexander Nevsky Monastery. [5]

The installation was the completion of proposals as far back as the mid-1970s to place a monument to Alexander Nevsky in the city. [6] Kozenyuk had exhibited a plaster model of a monument to Nevsky to the Union of Architects  [ ru ] in 1975. [6] In 1987 he submitted a bronze version to a competition to build a Nevsky monument in Ust-Izhora, the supposed site of the Battle of the Neva, but the design was not selected. In 1990 it placed second in a competition to build such a monument in Leningrad, behind a design offered by B. N. Nikanorov. [6] The holders of the first three places were asked to develop their designs further, and with Nikanorov's death in 1992, Kosenyuk's design was selected in the second round of the competition. The work was further developed by Kosenyuk and architect Gennadiy Peychev, until Kosenyuk's death in 1997. [6] The design work was completed by sculptor Aleksandr Palmin and architect Vladimir Popov and on 22 March 1999 the Governor of Saint Petersburg Vladimir Yakovlev approved the construction and installation of the monument by the Baltic Construction Company. [6] The foundation stone was laid on 15 April 1999, but disagreements over the siting of the monument and its orientation caused Peychev to drop out of the project. The statue, weighing nine tonnes, was cast in December 2001 and delivered to the site on 7 March 2002. [6]

Today Alexander Nevsky Square is a major traffic intersection, while providing foot access to the Alexander Nevsky Lavra. [3]

Related Research Articles

Nevsky Prospect thoroughfare in Saint Petersburg, Russia

Nevsky Prospect is the main street in the city of St. Petersburg in Russia. It takes its name from the Alexander Nevsky Lavra, the monastery which stands at the eastern end of the street, and which in turn commemorates the Russian hero Prince Saint Alexander Nevsky (1221-1263). Following his founding of Saint Petersburg in 1703, Tsar Peter I planned the course of the street as the beginning of the road to Novgorod and Moscow. The avenue runs from the Admiralty in the west to the Moscow Railway Station and, after veering slightly southwards at Vosstaniya Square, to the Alexander Nevsky Lavra.

Alexander Nevsky Lavra monastery

Saint Alexander Nevsky Lavra or Saint Alexander Nevsky Monastery was founded by Peter I of Russia in 1710 at the eastern end of the Nevsky Prospekt in Saint Petersburg supposing that that was the site of the Neva Battle in 1240 when Alexander Nevsky, a prince, defeated the Swedes; however, the battle actually took place about 12 miles (19 km) away from that site. "On April 5, 1713, in St. Petersburg, in the presence of Peter I, the wooden Church of the Annunciation was consecrated. This day is considered the official founding date of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra."

Palace Square central city square of St Petersburg, Russia

Palace Square, connecting Nevsky Prospekt with Palace Bridge leading to Vasilievsky Island, is the central city square of St Petersburg and of the former Russian Empire. Many significant events took place there, including the Bloody Sunday massacre and parts of the October Revolution of 1917. Between 1918 and 1944, it was known as Uritsky Square, in memory of the assassinated leader of the city's Cheka branch, Moisei Uritsky.

Vosstaniya Square square in Saint Petersburg, Russia

Vosstaniya Square is a major square in the Central Business District of Saint Petersburg, Russia. The square lies at the crossing of Nevsky Prospekt, Ligovsky Prospekt, Vosstaniya Street and Goncharnaya Street, in front of the Moskovsky Rail Terminal, which is the northern terminus of the line connecting the city with Moscow. Administratively, the Vosstaniya Square falls under the authority of the Tsentralny District.

The appearance of St. Petersburg includes long, straight boulevards, vast spaces, gardens and parks, decorative wrought-iron fences, monuments and decorative sculptures. The Neva River itself, together with its many canals and their granite embankments and bridges help to give the city its particular ambience.

Nevsky (masculine), Nevskaya (feminine), or Nevskoye (neuter) may refer to:

St. Alexander Nevsky Church (Shakhty) Church in Russia, Russia

The Saint Alexander Nevsky Church was a Russian Orthodox church in Shakhty, Rostov Oblast, Russia.

Alexandrovskaya Square

Alexandrovskaya Square is a city square of Taganrog.

Arts Square

The Arts Square is an open public square in the center of Saint Petersburg, Russia.

Annunciation Church of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra Church in St. Petersburg, Russia

The Annunciation Church of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra, or in full, the Church of the Blessing of the Most Holy Virgin and the Holy Blessed Prince Alexander Nevsky is a Russian Orthodox church in Saint Petersburg. It is in the Diocese of Saint Petersburg and is part of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra.

Dukhovskaya Church Church in St. Petersburg, Russia

The Dukhovskaya Church, or formally the Church of the Descent of the Holy Spirit is a former Russian Orthodox church in Saint Petersburg. It is in the Diocese of Saint Petersburg and is part of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 "Площадь Александра Невского" (in Russian). walkspb.ru. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
  2. 1 2 3 4 "Площадь Александра Невского" (in Russian). peterburg.biz. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Ploshchad Aleksandra Nevskogo (Alexander Nevsky Square)". saint-petersburg.com. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
  4. 1 2 3 4 "Площадь Александра Невского в Санкт-Петербурге" (in Russian). peterburg.center. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
  5. 1 2 3 4 "Александру Невскому, памятник (Александра Невского пл.)" (in Russian). Sankt Peterburg Entsiklopediya. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Александру Невскому, памятник (Александра Невского пл.)" (in Russian). Sankt Peterburg Entsiklopediya. Retrieved 28 April 2019.

Coordinates: 59°55′25″N30°23′07″E / 59.92361°N 30.38528°E / 59.92361; 30.38528