Alfred de Grazia

Last updated
Alfred de Grazia in Naxos, Greece, August 2003 Alfred, 27 August 2003.jpg
Alfred de Grazia in Naxos, Greece, August 2003

Alfred de Grazia (December 29, 1919 – July 13, 2014), born in Chicago, Illinois, was a political scientist and author. He developed techniques of computer-based social network analysis in the 1950s, [1] developed new ideas about personal digital archives in the 1970s, [2] and defended the catastrophism thesis of Immanuel Velikovsky.

Chicago City in Illinois, United States

Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450 (2017), it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area, often referred to as Chicagoland, and the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States. The metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States.

Illinois State of the United States of America

Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product (GDP), the sixth largest population, and the 25th largest land area of all U.S. states. Illinois is often noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, and natural resources such as coal, timber, and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, and is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population. The Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, and the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports. Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics.

Catastrophism theory that the Earth had largely been shaped by sudden, short-lived, violent events

Catastrophism was the theory that the Earth had largely been shaped by sudden, short-lived, violent events, possibly worldwide in scope. This was in contrast to uniformitarianism, in which slow incremental changes, such as erosion, created all the Earth's geological features. Uniformitarianism held that the present was the key to the past, and that all geological processes throughout the past were like those that can be observed now. Since the early disputes, a more inclusive and integrated view of geologic events has developed, in which the scientific consensus accepts that there were some catastrophic events in the geologic past, but these were explicable as extreme examples of natural processes which can occur.



His father, Joseph Alfred de Grazia, was born in Licodia, province of Catania, in Sicily and was politically active in a troubled period in the history of the island. He emigrated to the United States at the age of twenty, after having hit the mayor of Licodia with his clarinet during a political scuffle. [3] He became a bandmaster, music teacher, in and out of the WPA [4] and a musical union leader [5] in Chicago. In 1916, he married Chicago-born Katherine Lupo Cardinale whose parents had emigrated from Sicily. Her brother was the boxer Charles Kid Lucca, Canadian champion welter-weight champion from 1910-1914. [6] They had three more sons, Sebastian de Grazia, winner of the Pulitzer Prize, [7] Edward de Grazia, a prominent first amendment lawyer and co-founder of Cardozo School of Law at Yeshiva University, [8] and Victor de Grazia who was Deputy-Governor of the State of Illinois from 1973 to 1977 [9]  ·. [10]

Catania Comune in Sicily, Italy

Catania is the second largest city of Sicily after Palermo located on the east coast facing the Ionian Sea. It is the capital of the Metropolitan City of Catania, one of the ten biggest cities in Italy, and the seventh largest metropolitan area in Italy. The population of the city proper is 320,000 while the population of the city's metropolitan area, Metropolitan City of Catania, stood at 1,116,168 inhabitants.

Works Progress Administration largest and most ambitious United States federal government New Deal agency

The Works Progress Administration was an American New Deal agency, employing millions of people to carry out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads. It was established on May 6, 1935, by Executive Order 7034. In a much smaller project, Federal Project Number One, the WPA employed musicians, artists, writers, actors and directors in large arts, drama, media, and literacy projects. The four projects dedicated to these were: the Federal Writers’ Project (FWP), the Historical Records Survey (HRS), the Federal Theatre Project (FTP), the Federal Music Project (FMP), and the Federal Art Project (FAP). In the Historical Records Survey, for instance, many former slaves in the South were interviewed; these documents are of great importance for American history. Theater and music groups toured throughout America, and gave more than 225,000 performances. Archaeological investigations under the WPA were influential in the rediscovery of pre-Columbian Native American cultures, and the development of professional archaeology in the US.

Sebastian de Grazia was an American author. Born in Chicago, he received his bachelor's degree and a doctorate in political science from the University of Chicago. During World War II he served in the Office of Strategic Services, predecessor to the Central Intelligence Agency as an analyst. In 1962-1988 he taught political philosophy at Rutgers University. He received the 1990 Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography for his 1989 book Machiavelli in Hell. He is also the author of The Political Community (1948), Errors of Psychotherapy (1952), and A Country with No Name (1997).


