Alexandre Millerand

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Alexandre Millerand
Alexandre Millerand (cropped).jpg
President of France
In office
23 September 1920 11 June 1924
Acting: 21 September 1920 – 23 September 1920
Prime Minister Georges Leygues,
Aristide Briand,
Raymond Poincaré,
Frédéric François-Marsal
Preceded by Paul Deschanel
Succeeded by Gaston Doumergue
Prime Minister of France
In office
20 January 1920 24 September 1920
President Raymond Poincaré,
Paul Deschanel
Preceded by Georges Clemenceau
Succeeded by Georges Leygues
Minister of War
In office
26 August 1914 29 October 1915
Prime Minister René Viviani
Preceded by Adolphe Messimy
Succeeded by Joseph Gallieni
In office
14 January 1912 12 January 1913
Prime Minister Raymond Poincaré
Preceded by Adolphe Messimy
Succeeded by Albert Lebrun
Minister of Commerce, Industry, Posts and Telegraphs
In office
Paul Delombre   Georges Trouillot
Prime Minister Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau
Member of the Senate
In office
5 April 1925 10 July 1940
Constituency Seine (1925–1927)
Orne (1927–1940)
Member of the Chamber of Deputies
In office
4 October 1885 23 September 1920
Constituency Seine
Personal details
Born(1859-02-10)10 February 1859
Paris, France
Died7 April 1943(1943-04-07) (aged 84)
Versailles, Occupied France
Political party Independent Socialists
(1885–1911)
Republican-Socialist Party
(1911–1920)
Independent
(1920–1940)
Spouse(s)
Jeanne Millerand
(m. 1898;his d. 1943)
ChildrenJean (1899–1972)
Alice (1902–80)
Jacques (1904–79)
Marthe (1909–75)
Alma mater University of Paris
Profession Lawyer, journalist

Alexandre Millerand (French:  [alɛksɑ̃dʁ milʁɑ̃] ; 10 February 1859 – 7 April 1943) was a French politician and freemason. [1] He was Prime Minister of France from 20 January to 23 September 1920 and President of France from 23 September 1920 to 11 June 1924. His participation in Waldeck-Rousseau's cabinet at the start of the 20th century, alongside the Marquis de Galliffet who had directed the repression of the 1871 Paris Commune, sparked a debate in the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) and in the Second International about the participation of socialists in "bourgeois governments".

A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government. In democratic countries, politicians seek elective positions within a government through elections or, at times, temporary appointment to replace politicians who have died, resigned or have been otherwise removed from office. In non-democratic countries, they employ other means of reaching power through appointment, bribery, revolutions and war. Some politicians are experienced in the art or science of government. Politicians propose, support and create laws or policies that govern the land and, by extension, its people. Broadly speaking, a "politician" can be anyone who seeks to achieve political power in any bureaucratic institution.

Prime Minister of France head of government and of the Council of Ministers of France

The French Prime Minister in the Fifth Republic is the head of government. During the Third and Fourth Republics, the head of government position was called President of the Council of Ministers, generally shortened to President of the Council.

President of France head of state of France

The President of the French Republic is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic. In French terms, the presidency is the supreme magistracy of the country.

Contents

Biography

Early activism

Born in Paris, he was educated for the Bar and was elected Secrétaire of the Conférence du Barreau de Paris. He made his reputation through his defence, in company with Georges Laguerre, of Ernest Roche and Duc-Quercy, the instigators of the strike at Decazeville in 1883. He then took Laguerre's place on Georges Clemenceau's newspaper, La Justice. He was elected to the Chamber of Deputies for the Seine département in 1885 as a Radical Socialist. He was associated with Clemenceau and Camille Pelletan as an arbitrator in the Carmaux strike (1892). He had long had the ear of the Chamber in matters of social legislation, and after the Panama scandals had discredited so many politicians, his influence grew.

Paris Capital of France

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts.

Bar (law)

In law, the bar is the legal profession as an institution. The term is a metonym for the line that separates the parts of a courtroom reserved for spectators and those reserved for participants in a trial such as lawyers.

