Alexandre Saint-Yves d'Alveydre

Last updated
Alexandre Saint-Yves

Marquess of Alveydre
Saint-Yves d-Alveydre.jpg
Alexandre Saint-Yves d'Alveydre in 1892.
Born(1842-03-26)26 March 1842
Died5 February 1909(1909-02-05) (aged 66)
NationalityFrench
OccupationAuthor
Known for Occultism
Movement Synarchism
Spouse(s) La Comtesse De Keller

Alexandre Saint-Yves, Marquess of Alveydre (26 March 1842 – 5 February 1909) was a French occultist who adapted the works of Fabre d'Olivet (1767–1825) and, in turn, had his ideas adapted by Gérard Encausse alias Papus. His work on "L'Archéomètre" deeply influenced the young René Guénon. He developed the term Synarchy—the association of everyone with everyone else—into a political philosophy, and his ideas about this type of government proved influential in politics and the occult. [1]

Gérard Encausse Spanish-born French physician, hypnotist, and popularizer of occultism, who founded the modern Martinist Order

Gérard Anaclet Vincent Encausse, whose esoteric pseudonym was Papus, was the Spanish-born French physician, hypnotist, and popularizer of occultism, who founded the modern Martinist Order.

René Guénon French metaphysician

René-Jean-Marie-Joseph Guénon, also known as ʿAbd al-Wāḥid Yaḥyá, was a French author and intellectual who remains an influential figure in the domain of metaphysics, having written on topics ranging from sacred science and traditional studies, to symbolism and initiation.

Contents

Biography

Early years

Born in Paris, from a family of Parisian intellectuals and son of psychiatrist Guillaume-Alexandre Saint-Yves, he started his career as a physician at a naval academy in Brest which he soon abandoned after becoming ill. In 1863 he relocated to Jersey where he connected with Victor Hugo. In 1870, he returned to France to fight in the Franco-Prussian War during which he was injured.

Saint-Yves is a French surname, borne by a family of intellectuals living in Paris between the 17th and 20th centuries, notably. Others ancient spellings: Sanct, Sancte, Sante, Saint, Sant, Sants, Sancti, Sanctius, Santis, Santi.

Brest, France Subprefecture and commune in Brittany, France

Brest is a city in the Finistère département in Brittany. Located in a sheltered bay not far from the western tip of the peninsula, and the western extremity of metropolitan France, Brest is an important harbour and the second French military port after Toulon. The city is located on the western edge of continental Europe. With 142,722 inhabitants in a 2007 census, Brest is at the centre of Western Brittany's largest metropolitan area, ranking third behind only Nantes and Rennes in the whole of historic Brittany, and the 19th most populous city in France; moreover, Brest provides services to the one million inhabitants of Western Brittany. Although Brest is by far the largest city in Finistère, the préfecture of the department is the much smaller Quimper.

Jersey British Crown Dependency

Jersey, officially the Bailiwick of Jersey, is a British Crown dependency located near the coast of Normandy, France. It is the second closest of the Channel Islands to France, after Alderney.

He then began a career as a civil servant. In 1877, Saint-Yves met and married Countess Marie de Riznitch-Keller, a relative of Honoré de Balzac, and friend of the Empress Eugénie de Montijo, a move which made him independently wealthy. He dedicated the rest of his life to research and had a large number of influential contacts including Victor Hugo. Saint-Yves later knew many of the major names in French occultism such as Marquis Stanislas de Guaita, Joséphin Péladan and Oswald Wirth and was a member of a number of Rosicrucian, and irregular Freemason style orders. Saint-Yves supposedly inherited the papers of one of the great founders of French occultism, Antoine Fabre d'Olivet (1762–1825).

Honoré de Balzac French writer

Honoré de Balzac was a French novelist and playwright. The novel sequence La Comédie humaine, which presents a panorama of post-Napoleonic French life, is generally viewed as his magnum opus.

Eugénie de Montijo Last Empress consort of the French as the wife of Napoleon III, Emperor of the French

DoñaMaría Eugenia Ignacia Augustina de Palafox y KirkPatrick, 16th Countess of Teba, 15th Marchioness of Ardales, known as Eugénie de Montijo, was the last Empress of the French (1853–70) as the wife of Emperor Napoleon III.