De Grazia attended the University of Chicago, receiving an A.B. there in 1939, attended law school at Columbia University from 1940–1941, and in 1948 earned a PhD in political science from the University of Chicago. [11] His thesis was published in 1951 as Public and Republic: Political Representation in America. When reviewed by The New York Times it was called "A thoroughgoing examination of the meaning of representation, the fundamental element in any definition of republic." [12] and August Heckscher in the New York Herald Tribune said it was "A sober scholarly volume, authoritative in its field." [13] Charles E. Merriam, founder of the behavioristic approach in political science, wrote: "All scholars in the field of political science and particularly those in the area of representation are under lasting obligation to the writer of this volume for a learned and helpful treatment of one of the major problems of our times. The book will enrich the literature on this very important subject." [14]

University of Chicago Private research university in Chicago, Illinois, United States

The University of Chicago is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. Founded in 1890, the school is located on a 217-acre campus in Chicago's Hyde Park neighborhood, near Lake Michigan. The University of Chicago holds top-ten positions in various national and international rankings.

A Bachelor of Arts is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both. Bachelor of Arts programs generally take three to four years depending on the country, institution, and specific specializations, majors, or minors. The word baccalaureus should not be confused with baccalaureatus, which refers to the one- to two-year postgraduate Bachelor of Arts with Honors degree in some countries.

Columbia University Private Ivy League research university in New York City

Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. Established in 1754, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. It is one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence, seven of which belong to the Ivy League. It has been ranked by numerous major education publications as among the top ten universities in the world.

Military activity

French Medal of Honor Recipient Alfred de Grazia helping celebrate World War II Victory Day in France French Medal of Honor Recipient helping celebrate WWII Victory Day in France.jpg
French Medal of Honor Recipient Alfred de Grazia helping celebrate World War II Victory Day in France

In World War II, de Grazia served in the United States Army, rising from private to captain. He specialized in mechanized warfare, intelligence and psychological warfare. He received training in this then new field in Washington D.C. and the newly established Camp Ritchie in Maryland. [15] [16] He served with the 3rd, 5th and 7th Armies and as a liaison officer with the British 8th Army. He took part in six campaigns, from North Africa to Italy (Battle of Monte Cassino) to France and Germany. [17]

United States Army Land warfare branch of the United States Armed Forces

The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, and is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution. As the oldest and most senior branch of the U.S. military in order of precedence, the modern U.S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, which was formed to fight the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783)—before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army. The United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, and dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775.

Psychological warfare (PSYWAR), or the basic aspects of modern psychological operations (PSYOP), have been known by many other names or terms, including MISO, Psy Ops, political warfare, "Hearts and Minds", and propaganda. The term is used "to denote any action which is practiced mainly by psychological methods with the aim of evoking a planned psychological reaction in other people". Various techniques are used, and are aimed at influencing a target audience's value system, belief system, emotions, motives, reasoning, or behavior. It is used to induce confessions or reinforce attitudes and behaviors favorable to the originator's objectives, and are sometimes combined with black operations or false flag tactics. It is also used to destroy the morale of enemies through tactics that aim to depress troops' psychological states. Target audiences can be governments, organizations, groups, and individuals, and is not just limited to soldiers. Civilians of foreign territories can also be targeted by technology and media so as to cause an effect in the government of their country.

Battle of Monte Cassino assaults by the Allies against the Winter Line in Italy held by Axis forces during the Italian Campaign of World War II

The Battle of Monte Cassino was a costly series of four assaults by the Allies against the Winter Line in Italy held by Axis forces during the Italian Campaign of World War II. The intention was a breakthrough to Rome.

De Grazia co-authored a report on psychological warfare for the Supreme Headquarters of the Allied Expeditionary Force. [18] By the end of the war, he was Commanding Officer of the Psychological Warfare Propaganda Team attached to the headquarters of the 7th Army. [15] With his fiancée and later wife, wife Jill deGrazia (née Bertha Oppenheim), he carried on an extensive wartime correspondence of over 2,000 lengthy letters, published on the web under the title "Letters of Love and War". [19] [20] Scott Turow cites the letters as being among the sources for his 2005 novel Ordinary Heroes [21]

Scott Turow American writer

Scott Frederick Turow is an American author and lawyer. Turow has written 11 fiction and three nonfiction books, which have been translated into more than 40 languages and sold more than 30 million copies. Films have been based on several of his books.

<i>Ordinary Heroes</i> (novel) novel by Scott Turow

Ordinary Heroes, published in 2005, is a novel by Scott Turow. It tells the story of Stewart Dubinsky, a journalist who uncovers writings of his father while going through his things following his funeral. The novel, told in first person, traces Stewart's uncovering of his father David's role in World War II in the European Theatre as a captain in the U.S. Army Judge Advocate General's Corps. It includes scenes set during the Battle of the Bulge.