Jean Henri Georges Laguerre was a French lawyer and politician.

As member of the executive

He was chief of the Independent Socialist faction, a group which then mustered sixty members, and edited until 1896 their organ in the press, La Petite République. His programme included the collective ownership of the means of production and the international association of labour. However, when in June 1899 he entered Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau's cabinet of "republican defence" as Minister of Commerce, he limited himself to practical reforms, devoting his attention to the improvement of the merchant marine, to the development of trade, of technical education, of the postal system, and to the amelioration of the conditions of labour. Labour questions were entrusted to a separate department, the Direction du Travail, and the pension and insurance office was also raised to the status of a "direction".

In economics and sociology, the means of production are physical and non-financial inputs used in the production of economic value. These include raw materials, facilities, machinery and tools used in the production of goods and services. In the terminology of classical economics, the means of production are the "factors of production" minus financial and human capital.

Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau Prime Minister of France

Pierre Marie René Ernest Waldeck-Rousseau was a French Republican politician, who served 29th Prime Minister of France.

As labour minister, Millerand was responsible for the introduction of a wide range of reforms, including the reduction in the maximum workday from 11 to 10 hours in 1904, the introduction of an 8-hour workday for postal employees, the prescribing of maximum hours and minimum wages for all work undertaken by public authorities, the bringing of workers' representatives into the Conseil supérieur de travail, the establishment of arbitration tribunals and inspectors of labour, and the creation of a labour section inside his Ministry of Commerce to tackle the problem of social insurance.

The introduction of trade union representatives on the Supreme Labour Council, the organisation of local labour councils, and instructions to factory inspectors to put themselves in communication with the councils of the trade unions were valuable concessions to labour. He further secured the rigorous application of earlier laws devised for the protection of the working class. His name was especially associated with a project for the establishment of old age pensions, which became law in 1905. In 1898, he became editor of La Lanterne.

A trade union, also called a labour union or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals, such as protecting the integrity of their trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits, and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members and negotiates labour contracts with employers. The most common purpose of these associations or unions is "maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment". This may include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring, firing and promotion of workers, benefits, workplace safety and policies.

Working class those employed in lower tier jobs

The working class comprises those engaged in waged or salaried labour, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work. Working-class occupations include blue-collar jobs, some white-collar jobs, and most pink-collar jobs. Members of the working class rely for their income exclusively upon their earnings from wage labour; thus, according to the more inclusive definitions, the category can include almost all of the working population of industrialized economies, as well as those employed in the urban areas of non-industrialized economies or in the rural workforce.

A pension is a fund into which a sum of money is added during an employee's employment years, and from which payments are drawn to support the person's retirement from work in the form of periodic payments. A pension may be a "defined benefit plan" where a fixed sum is paid regularly to a person, or a "defined contribution plan" under which a fixed sum is invested and then becomes available at retirement age. Pensions should not be confused with severance pay; the former is usually paid in regular installments for life after retirement, while the latter is typically paid as a fixed amount after involuntary termination of employment prior to retirement.

He had not joined his independent socialist colleague, Jean Jaurès, in forming the Parti Socialiste Français in 1902, instead forming the small Independent Socialist Party in 1907 which became the Republican-Socialist Party (PRS) in 1911. His influence with the far left had already declined, for it was said that his departure from the true Marxist tradition had disintegrated the movement. He continued to move to the right, being appointed Prime Minister by the conservative President, Paul Deschanel.

Jean Jaurès French / Occitan Socialist leader

Auguste Marie Joseph Jean Léon Jaurès, commonly referred to as Jean Jaurès, was a French Socialist leader. Initially a moderate republican, he was later one of the first social democrats, becoming the leader, in 1902, of the French Socialist Party, which opposed Jules Guesde's revolutionary Socialist Party of France. The two parties merged in 1905 in the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO). An antimilitarist, Jaurès was assassinated at the outbreak of World War I, and remains one of the main historical figures of the French Left.

