Alexander Dmitrievich Petrov (Russian : Алекса́ндр Дми́триевич Петро́в) (February 12, 1794, in Biserovo, near Pskov – April 22, 1867, in Warsaw) was a Russian chess player, chess composer, and chess writer.
Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although, nowadays, nearly three decades after the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia, the rise of state-specific varieties of this language tends to be strongly denied in Russia, in line with the Russian World ideology.
Pskov is a city and the administrative center of Pskov Oblast, Russia, located about 20 kilometers (12 mi) east from the Estonian border, on the Velikaya River. Population: 203,279 (2010 Census); 202,780 (2002 Census); 203,789 (1989 Census).
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula River in east-central Poland and its population is officially estimated at 1.765 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 3.1 million residents, which makes Warsaw the 8th most-populous capital city in the European Union. The city limits cover 516.9 square kilometres (199.6 sq mi), while the metropolitan area covers 6,100.43 square kilometres (2,355.39 sq mi). Warsaw is an alpha global city, a major international tourist destination, and a significant cultural, political and economic hub. Its historical Old Town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Petrov was born into a noble family and is usually remembered as the first great Russian chess master. From 1804, he lived in Saint Petersburg. In 1809, he defeated Kopev and Baranov, Petersburg’s leading chess players, and became Russian best player at the age of 15. For over half a century Petrov was considered Russia's strongest player.
He is an author of the first chess handbook in Russian (Shakhmatnaya igra (...), St Petersburg 1824). He also analysed with Carl Friedrich von Jänisch the opening that later became known as the Petrov's Defense or Russian Game (C42).
Carl Ferdinand von Jaenisch was a Finnish and Russian chess player and theorist. In the 1840s, he was among the top players in the world.
From 1840 he lived in Warsaw (then in the Russian Empire), where successfully played against top Warsaw chess masters: Alexander Hoffman, Piotrowski, Szymański, Siewieluński, Hieronim Czarnowski, Szymon Winawer, etc.
The Russian Empire, also known as Imperial Russia or simply Russia, was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Hieronim Ignacy Czarnowski was a Polish chess master and activist.
Szymon Abramowicz Winawer was a leading Polish chess player who won the German Chess Championship in 1883.
Petrov won matches against D.A. Baranov (4–2) in 1809, Carl Jaenisch (2–1) at St Petersburg 1844; Prince Sergey Semenovich Urusov (3–1) at St Petersburg 1853 and (13.5–7.5) at Warsaw 1859; and Ilya Shumov (4–2) at St Petersburg 1862.
Ilya Stepanovich Shumov was a Russian chess master.
During the January Uprising (1863–1864), he left Warsaw for Vienna and Paris. Among others, he played a match with Paul Journoud at Paris 1863.
The January Uprising was an insurrection instigated principally in the Russian Partition of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth against its occupation by the Russian Empire. It began on January 22, 1863 spread to the other Partitions of Poland and continued until the last insurgents were captured in 1864.
Paul Journoud was a French chess master and editor.
Petrov died in 1867, and was buried in the Orthodox Cemetery in Warsaw.
His most well-known problem is "The Retreat of Napoleon I from Moscow" (St. Petersburg 1824).
Akiba Kiwelowicz Rubinstein was a Polish chess grandmaster who is considered to have been one of the strongest players never to have become World Chess Champion.
Lionel Adalbert Bagration Felix Kieseritzky was a Baltic German chess master, famous primarily for a game he lost against Adolf Anderssen, which because of its brilliance was named "The Immortal Game".
Salomon Mikhailovich Flohr was a leading Czech chess grandmaster of the mid-20th century, who became a national hero in Czechoslovakia during the 1930s. His name was used to sell many of the luxury products of the time, including Salo Flohr cigarettes, slippers and eau-de-cologne. Flohr dominated many tournaments of the pre-World War II years, and by the late 1930s was considered a contender for the World Championship. However, his patient, positional style was overtaken by the sharper, more tactical methods of the younger Soviet echelon after World War II. Flohr was also a well-respected chess author, and an International Arbiter.
Petrov's Defence or the Petrov Defence is a chess opening characterised by the following moves:
Alexander Shabalov is an American chess grandmaster and a four-time winner of the United States Chess Championship. He also won or tied for first place seven times in the U.S. Open Chess Championship.
The Bishop's Opening is a chess opening that begins with the moves:
Vladimirs Petrovs was a Latvian Russian chess master.
The Polish Defense is the name commonly given to one of several sequences of chess opening moves characterized by an early ...b5 by Black. The name "Polish Defense" is given by analogy to the Polish Opening, 1.b4. The original line was
Grigory Yakovlevich Levenfish was a Polish-born Russian chess grandmaster who scored his peak competitive results in the 1920s and 1930s. He was twice Soviet champion, in 1934 and 1937. In 1937 he drew a match against future world champion Mikhail Botvinnik. He also had a career as an engineer. Levenfish was a well-regarded endgame specialist and chess writer.
Boris Markovich Verlinsky was a Ukrainian-Russian International Master of chess. He was one of the top Soviet players of the 1920s. Verlinsky was deaf as a result of Meningitis as a youngster.
GerszRotlewi was a Polish chess master.
Benjamin Blumenfeld was a Russian chess master.
Vladimir Epishin is a Russian chess grandmaster.
Hugo Fähndrich was an Austrian–Hungarian chess master.
Nikolay Novotelnov was Russian chess International Master (1951) and author.
The Scandinavian Defense is a chess opening characterized by the moves:
Prince Sergey Semyonovich Urusov Russian: Сергей Семёнович Уру́сов was a leading 19th century Russian chess player; he was also a self-published amateur mathematician. His brother Dmitry Urusov (1829-1903) was also a strong player.