De Grazia wrote manuals of psychological warfare for the CIA for the Korean War and organized and investigated psychological operations for the Department of Defence during the Vietnam War. His reports on psychological operations, now largely declassified, include Target Analysis and Media in Propaganda to Audiences Abroad (1952), [22] Elites Analysis (1955), as well as Psychological Operations in Vietnam (1968). On October 31, 2014, he posthumously made a Distinguished Member of the Regiment of Psychological Operations of the Special Operations Command at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. [15]

Korean War 1950–1953 war between North Korea and South Korea

The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border.

United States Department of Defense United States federal executive department

The Department of Defense is an executive branch department of the federal government charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces. The department is the largest employer in the world, with nearly 1.3 million active duty servicemen and women as of 2016. Adding to its employees are over 826,000 National Guardsmen and Reservists from the four services, and over 732,000 civilians bringing the total to over 2.8 million employees. Headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, just outside Washington, D.C., the DoD's stated mission is to provide "the military forces needed to deter war and ensure our nation's security".

Vietnam War 1955–1975 conflict in Vietnam

The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America or simply the American War, was an undeclared war in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union, China, and other communist allies; South Vietnam was supported by the United States, South Korea, the Philippines, Australia, Thailand and other anti-communist allies. The war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war from some US perspectives. It lasted some 19 years with direct U.S. involvement ending in 1973 following the Paris Peace Accords, and included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, resulting in all three countries becoming communist states in 1975.

For his service in World War II, de Grazia earned the Bronze Star and the EAME Campaign Medal, as well as the Croix de Guerre from France.[ citation needed ] On December 31, 2013, he was awarded the highest French distinction, being made a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor by decree of President François Hollande. [23] He is also a recipient (posthumously) of the MG Robert A. McClure Medal for Exemplary Service in Psychological Operations

Academic career

De Grazia was assistant professor of political science at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis from 1948 to 1950, before becoming associate professor of political science at Brown University. [11] In 1952, he was appointed to be Director of the Committee for Research in the Social Sciences at Stanford University, supported by a Ford Foundation grant. He wrote the textbook The Elements of Political Science in two volumes: Political Behavior and Political Organization (1952). [24] One reviewer of it wrote: "Mr. De Grazia has undertaken to dissect the whole body of political science... He achieves his purpose with unfailing clarity, and his readers will learn from him the range, the goals, and the techniques of the study of politics ..." [25]

In 1955, he was turned down for academic tenure at Stanford after doing a study of "the origins and present restrictions on the political activities of workers" for a foundation. [26] From 1959, he was professor of government and social theory at New York University. [11]

In 1957 de Grazia founded PROD: Political Research: Organization and Design, which was described as "probably...the authentic spokesman for the newest currents among the avant-garde of political behavior". [27] It was later renamed The American Behavioral Scientist, an academic journal devoted to the Chicago school of behaviorist sociology. In 1965, he began the Universal Reference System, the first computerized reference system in the social sciences. [28]

De Grazia was a staunch supporter of the power of Congress against the encroachments of the Presidency, which he called the "Executive Force" [29] [30] According to Raymond Tatalovich and Steven Schier:

The thesis developed by Alfred de Grazia, coming in 1965 at the high-water mark of the Great Society, is that "the executive of the national government represents and leads the national movement towards a society of order. Congress ... expresses the national urge to liberty. ... Challenging the liberalism of academia, de Grazia doubts that the president can be the tribune of the people, and to call him the "custodian of the public interest or of the national interest is presumptuous," because he is custodian of a public interest, his own, and that may be popular or not, shared by Congress or not. When de Grazia speaks of the "problem of dictatorship," he is citing the growth of the executive apparatus. That is to say, "there is a dictator only because the bureaucratic state must have a face."

The civil service is viewed by de Grazia as "the great engine of the Executive Force," not Congress, because "Congress ... is an institution deeply imbedded in federalism, the free enterprise system, and decentralization of society and politics. In represents basically these values."


