General Aleksei Kaledin
|Born||24 October 1861|
Ust' Khoperskaya, Saratov Governorate, Russian Empire
|Died||11 February 1918 56) (aged|
|Years of service||1889-1918|
|Rank||General of the cavalry|
|Commands held|| 12th Cavalry Division and 8th Army (WW1)|
|Battles/wars|| Russo-Japanese War |
Russian Civil War
Aleksei Maximovich Kaledin (Russian : Алексе́й Макси́мович Каледи́н; 24 October 1861 – 11 February 1918) was a Don Cossack Cavalry General who led the Don Cossack White movement in the opening stages of the Russian Civil War.
Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although, nowadays, nearly three decades after the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia, the rise of state-specific varieties of this language tends to be strongly denied in Russia, in line with the Russian World ideology.
The White movement and its military arm the White Army, also known as the White Guard, the White Guardsmen or simply the Whites, was a loose confederation of anti-communist forces that fought the Communist Bolsheviks, also known as the Reds, in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/1923) and to a lesser extent continued operating as militarized associations insurrectionists both outside and within Russian borders in Siberia until roughly World War II (1939–1945).
The Russian Civil War was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the two Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future. The two largest combatant groups were the Red Army, fighting for the Bolshevik form of socialism led by Vladimir Lenin, and the loosely allied forces known as the White Army, which included diverse interests favoring political monarchism, economic capitalism and alternative forms of socialism, each with democratic and antidemocratic variants. In addition, rival militant socialists and nonideological Green armies fought against both the Bolsheviks and the Whites. Eight foreign nations intervened against the Red Army, notably the former Allied military forces from the World War and the pro-German armies. The Red Army eventually defeated the White Armed Forces of South Russia in Ukraine and the army led by Admiral Aleksandr Kolchak to the east in Siberia in 1919. The remains of the White forces commanded by Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel were beaten in Crimea and evacuated in late 1920. Lesser battles of the war continued on the periphery for two more years, and minor skirmishes with the remnants of the White forces in the Far East continued well into 1923. The war ended in 1923 in the sense that Bolshevik communist control of the newly formed Soviet Union was now assured, although armed national resistance in Central Asia was not completely crushed until 1934. There were an estimated 7,000,000–12,000,000 casualties during the war, mostly civilians. The Russian Civil War has been described by some as the greatest national catastrophe that Europe had yet seen.
Kaledin was born in 1861, in Ust' Khoperskaya, Saratov Governorate, to a Don Cossack officer. He graduated from the Voronezh Military School, the Mikhaylovskoye Artillery School in Saint Petersburg (1882) and the General Staff Academy (1889). From 1903 to 1906, he served as principal at the Novocherkassk Military School. From 1906 to 1910, Kaledin served as Assistant Chief of Staff of the Don Army.
Saratov Governorate, was an administrative division of the Russian Empire and the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, which existed from 1797 to 1928. Its administrative center was in the city of Saratov.
Voronezh is a city and the administrative center of Voronezh Oblast, Russia, straddling the Voronezh River and located 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) from where it flows into the Don. The city sits on the Southeastern Railway, which connects European Russia with the Urals and Siberia, the Caucasus and Ukraine, and the M4 highway (Moscow–Voronezh–Rostov-on-Don–Novorossiysk). Its population in 2016 was estimated to be 1,032,895; up from 889,680 recorded in the 2010 Census; it is the fourteenth most populous city in the country.
Saint Petersburg is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015). An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject.
During World War I, he was a commander of the 12th Cavalry Division and of the 8th Army of the South-West Front. Kaledin did not accept the February Revolution of 1917 and was relieved of his commanding post due to his refusal to carry out Provisional Government's orders regarding democratization in the army. On June 17, 1917, Kaledin was appointed Ataman of the Don Cossack Host by the Cossack community and, at the insistence of Mitrofan Bogayevsky, became the head of the newly established Cossack "Army Government" (Войсковое правительство), restored for the first time since 1709. In August 1917, in Moscow, Kaledin came forward with his program of suppression of the revolutionary movement.
World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.
A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers. Infantry divisions during the World Wars ranged between 8,000 and 30,000 in nominal strength.
The February Revolution, known in Soviet historiography as the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution, was the first of two revolutions which took place in Russia in 1917.