Victor Hugo 19th-century French poet, novelist, and dramatist

Victor Marie Hugo was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement. Hugo is considered to be one of the greatest and best-known French writers. Outside France, his most famous works are the novels Les Misérables, 1862, and The Hunchback of Notre-Dame, 1831. In France, Hugo is known primarily for his poetry collections, such as Les Contemplations and La Légende des siècles.

In 1877, he published the "Lyrical Testament", a collection of poetry, and "Keys of the Orient". In the latter book, he presents a solution (based on developing a religious understanding between Jews, Christians and Muslims) to the "Question of the Orient", brought about by the decay of the Ottoman Empire which caused tensions in the Near and Middle East.

Muslims Adherents of Islam

Muslims are people who follow or practice Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion. Muslims consider the Quran, their holy book, to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to the Islamic prophet and messenger Muhammad. The majority of Muslims also follow the teachings and practices of Muhammad (sunnah) as recorded in traditional accounts (hadith). "Muslim" is an Arabic word meaning "submitter". The largest denomination of Islam are Sunni Muslims who constitute 85-90% of the total Muslim population, followed by the Shia who make up most of remaining Muslims.

Ottoman Empire Former empire in Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa

The Ottoman Empire, historically known to its inhabitants and the Eastern world as Rome (Rûm), and mistakenly known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. Although initially the dynasty was of Turkic origin, it was Persianised to some extent in terms of language, culture, and literature. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.

The Near East is a Eurocentric geographical term which roughly encompasses a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey, and Egypt. Despite having varying definitions within different academic circles, the term was originally applied to the maximum extent of the Ottoman Empire. The term has fallen into disuse in American English and has been replaced by the terms Middle East, which includes Egypt, and Western Asia, which includes Transcaucasia.

He also began to study the development of industrial applications of marine plants ("Utilising extracts from seaweed" was published in 1879) but he could not perform the operation for lack of capital. In 1880, he was granted the title of Marquis of Alveydre by the government of San Marino.

Seaweed Macroscopic marine algae

Seaweed, or macroalgae, refers to several species of macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae. The term includes some types of Rhodophyta (red), Phaeophyta (brown) and Chlorophyta (green) macroalgae. Seaweed species such as kelps provide essential nursery habitat for fisheries and other marine species and thus protect food sources; other species, such as planktonic algae, play a vital role in capturing carbon, producing up to 90 percent of earth's oxygen. Understanding these roles offers principles for conservation and sustainable use. Mechanical dredging of kelp, for instance, destroys the resource and dependent fisheries.

San Marino Republic on the Appenine peninsula

San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino, also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino, is a small independent nation on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains, completely surrounded by Italy.

His book the Mission des Juifs (1884) was favourable to Jews. The material from it was used for The Secret of the Jews, an anti-semitic tract attributed to Yuliana Glinka.

Jews ancient nation and ethnoreligious group from the Levant

Jews or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah. Jewish ethnicity, nationhood, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the ethnic religion of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance.

Yuliana Dmitrievna Glinka was a Russian occultist who became associated with theosophy and claims of a Jewish conspiracy.

Development of Synarchy

Saint-Yves used the term Synarchy in his book La France vraie to describe what he believed was the ideal form of government. [2] In reaction to the emergence of anarchist ideologies and movements, Saint-Yves had elaborated a more conservative political-theological formula over a series of 4 books from 1882 onwards which he believed would result in a harmonious society by considering it as an organic unity. This ideal was based partially on his idealised view of life in medieval Europe and also on his ideas about successful government in India, Atlantis, and Ancient Egypt. He defended social differentiation and hierarchy with co-operation between social classes, transcending conflict between social and economic groups: Synarchy, as opposed to anarchy. Specifically, Saint-Yves envisioned a European society with a government composed of three councils, representing economic power, judicial power, and scientific community, of which the metaphysical chamber bound the whole structure together. [3] These ideas were also influenced by works such as Plato's The Republic and by Martinism. They also influenced the young René Guénon who published several articles on l'Archéomètre in his early life. L'Archéomètre was edited and published by Gérard Encausse alias Papus after Saint-Yves' death.