Concerning both the "ends" and the "means" of government, Alfred de Grazia is a conservative. ... He is not troubled ... about "oligarchy and seniority" wielding disproportionate influence within the legislative process, because Congress operates principally through "the decision system of successive majorities." By that, de Grazia means that different majorities rule in subcommittees, committees, and the floor of each house of Congress. [31]

The American Enterprise Institute published several of his books on the subject, including Congress and the Presidency: their Role in Modern Times, a debate with Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., who defended the case for a strong Presidency. [32]

Support for Velikovsky

de Grazia (right) and Immanuel Velikovsky in 1964 Velikovsky and de Grazia.jpg
de Grazia (right) and Immanuel Velikovsky in 1964

De Grazia became interested in Immanuel Velikovsky's catastrophist theories. Following considerable criticism of Velikovsky's claims by the scientific community, de Grazia dedicated the entire September 1963 issue of American Behavioral Scientist to the issue. [33] [34] He also self-published two books on it, The Velikovsky Affair: The Warfare of Science and Scientism and Cosmic Heretics: A Personal History of Attempts to Establish and Resist Theories of Quantavolution and Catastrophe in the Natural and Human Sciences.

Michael Polanyi stated:

A number of sociologists actually supported the popular view against the scientists. They came out first in The American Behavioral Scientist (September, 1963) and then again in a book (de Grazia 1966), which angrily attacked the whole community of natural scientists for paying no attention to Velikovsky. For my part I believe that the scientists were quite right in refusing to pay serious attention to Velikovsky's writings, and that the sociologists' attack on them was totally unfounded. [33]

In a review of the second book, Henry Bauer suggests that de Grazia's efforts may be responsible for Velikovsky's continuing notability. [35]

In both books de Grazia subscribes to the thesis that, in the words of Henry Bauer, "the affair revealed something seriously rotten in the state of science". The review however suggests that the rejection came about ...

because Velikovsky wanted instant recognition as the authority on science when he had no standing in any science, no qualifications, had not paid his dues through recognized achievements and presented his ideas in the form of a popularly published book rather than through technical articles.

The review further suggests that "de Grazia does not understand how the content of science is generated" and that his "understanding of science as a social activity is ambiguous." [35]

In the second book, de Grazia upholds Velikovsky's most general claim, that geologically recent (in the last 15,000 years) extraterrestrially-caused catastrophes occurred, and had a significant impact on the Earth and its inhabitants. De Grazia terms this belief "Quantavolution". [35]

Later career

In the early 1970s, de Grazia founded the "University of the New World" in Haute-Nendaz Switzerland, as an unstructured alternative to American universities. He invited Beat author William S. Burroughs to teach at it. In his biography of Burroughs, Ted Morgan described the students that it attracted as "drifters and dropouts on the international hippie circuit"; he suggested that this resulted in a culture clash with the "prim Swiss", and that the university lacked adequate facilities or a sound business model. [36]

In 2002, de Grazia was appointed visiting professor in the Department of Mathematics, Statistics, Computing and Applications of the University of Bergamo in Italy. [37] He had previously been a visiting lecturer at the University of Rome, the University of Bombay, the University of Istanbul, and the University of Gothenburg in Sweden. [11]

Personal life

Alfred de Grazia was married to Jill Oppenheim (d. 1996) from 1942 to 1971, to Nina Mavridis from 1972 to 1973, [11] and from 1982 to his death to Anne-Marie (Ami) Hueber - de Grazia, a French writer [38] [39]

He had seven children with Jill Oppenheim. One of them, Carl, a musician, died in 2000. One of his daughters, Victoria de Grazia, a Professor of Contemporary History at Columbia University, is a member of the American Academy. [40]

The entire WWII correspondence between Alfred de Grazia and Jill Oppenheim, comprising about a thousand letters dated from February 1942 to September 1945, survived and was published and placed online, edited by one of their children, Ami Hueber de Grazia.


See also

Related Research Articles

Herbert A. Simon American political scientist, economist, sociologist, and psychologist

Herbert Alexander Simon was an American economist, political scientist and cognitive psychologist, whose primary research interest was decision-making within organizations and is best known for the theories of "bounded rationality" and "satisficing". He received the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1978 and the Turing Award in 1975. His research was noted for its interdisciplinary nature and spanned across the fields of cognitive science, computer science, public administration, management, and political science. He was at Carnegie Mellon University for most of his career, from 1949 to 2001.

Harold Lasswell American political scientist

Harold Dwight Lasswell was a leading American political scientist and communications theorist. He was a PhD student at the University of Chicago, and he was a professor of law at Yale University. He served as president of the American Political Science Association (APSA), of the American Society of International Law and of the World Academy of Art and Science (WAAS).

Immanuel Velikovsky Russian psychiatrist

Immanuel Velikovsky was a Russian independent scholar who wrote a number of books reinterpreting the events of ancient history, in particular the US bestseller Worlds in Collision published in 1950. Earlier, he had played a role in the founding of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Israel, and was a psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. Velikovsky's work is frequently cited as a canonical example of pseudoscience and has been used as an example of the demarcation problem.