The French Socialist Party was a socialist political party founded in 1902.

Marxism economic and sociopolitical worldview based on the works of Karl Marx

Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation. It originates from the works of 19th-century German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

During his time as Prime Minister, a decree of February 1920 introduced the eight-hour day for seamen.

Presidency and later years

When Deschanel had to resign later that year due to his mental disorder, Millerand emerged as a compromise candidate for President between the Bloc National and the remnants of the Bloc des gauches . Millerand appointed Georges Leygues, a politician with a long career of ministerial office, as Prime Minister and attempted to strengthen the executive powers of the Presidency. This move was resisted in the Chamber of Deputies and the French Senate, and Millerand was forced to appoint a stronger figure, Aristide Briand. Briand's appointment was welcomed by both left and right, although the Socialists and the left wing of the Radical Party did not join his government. However, Millerand dismissed Briand after just a year, and appointed the conservative republican, Raymond Poincaré.

The National Bloc was the name given to two loose coalitions formed by various parties of the right in France, characterised by an alliance between former enemies of centre-right Radicals, conservative liberals and Catholic nationalists. The first Bloc, led by Clemenceau, was in power from 1919 to 1924. Later, the name was often used to describe a governing alliance of a similar range of parties, led by Poincaré and in power from 1926 to 1932.

The Lefts Bloc was a coalition of Republican political forces created during the French Third Republic in 1899 to contest the 1902 legislative elections. It initially supported Emile Combes's cabinet, then Maurice Rouvier's cabinet and finally Maurice Rouvier's cabinet. The Republican Coalition dissolved itself after the International Socialist Congress of Amsterdam of 1904 and the subsequent withdrawal of Socialist ministers from the government. Although the Left won the 1906 legislative election, the Socialists did not repeat their alliances with the Radicals and the Radical-Socialists and other Republican forces.

Georges Leygues Prime Minister of France

Georges Leygues was a French politician of the Third Republic. During his time as Minister of Marine he worked with the navy's chief of staff Henri Salaun in unsuccessful attempts to gain naval re-armament priority for government funding over army rearmament such as the Maginot Line.

Millerand was accused of favouring conservatives in spite of the traditional neutrality of French Presidents and the composition of the legislature. On 14 July 1922, Millerand escaped an assassination attempt by Gustave Bouvet, a young French anarchist. Two years later, Millerand resigned in the face of growing conflict between the elected legislature and the office of the President, following the victory of the Cartel des Gauches . Gaston Doumergue, who was the president of the Senate at the time, was chosen to replace Millerand.

Alexandre Millerand died in 1943 at Versailles, and was interred in the Passy Cemetery.

Millerand's Ministry, 20 January 1920 – 24 September 1920

See also

Notes

  1. Initiated in ""L'Amitiée Lodge"" on may 21st of 1883 (Histoire de la Franc-maçonnerie en France - Faucher and Ricker 1967).

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References

Further reading

Political offices
Preceded by
Paul Delombre
Minister of Commerce, Industry, Posts, and Telegraphs
1899–1902
Succeeded by
Georges Trouillot
Preceded by
Louis Barthou
Minister of Public Works, Posts, and Telegraphs
1909–1910
Succeeded by
Louis Puech
Preceded by
Adolphe Messimy
Minister of War
1912–1913
Succeeded by
Albert Lebrun
Preceded by
Adolphe Messimy
Minister of War
1914–1915
Succeeded by
Joseph Galliéni
Preceded by
Georges Clemenceau
Prime Minister of France
1920
Succeeded by
Georges Leygues
Preceded by
Stéphen Pichon
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1920
Preceded by
Paul Deschanel
President of France
1920–1924
Succeeded by
Gaston Doumergue
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Paul Deschanel and Justí Guitart i Vilardebó
Co-Prince of Andorra
1920–1924
with Justí Guitart i Vilardebó
Succeeded by
Gaston Doumergue and Justí Guitart i Vilardebó