As part of this concept of government Alexandre Saint-Yves d'Alveydre, gave an important role to secret societies or, more precisely, esoteric societies, which are composed of oracles and who safeguarded the government from behind the scenes. He saw the Rosicrucians as having fulfilled this role in medieval Europe and was involved with a number of irregular Freemason and other groups who claimed descent from the Knights Templars.

Contact with Agartha

During 1885, Saint-Yves was supposedly visited by a group of Eastern Initiates, one of them being named prince Hardjij Scharipf. It was then that he associated synarchy with "ascended masters" based in subterranean caverns of Agartha, who supposedly communicated with him telepathically. He wrote about this secret location in his "Mission de l'Inde en Europe" published in 1886. Worried he had revealed too much and apparently under the influence of his oriental contacts, he destroyed all but two copies of this book. One of which was owned by Gérard Encausse alias Papus, who edited and published it in 1910.

Saint-Yves believed that an ancient synarchist world government was transferred to Agartha (or Aggartha) within a hollow Earth at the start of the Kali-Yuga era, around 3,200 B.C. [4] Saint-Yves d'Alveydre was the man who really introduced the concept of Agartha to the Western world. This concept was later developed by Zam Bothiva and the Fraternité des Polaires in France, and more importantly by the Thule-Gesellschaft in Nationalist circles of Germany.

Final Years

After Saint-Yves's death, portions of the writings he left behind were compiled by a group of his friends and devotees driven by Gérard Encausse alias Papus into a volume entitled l'Archéomètre. The title is Saint-Yves's name for a color-coded diagram he developed, showing symbolic correspondences between elements in astrology, music, alphabets, gematria, and other areas. This book has been translated into Spanish, and was translated into English for the first time in 2007 (publication pending).[ citation needed ]

Influence

Saint-Yves's main disciple was the prominent occultist Gérard Encausse alias Papus who established a number of societies based on Synarchist ideas. Other notable followers included Victor Blanchard (1878–1953), Nizier Anthelme Philippe, René A. Schwaller de Lubicz, René Guénon and Emile Dantinne.

Saint-Yves's ideas influenced the turbulent French politics of the early twentieth century where they served as a model for a number of right-wing groups and also in Mexico where synarchist groups have had a major political role. Theories concerning Synarchist groups also have become a key element in a number of conspiracy theories.

Saint-Yves on The Great Sphinx of Giza

One of Saint-Yves's most influential theories nowadays was a minor feature of his work. This is his claim that the Great Sphinx was much older than Egyptologists thought, being created around 12,000 B.C. He believed the Sphinx was created by escapees from the destruction of Atlantis. He did not base this claim on any physical evidence. Saint-Yves' disciple René A. Schwaller de Lubicz was thus inspired to investigate the age of the Sphinx and as a result inspired an ongoing Great Sphinx controversy over the age of the monument.

Further reading

Bibliography

Notes and references

  1. Pym, Michael (November 1926). "Saint Yves D'Alveydre". Advocate of Peace through Justice. 88: 609–614. JSTOR   20661410.
  2. Saint-Yves d'Alveydre, La France vraie (Paris: Calmann Lévy, 1887).
  3. André Nataf, The Wordsworth Dictionary of the Occult (Wordsworth Editions Ltd; 1994).
  4. Joscelyn Godwyn, Arktos: The Polar Myth in Science, Symbolism, and Nazi Survival, p.84 (Adventures Unlimited Press, USA; 1996).

Related Research Articles

Major Arcana trump in the occult applications of tarot decks

The Major Arcana are the emblematic picture cards of a tarot deck. There are usually 22 of these trump cards found in a 78-card deck. The cards start at 0 and are numbered to 21.

Éliphas Lévi French occult author and ceremonial magician

Éliphas Lévi Zahed, born Alphonse Louis Constant, was a French occult author and ceremonial magician.

The Prix des Deux Magots is a major French literary prize. It is presented to new works, and is generally awarded to works that are more off-beat and less conventional than those that receive the more mainstream Prix Goncourt.

Martinism

Martinism is a form of Christian mysticism and esoteric Christianity concerned with the fall of the first man, his state of material privation from his divine source, and the process of his return, called 'Reintegration' or illumination.