Louis Leon Thurstone was a U.S. pioneer in the fields of psychometrics and psychophysics. He conceived the approach to measurement known as the law of comparative judgment, and is well known for his contributions to factor analysis. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Thurstone as the 88th most cited psychologist of the 20th century, tied with John Garcia, James J. Gibson, David Rumelhart, Margaret Floy Washburn, and Robert S. Woodworth.

Political culture is defined by the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences as the "set of attitudes, beliefs and sentiments that give order and meaning to a political process and which provide the underlying assumptions and rules that govern behavior in the political system". It encompasses both the political ideals and operating norms of a polity. Political culture is thus the manifestation of the psychological and subjective dimensions of politics. A political culture is the product of both the history of a political system and the histories of the members. Thus, it is rooted equally in public events and private experience.

Livio Catullo Stecchini was a professor of ancient history at Paterson State Teachers College in New Jersey. He wrote on the history of science, ancient weights and measures (metrology), and the history of cartography in antiquity. He is best known as a defender of the theories of Immanuel Velikovsky and for his numerological theories about the dimensions of the Great Pyramids.

Jon Elster is a Norwegian social and political theorist who has authored works in the philosophy of social science and rational choice theory. He is also a notable proponent of analytical Marxism, and a critic of neoclassical economics and public choice theory, largely on behavioral and psychological grounds.

Project Camelot

Project Camelot was a counterinsurgency study begun by the United States Army in 1964. The project was executed by the Special Operations Research Office (SORO) at American University, which assembled an eclectic team of psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists, economists, and other intellectuals to analyze the society and culture of numerous target countries, especially in Latin America.

Clinton Rossiter was an American historian and political scientist at Cornell University (1947-1970) who wrote The American Presidency among 20 other books and won both the Bancroft Prize and the Woodrow Wilson Foundation Award for his book Seedtime of the Republic.

The military funding of science has had a powerful transformative effect on the practice and products of scientific research since the early 20th century. Particularly since World War I, advanced science-based technologies have been viewed as essential elements of a successful military.

Gabriel Almond American political scientist

Gabriel Abraham Almond was an American political scientist best known for his pioneering work on comparative politics, political development, and political culture.

Kronos: A Journal of Interdisciplinary Synthesis

Kronos: A Journal of Interdisciplinary Synthesis published articles on topics related to the theories of Immanuel Velikovsky, it was "founded, with no apologies, to deal with Velikovsky's work"; and as such hosted epigraphs on a wide range of subjects from ancient history, catastrophism and mythology. It ran 44 issues from the Spring of 1975 to the Spring of 1988. The title is an homage to the Greek name for the Roman god Saturn whose planetary namesake Velikovsky believed Earth once orbited as a satellite. Professor of Social Theory Alfred de Grazia at New York University, co-author of The Velikovsky Affair and avowed supporter of some of Velikovsky's maverick ideas, however, remarked that although the journal was devoted to discussing Velikovsky's ideas, "[t]his is not to say that the directors of Kronos were uncritical". The journal was published by Kronos Press, a division of Cosmos and Chronos. Its subscription list grew to about 2000 and then settled to about 1500 people from 10 countries. Actually, in 1980 the United States and Canada accounted for 93% of circulation with the balance in 20 foreign countries.

