Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth

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Alexandre-Théodore-Victor Lameth
A Lameth.jpg
Born20 October 1760
Died18 March 1829 (1829-03-19) (aged 68)
TitleCount
Relatives Charles Malo François Lameth (brother)
Théodore de Lameth (brother)

Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth (20 October 1760 18 March 1829) was a French soldier and politician.

France Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories

France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government. In democratic countries, politicians seek elective positions within a government through elections or, at times, temporary appointment to replace politicians who have died, resigned or have been otherwise removed from office. In non-democratic countries, they employ other means of reaching power through appointment, bribery, revolutions and war. Some politicians are experienced in the art or science of government. Politicians propose, support and create laws or policies that govern the land and, by extension, its people. Broadly speaking, a "politician" can be anyone who seeks to achieve political power in any bureaucratic institution.

Life

Alexandre Lameth was born in Paris on 20 October 1760 and was the youngest child of Marie Thérèse de Broglie. His mother was the sister of the Marshall de Broglie and a favourite of Marie Antoinette. [1] His other two brothers were, Théodore Lameth (1756–1854), who served in the American war, sat in the Legislative Assembly as deputy from the department of Jura, and became maréchal-de-camp; and Charles Malo François Lameth, who was a popular politician and a hero in the battle of the American War of Independence. [2] He served in the American War of Independence as a colonel in the Royal Lorraine Regiment under Rochambeau. [3] He was also a Knight of the Order of Malta like his brother Charles Lameth. [4] Like many other veterans from the American War of Independence, and those among the French Patriot Party, Lameth became friends with Thomas Jefferson. His commitment to moderate constitutional and social reform gathered him respect in the eyes of Jefferson, given his idea for a unicameral, influential legislature. [5] Several American newspapers would publish his speeches of what took place during the National Assembly, and his stances on private property, the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, etc. [6]

Paris Capital of France

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts.

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Marie Antoinette Last Queen of France prior to the French Revolution

Marie Antoinette was the last Queen of France before the French Revolution. She was born an Archduchess of Austria and was the penultimate child and youngest daughter of Empress Maria Theresa and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. She became Dauphine of France in May 1770 at age 14 upon her marriage to Louis-Auguste, heir apparent to the French throne. On 10 May 1774, her husband ascended the throne as Louis XVI and she assumed the title Queen of France and Navarre, which she held until September 1791, when she became Queen of the French as the French Revolution proceeded, a title that she held until 21 September 1792.

Alexandre Lameth, Adrien Duport , and Barnave were brought together on September 1789 for the first time during the first struggles of the Patriot Party. Despite the odds against them, their political ties strengthened and became a profound friendship that lasted through the turmoil. In the Constituent Assembly they formed a "Triumvirate," which controlled a group of about forty deputies forming the advanced left of the Assembly. He presented a famous report in the Constituent Assembly on the organization of the army, but is better known by his eloquent speech on 28 February 1791, at the Jacobin Club, against Honoré Mirabeau, whose relations with the court were beginning to be suspected, and who was a personal enemy of Lameth. During the next months, as leaders of the Feuillant club, they established their belief that the flight of the King to Varennes was all because of the faulty revolutionary process that prohibited any manner for compromise. They intended to rule out both the Republicans and Democrats so there would be as much compromise as possible. Their main intention was to end the war as soon as possible while still maintaining the gains of the revolution by passing the Constitution. [7] Their hopes for moderate reform were sullied by the radical turn of the Revolution. [8]

Adrien Duport French politician

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Feuillant (political group) political party

The Society of the Friends of the Constitution, better known as Feuillants Club, was a political grouping that emerged during the French Revolution. It came into existence on 16 July 1791 when the left-wing Jacobins split between moderates (Feuillants), who sought to preserve the position of the king and supported the proposed plan of the National Constituent Assembly for a constitutional monarchy; and radicals (Jacobins), who wished to press for a continuation of direct democratic action to overthrow Louis XVI. It represented the last and most vigorous attempt of the moderate constitutional monarchists to steer the course of the revolution away from the radical Jacobins.

Flight to Varennes

The royal Flight to Varennes during the night of 20–21 June 1791 was a significant episode in the French Revolution in which King Louis XVI of France, his queen Marie Antoinette, and their immediate family unsuccessfully attempted to escape from Paris in order to initiate a counter-revolution at the head of loyal troops under royalist officers concentrated at Montmédy near the frontier. They escaped only as far as the small town of Varennes, where they were arrested after having been recognized at their previous stop in Sainte-Menehould.