Synarchism generally means "joint rule" or "harmonious rule". Beyond this general definition, both synarchism and synarchy have been used to denote rule by a secret elite in Vichy France, Italy, China, Hong Kong and Mexico.

René Adolphe Schwaller de Lubicz, born René Adolphe Schwaller in Alsace-Lorraine, was a French mystic who popularized the use of sacred geometry in Egyptology during his study of the art and architecture of the Temple of Luxor in Egypt and his subsequent book The Temple In Man.

The Traditionalist School is a group of 20th and 21st century thinkers who believe in the existence of a perennial wisdom, or perennial philosophy, primordial and universal truths which form the source for, and are shared by, all the major world religions.

Agartha is a legendary kingdom that is said to be located in the Earth's core. It is related to the belief in a hollow Earth and is a popular subject in esotericism.

Joséphin Péladan French writer

Joséphin Péladan was a French novelist and Martinist. His father was a journalist who had written on prophecies, and professed a philosophic-occult Catholicism. He established the Salon de la Rose + Croix for painters, writers, and musicians sharing his artistic ideals, the Symbolists in particular.

Stanislas de Guaita French writer

Stanislas De Guaita was a French poet based in Paris, an expert on esotericism and European mysticism, and an active member of the Rosicrucian Order. He was very celebrated and successful in his time. He had many disputes with other people who were involved with occultism and magic. Occultism and magic were part of his novels.

1994 European Parliament election in France

On 12 June 1994 the fourth direct elections to the European Parliament were held in the France. Six lists were able to win seats: an alliance of the centre-right Union for French Democracy and the Gaullist Rally for the Republic, the Socialist Party, the Left Radical Party, the French Communist Party, the National Front and Philippe de Villiers' eurosceptic right-wing dissident UDF list, which formed the Majorité pour l'autre Europe. 53.5% of the French population turned out on election day, actually an improvement on the last election in 1989. The Greens, who were weakened by an Ecology Generation list led by Brice Lalonde and also suffering from internal divisions between the party's left and the right, lost all 9 seats won in 1989. Arlette Laguiller's Trotskyst Workers' Struggle (2.27%), Jean-Pierre Chevènement's left-wing eurosceptic Citizens' Movement (2.54%), the L'Europe commence à Sarajevo List (1.57%) and the agrarian populist Hunting, Fishing, Nature, Traditions (3.96%) were among the notable lists which did not pass the 5% threshold.

<i>Meditations on the Tarot</i>

Meditations on the Tarot: A Journey into Christian Hermeticism is an esoteric Christian book originally written in French with the date of 21 May 1967 given by the author at the end of the last chapter, and published posthumously and anonymously in 1980. This was followed by translation into German. An English translation was then published in 1985, with Robert A. Powell basing his rendering on the author's original French manuscript, whereas the published French edition (ISBN 978-2700703696) does not always follow the French original manuscript.

Yves Gérard is a French musicologist.

Louis Alexandre Raimon, better known as Alexandre de Paris, was a famous French hairdresser. He was responsible for creating Elizabeth Taylor's coiffure in the 1963 Hollywood epic Cleopatra . He also styled Greta Garbo, Audrey Hepburn and Lauren Bacall, among others. He was nicknamed the "Prince de la coiffure", "d'Artagnan de la coiffure", "Sphinx de la coiffure", and "Figaro." His signature chignons (knot or a coil of hair arranged in the back of the head) and his flamboyant style made him famous, setting fashions in hairstyling for decades.

Émile-Paul-Constant-Ange Le Camus was a French Catholic priest, known as a preacher, theologian, scripturist, Bishop of La Rochelle and Saintes.

Père Émile-Henri-Guillaume Hoffet belonged to the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate, who became famous during the 1960s when he became implicated in the subject matters of Rennes-le-Château and the Priory of Sion.

René Alleau was a French author, historian and consulting engineer. The focus of his numerous works are symbology and alchemy, the occult and secret societies. As well as his own works, he contributed articles in these fields to the Encyclopædia Universalis.

Jean Robin is a French writer, essayist, conspiracy theorist, particularly interested in occult and esoteric issues, secret societies and their influence throughout history.