On August 29, local authorities of Novocherkassk decided to ask Alexander Kerensky to relieve General Kaledin of his post and to arrest him for spreading pro-Kornilov propaganda among the Cossacks of the Don region. On August 31, the prosecutor of the Court of Novocherkassk received a telegram from Kerensky, saying that Kaledin had been officially relieved of his post and should be arrested immediately and tried for incitement.
Novocherkassk is a city in Rostov Oblast, Russia, located near the confluence of the Tuzlov River and Aksay River, the latter a distributary of the Don River. Novocherkassk is best known as the cultural capital of the Cossacks, and as the official capital of the Don Cossacks. Population: 168,746 ; 170,822 ; 187,973 (1989 Census); 178,000 (1974); 123,000 (1959); 81,000 (1939); 52,000 (1897).
Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky was a Russian lawyer and revolutionist who was a key political figure in the Russian Revolution of 1917. After the February Revolution of 1917, he joined the newly formed Russian Provisional Government, first as Minister of Justice, then as Minister of War, and after July as the government's second Minister-Chairman. A leader of the moderate-socialist Trudoviks faction of the Socialist Revolutionary Party, he was also vice-chairman of the powerful Petrograd Soviet. On 7 November, his government was overthrown by the Lenin-led Bolsheviks in the October Revolution. He spent the remainder of his life in exile, in Paris and New York City, and worked for the Hoover Institution.
Lavr Georgiyevich Kornilov was a Russian military intelligence officer, explorer, and general of Siberian Cossack origin in the Imperial Russian Army during World War I and the ensuing Russian Civil War. He is today best remembered for the Kornilov Affair, an unsuccessful endeavor in August/September 1917 that was intended to strengthen Alexander Kerensky's Provisional Government, but which led to Kerensky eventually having Kornilov arrested and charged with attempting a coup d'état, and ultimately undermined Kerensky's rule.
The Cossack Host Command decided to listen to what Kaledin had to say, first, and then to send him to Mogilev to explain himself in the headquarters of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief, as Kerensky had requested. On September 6, Kaledin tried to protect Kornilov from the attacks of the Cossack Army Command. On October 25 (the beginning of the October Revolution), Kaledin stated that until the authority of the Provisional Government in Russia was fully restored, the Don Cossack Army would assume total control over the Don region.
The Don Army was the military of the short lived Don Republic and a part of the White movement in the Russian Civil War. It operated from 1918 to 1920, in the Don region and centered in the town of Novocherkassk.
Mogilev is a city in eastern Belarus, about 76 kilometres from the border with Russia's Smolensk Oblast and 105 km from the border with Russia's Bryansk Oblast. As of 2011, its population was 360,918, up from an estimated 106,000 in 1956. It is the administrative centre of Mogilev Region and the third largest city in Belarus.
Headquarters denotes the location where most, if not all, of the important functions of an organization are coordinated. In the United States, the corporate headquarters represents the entity at the center or the top of a corporation taking full responsibility for managing all business activities. In the United Kingdom, the term head office is most commonly used for the HQs of large corporations. The term is also used regarding military organizations.
This statement marked the beginning of the Kaledinschina, a rebellion in the Don region. The loss of Rostov-on-the-Don and the ensuing Ice March led Kaledin to believe that the whole situation had become hopeless. On 29 January 1918, he resigned from his post and committed suicide by shooting himself on 11 February 1918.
Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an established authority. The term comes from the Latin verb rebellō, "I renew war" (from re- + bellō. The rebel is the individual that partakes in rebellion or rebellious activities, particularly when armed. Thus, the term rebellion also refers to the ensemble of rebels in a state of revolt.
The Ice March, also called the First Kuban Campaign, a military withdrawal lasting from February to May 1918, was one of the defining moments in the Russian Civil War of 1917 to 1921. Under attack by the Red Army advancing from the north, the forces of the Volunteer Army, sometimes referred to as the White Guard, began a retreat from the city of Rostov south towards the Kuban, in the hope of gaining the support of the Don Cossacks against the Bolshevik government in Moscow.
The Kornilov affair, or the Kornilov putsch, was an attempted military coup d'état by the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army, General Lavr Kornilov, from September 10 to 13 1917 against the Russian Provisional Government headed by Aleksander Kerensky and the Petrograd Soviet of Soldiers' and Workers' Deputies. The exact details and motivations of the Kornilov affair are unconfirmed due to the general confusion of all parties involved. Many historians have pieced together varied historical accounts as a result.