He served in the army as maréchal-de-camp under Nicolas Luckner and the Marquis de la Fayette, but was accused of treason on 12 August 1792 for protesting against the Attack on the Tuileries. [9] Once he fled the country, Lameth as well as Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, Bureaux de Pusy, and Latour-Maubourg, former members of the Constituent Assembly, were captured by Austrians. They were held in dungeons for seven years. [10]

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After his release, he went into business at Hamburg with his brother Charles and the duc d'Aiguillon, and did not return to France until the Consulate. Under the Empire, he was made prefect successively in several departments, and in 1810 was declared a Baron of the Empire. [11] In 1814, he attached himself to the Bourbons, and under the Restoration was appointed prefect of Somme, deputy for Seine-Inférieure and finally deputy for Seine-et-Oise, [11] in which capacity he was a leader of the Liberal opposition. [12]

Hamburg City in Germany

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Charles Malo François Lameth French general and politician

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He wrote various novels and articles, his two most prominent being: Histoire de l'Assemblée constituante and Mémoires publiés avec introduction et notes par Eugène Welvert. [13] In Histoire de l'Assemblée constituante, he introduced this work by displaying how he did not wish to write a book of biased anecdotes, nor provide a side of the revolution that states he was a main player, even though he was in a position to recall the most prominent events. He wanted to present an accurate, detailed description of the work of the Constituent Assembly. [14]

<i>Mémoires</i> book by Asger Jorn

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A constituent assembly or constitutional assembly is a body or assembly of popularly elected representatives composed for the purpose of drafting or adopting a constitutional-type document. The constituent assembly is a subset of a constitutional convention elected entirely by popular vote; that is, all constituent assemblies are constitutional conventions, but a constitutional convention is not necessarily a constituent assembly. As the fundamental document constituting a state, a constitution cannot normally be modified or amended by the state's normal legislative procedures; instead a constitutional convention or a constituent assembly, the rules for which are normally laid down in the constitution, must be set up. A constituent assembly is usually set up for its specific purpose, which it carries out in a relatively short time, after which the assembly is dissolved. A constituent assembly is a form of representative democracy.

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References

  1. Chronicle of the French Revolution, 1788-1799 1989, p. 35.
  2. Chronicle of the French Revolution, 1788-1799 1989, pp. 35-36.
  3. Alexandre-Theodore-Victor Lameth. Merriam Webster's Biographical Dictionary. 1995.
  4. Chronicle of the French Revolution, 1788-1799 1989, p. 36.
  5. Ziesche, Philipp (2006). "Exporting American revolutions: Gouverneur Morris, Thomas Jefferson, and the national struggle for universal rights in revolutionary France". Journal of the Early Republic. 26 (6): 419+. doi:10.1353/jer.2006.0058.
  6. "Philadelphia, 10 November. Extracts from London Papers Received by the Ship Johns Captain Gill". Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: THE FEDERAL GAZETTE, AND PHILADELPHIA EVENING POST. 1789-11-10. NewsBank/Readex
  7. Dendena, F. (27 January 2012). "A new look at Feuillantism: the triumvirate and the movement for war in 1791". French History. 26 (1): 6–33. doi:10.1093/fh/crr095.
  8. Worcester, Thomas (2007). "The French Nobility in the Eighteenth Century: Reassessments and New Approaches". Canadian Journal of History. 42 (2): 303+. doi:10.3138/cjh.42.2.303.
  9. Chronicle of the French Revolution, 1788-1799 1989, p. 282.
  10. Chronicle of the French Revolution, 1788-1799 1989, p. 262.
  11. 1 2 Chronicle of the French Revolution, 1788-1799 1989, p. 668.
  12. Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Lameth, Alexandre Théodore Victor, Comte de". Encyclopædia Britannica . 16 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 129. Endnote: See
    • F. A. Aulard, Les Orateurs de l'Assemblée Constituante (Paris, 1905)
    • M. Tourneux, Bibliog. de l'histoire de Paris (vol. iv., 1906, s.v. "Lameth").
  13. comte de Lameth, Alexandre (1913). Mémoires. Paris, Fontemoing.
  14. comte de Lameth, Alexandre (1828–29). Histoire de l'Assemblée constituante. Paris, Mourtadier.