This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations . (November 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Alfonso d'Avalos d'Aquino, VI marquis of Pescara and II of Vasto (1502 – 31 March 1546), was an Italian condottiero of Spanish origins, renowned for his service in favor of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain.
He was born in Ischia, the cousin of Francesco Ferdinando I d'Ávalos, inheriting his titles after 1525, fighting the French and the Venetians by his side. During the period 1526-1528 he fought under Hugo of Moncada, being captured on 28 April 1528 by the Genoese captain Filippino Doria at the Capo d'Orso.
In July 1535 he was part of the naval troops reconquering the city of Tunis in North Africa. The failure on the third war against France trying to invade Provence, and the death of the first Governor of the Duchy of Milan, Antonio de Leyva, prompted him in 1538 to accept the nomination as governor, replacing Marino Caracciolo, the second governor, becoming some sort of protector of literary and musical people [ clarification needed ]. Wars with French and North Italians ended for a while with the Treaty of Crespy (1544). He also became a Knight in the Order of the Golden Fleece.
Having fought at the Battle of Pavia, he later represented Emperor Charles V as an ambassador, in 1538, on the succession to the new Doge of the Republic of Venice, Pietro Lando.
He commanded the Imperial army in Italy during the Italian War of 1542 and was defeated by the French at the Battle of Ceresole. However, in the Battle of Serravalle on 2 June 1544, an aftermath of the Italian War of 1542, he managed to defeat a force of freshly raised Italian mercenaries in French service, commanded by Pietro Strozzi and Giovanni Francesco Orsini, count of Pitigliano.
He married in 1523 with Maria d'Aragona and had 5 children including
Federico II of Gonzaga was the ruler of the Italian city of Mantua from 1519 until his death. He was also Marquis of Montferrat from 1536.
The Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg–Valois Wars, were a long series of wars fought between 1494 and 1559 in Italy during the Renaissance. The Italian peninsula, economically advanced but politically divided among several states, became the main battleground for European supremacy. The conflicts involved the major powers of Italy and Europe, in a series of events that followed the end of the 40-year long Peace of Lodi agreed in 1454 with the formation of the Italic League.
Andrea Doria was an Italian condottiero and admiral of the Republic of Genoa. Originally serving France, he ended his collaboration with Francis I in 1528 and became the Imperial admiral of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor in 1529. Having obtained the restoration of the Republic of Genoa from the Emperor in 1530, he continued to serve the Habsburgs for the duration of the Italian Wars. Doria commanded several Catholic expeditions against the Ottoman Empire: he captured Koroni, Patras(1532), and Tunis (1535), but failed to capture Preveza (1538) and Algiers (1541). Doria's last campaign took place in the 1550s, during a war fought to retain Corsica in Genoese hands against a Franco-Ottoman alliance.
Fernando Francesco d'Ávalos, 5th marquis of Pescara, was an Italian condottiero of Aragonese extraction. He was an important figure of the Italian Wars: in the Battle of Ravenna in 1512 he was taken prisoner by the French, but was released at the conclusion of the War of the League of Cambrai. He was the chief commander of the Habsburg armies of Charles V in Italy during the Habsburg-Valois Wars and defeated the French at Bicocca and Pavia.
The Italian War of 1542–1546 was a conflict late in the Italian Wars, pitting Francis I of France and Suleiman I of the Ottoman Empire against the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Henry VIII of England. The course of the war saw extensive fighting in Italy, France, and the Low Countries, as well as attempted invasions of Spain and England. The conflict was inconclusive and ruinously expensive for the major participants.
The Italian war of 1536–1538 was a conflict between King Francis I of France and Charles V, King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor. The objective was to achieve control over territories in Northern Italy, in particular the Duchy of Milan. The war saw French troops invading Northern Italy, and Spanish troops invading France. The Truce of Nice, signed on June 18, 1538, ended hostilities, leaving Turin in French hands but affecting no significant change in the map of Italy. Overall, Spain increased its control over Italy, signifying the end of Italian independence. The war strengthened animosity between the Spanish and French, and reinforced ties between France and the Ottoman Empire which had sided with Francis I against Charles V.
Antonio de Leyva, Duke of Terranova, Prince of Ascoli (1480–1536) was a Spanish general during the Italian Wars. During the Italian War of 1521, he commanded Pavia during the siege of the city by Francis I of France, and took part in the Battle of Pavia in 1525. After the death of Fernando d'Ávalos, Marquis of Pescara, he held further commands in Italy during the War of the League of Cognac and afterwards, finally dying shortly after attempting an invasion of Provence.
The Guelders Wars were a series of conflicts in the Low Countries between the Duke of Burgundy, who controlled Holland, Flanders, Brabant and Hainaut on the one side, and Charles, Duke of Guelders, who controlled Guelders, Groningen and Frisia on the other side.
Francesco Ferdinando d’Ávalos d'Aquino, VII marquis of Pescara and III marquis of Vasto, was commander in chief of the Spanish army in Lombardy and Piedmont, governor of the State of Milan (1560–63) and viceroy of Sicily (1568–71).
The papal conclave of 1572, convoked after the death of Pius V, elected Cardinal Ugo Boncompagni, who took the name Gregory XIII.
The papal conclave of April 1555 was convoked after the death of Pope Julius III. Elected as his successor Cardinal Marcello Cervini, who took the name of Marcellus II, being the last pope who retained his baptismal name.
Francis I de Bourbon, Count of St. Pol, Duke of Estouteville, was a French prince and important military commander during the Italian Wars.
The Battle of Landriano took place on 21 June 1529, between the French army under Francis de Bourbon, Comte de St. Pol and the Imperial–Spanish army commanded by Don Antonio de Leyva, Duke of Terranova in the context of the War of the League of Cognac. The French army was destroyed and the battle's strategic result was that the struggle between Francis I of France and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor for control of northern Italy was temporarily at an end.
Fernando de Aragón y Guardato, 1st Duke of Montalto was the eldest bastard son of king Ferdinand I of Naples and Diana Guardato, one of his mistresses.
The Battle of Serravalle took place on June 2–4, 1544, at Serravalle Scrivia, in the Apennine Mountains, between the Imperial-Spanish army commanded by Don Alfonso d'Avalos, Marquis del Vasto, and a force of freshly raised Italian mercenaries in French service, led by Pietro Strozzi, member of the rich and famous Florentine family of the Strozzi, and Giovan Francesco Orsini, Count of Pitigliano, during the Italian War of 1542–1546.
The Battle of the Sesia or Battle of the Sesia River, took place near the Sesia River (Latin: Sesites or Sessite), situated in north-western Italy, Lombardy, on 30 April 1524, where the Imperial–Spanish forces commanded by Don Carlos de Lannoy, inflicted a decisive defeat to the French forces under the Admiral Guillaume Gouffier, Lord of Bonnivet and Francis de Bourbon, Comte de St. Pol, during the Italian War of 1521–1526.
Maria d’ Aragona was the daughter of Duke Ferdinando di Montalto and Castellona Cardona and the granddaughter of King Ferdinand I of Naples, also called King Ferrante. As a child, Maria d’Aragona grew up in a castle with the poet Vittoria Colonna, who had married d’Avalo’s nephew. It was here that Maria met Sunnazaro, Tansillo, and Bernardo Tasso who would entertain her in later life at her own salons in Naples, Milan, and Pavia.
The Siege of Naples was a siege of the Italian city of Naples in 1528 during the War of the League of Cognac.
Cardinal Marino Caracciolo
| Governors of the Duchy of Milan |
|This biographical article related to the Italian military is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
|This biography of an Italian noble is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|