Pyotr Nikolayevich Krasnov, sometimes referred to in English as Peter Krasnov, was a Don Cossack historian and officer, promoted to Lieutenant General of the Russian army when the revolution broke out in 1917, one of the leaders of the counter-revolutionary White movement afterwards and a Nazi collaborator who mobilized Cossack forces to fight against the Soviet Union during World War II.
Mikhail Vasilyevich Alekseyev was an Imperial Russian Army general during World War I and the Russian Civil War. Between 1915 and 1917 he served as Tsar Nicholas II's Chief of Staff of the Stavka, and after the February Revolution, was its commander-in-chief under the Russian Provisional Government from March to May 1917. He later played a principal role in founding the Volunteer Army in the Russian Civil War and died in 1918 of heart failure while fighting the Bolsheviks in the Volga region.
Count Matvei Ivanovich Platov was a Russian general who commanded the Don Cossacks in the Napoleonic wars and founded Novocherkassk as the new capital of the Don Host Province.
Mikhail Gordeevich Drozdovsky was a Russian army officer and one of the military leaders of the anti-Bolshevik White movement during the Russian Civil War.
Decossackization was the Bolshevik policy of systematic repressions against Cossacks of the Russian Empire, especially of the Don and the Kuban, between 1917 and 1933 aimed at the elimination of the Cossacks as a separate ethnic, political, and economic entity. This was the first example of Soviet leaders deciding to "eliminate, exterminate, and deport the population of a whole territory," which they had taken to calling the "Soviet Vendée" Most authors characterize decossackization as genocide of the Cossacks, a process described by scholar Peter Holquist as part of a "ruthless" and "radical attempt to eliminate undesirable social groups" that showed the Soviet regime's "dedication to social engineering".
Aleksandr Mikhailovich Krymov was a Russian Imperial Lieutenant General, a military commander of Russo-Japanese War, World War I, and Russian Revolution times.
Joseph Stalin was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee from 1922 until his death in 1953. In the years following Lenin's death in 1924, he rose to become the authoritarian leader of the Soviet Union.
The Volunteer Army was a White Army active in South Russia during the Russian Civil War from 1917 to 1920. The Volunteer Army fought against Bolshevik forces in the Southern Front and the Ukrainian War of Independence. In 1919 it was made part of the Armed Forces of South Russia, becoming the largest force of the White movement until it was merged with the Army of Wrangel in March 1920.
Konstantin Konstantinovich Mamontov was a Russian military commander and famous general of the Don Cossacks, who fought in the White Army during the Russian Civil War.
Alexei V. Kravtzov , was a Colonel of the Imperial Russian Army and Don Republic officer, killed in the Battle of Loznoye during the Russian Civil War. He was a military commander and organizer of the 1st Cossack Volunteer Cavalry Regiment at the stanitsa Ust-Medveditskaya.
The Russian Provisional Government was a provisional government of Russia established immediately following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II of the Russian Empire on 2 March [15 March, New Style] 1917. The intention of the provisional government was the organization of elections to the Russian Constituent Assembly and its convention. The provisional government lasted approximately eight months, and ceased to exist when the Bolsheviks gained power after the October Revolution in October [November, N.S.] 1917. According to Harold Whitmore Williams the history of eight months during which Russia was ruled by the Provisional Government was the history of the steady and systematic disorganisation of the army.
The Iassy-Don March or Drozdovsky's March was a march of a Russian Volunteer detachment, led by Staff Colonel Mikhail Drozdovsky, from Iași on the Romanian front to the Don, to join the White Russian Volunteer Army of General Lavr Kornilov and fight the Bolshevik enemy together. It took place between February 26 and April 24, 1918. This March, as well as the First Kuban Campaign, was a milestone in the formation of the White movement in Southern Russia.
The Donbass-Don Operation was a military campaign of the Russian Civil War that lasted from January to February 1918, by forces of the Soviet Southern Revolutionary Front against counterrevolution under the command of Vladimir Antonov-Ovseyenko, against the Cossack troops of Ataman Kaledin and Volunteer detachments on the territory of the Donbass and the Don Cossack Region.
The Steppe March was a successful military withdrawal by the Don Cossacks in Spring 1918, towards the steppe around the Sal River, to ensure their survival under attack from the Red Army.