C. Leroy Ellenberger American skeptic

Charles Leroy Ellenberger is perhaps best known as a one-time advocate, but now a critic of, controversial writer Immanuel Velikovsky and his works on catastrophism. He first read Worlds in Collision in 1969. In 1979, he became a contributing editor to the Velikovsky-inspired Kronos journal, and has contributed material to many other publications. In 1980 he was selected by the editor of Astronomy magazine to debate James Oberg on Velikovsky. His confidence in the validity of Velikovsky's ideas was shaken in January 1982 when Kronos sponsored his attendance at the semi-annual AAAS meeting in Washington, D.C., in order to distribute information on Velikovsky. In a wide-ranging conversation with Jeremy Cherfas, then a writer for the British weekly science magazine New Scientist over how the press misunderstood Velikovsky, Cherfas had counter-arguments to many points that Ellenberger was not able to rebut. According to Professor of Social Theory Alfred de Grazia at New York University, "By 1983 Ellenberger was preparing to abandon much of quantavolution and found now that the story of Velikovsky was not without its shady tones, and more important, that Arctic ice cores and bristlecone pine dating technologies were directly contradicting Holocene quantavolutions. .. ; further, that Gentry's studies of the surprising 'instant' polonium halos of creation. .. were probably invalid." Henry Bauer described Ellenberger's role in the Velikovsky scene as follows: ".. . was a confidant to Velikovsky, a frequent visitor from April 1978 to his death in November 1979, and a Senior Editor of the Velikovskian journal Kronos, until the evidence forced him to conclude that Velikovsky's scientific claims were baseless. Velikovsky inscribed his copy of Ramses II and His Time 'To Leroy who is consumed by the sacred flame of search for truth', 20 May 1978, and gave him permission to sell 'Velikovsky's right!' T-shirts. Alfred de Grazia, impetus for The Velikovsky Affair (1966), appointed him chronicler of the continuing Velikovsky controversy in 1980. Ellenberger's last contact with Velikovsky was a phone call from him two days before he died." Also, he "has tried unceasingly but to little avail to have his former colleagues acknowledge the accumulating evidence, for example, from Greenland ice cores, that Velikovsky's claimed catastrophes did not in fact occur. Ellenberger points out, too, that Velikovsky's writings have become superfluous: astronomically plausible argument and speculation about relatively recent cosmic catastrophism can now be found in the work of Victor Clube and Bill Napier, where the testimony of myth and historical records is also taken into account."

<i>Pensée</i> (Immanuel Velikovsky Reconsidered) newspaper in Portland, Oregon

Pensée: Immanuel Velikovsky Reconsidered ("IVR") was a special series of ten issues of the magazine Pensée advancing the pseudoscientific theories of Immanuel Velikovsky. It was produced to "encourage continuing critical analysis of all questions raised by Velikovsky's work", published between May 1972 and Winter 1974-75 by the Student Academic Freedom Forum, whose president was David N. Talbott, with the assistance and cooperation of Lewis and Clark College, Portland, Oregon. Velikovsky -- "the man whose work was being examined 'objectively'" insinuated himself into the editing of the May 1972 issue, just as he had done earlier for the April 1967 "Velikovsky" issue of Yale Scientific Magazine.

Roger Davis Masters studied at Harvard, served in the U.S. Army (1955-57) and completed his M.A. (1958) and Ph.D. (1961) at the University of Chicago. After teaching at Yale (1961-1967), he has been on the faculty at Dartmouth College as well as Cultural Attaché at the American Embassy in Paris (1969-1971). He is currently the Nelson A. Rockefeller Professor of Government Emeritus and Research Professor in the Department of Government at Dartmouth.

Peter J. Loewenberg is a teacher of “European cultural, intellectual, German, Austrian and Swiss history. Political Psychology, integrating the identities of an historian and political psychologist with the clinical practice of psychoanalysis” at UCLA.

Alfred Diamant was an American political scientist. His main contribution was in the field of comparative politics and comparative public administration. He was a member of the Comparative Administration Group (CAG) and a co-chairperson of the Council for European Studies based at Columbia University. According to Peter Alexis Gourevitch, Diamant was both “on the Executive Committee of the Council for European Studies and the Interuniversity Center for European Studies in Montreal.” Alfred Diamant was published by Princeton University Press and by top ranking journals like Administrative Science Quarterly, Comparative Political Studies, and PS. Political Science and Politics. Diamant's “areas of expertise” were “Comparative Western European Politics and Social Policy.” Together with his colleague, James Christoph, he “established Indiana University as a major site of the study of European culture, society and politics.” John D.Martz called the “works of Maurice Duvergier, Sigmund Neumann and Alfred Diamant” that focus on the study of political parties “Western European-oriented classics.” D.B. Robertson saw Alfred Diamant as “a gifted and humane scholar.”

Annette Baker Fox American international relations scholar

Annette May Baker Fox was an American international relations scholar, who spent much of her career at Columbia University's Institute of War and Peace Studies. She was a pioneer in the academic study of small powers and middle powers and the books and articles she wrote on that subject are highly regarded in the field. She was director of the institute's Canadian Studies Program from 1977–84.

Bruce Lannes Smith was an American political scientist, communication theorist, and propaganda specialist. His primary research focus was the various uses and techniques of propaganda and persuasion employed by governments that were considered enemies of the United States. He taught at Michigan State College and other institutions. After the Second World War he was involved with research on propaganda and mass persuasion on a mass audience while also questioning the methods used by the Nazi propaganda theorist Franz Six.



  1. de Grazia, Alfred; Deutschmann, Paul; and Hunter, Floyd. "Manual of Elite Target Analysis" on the Alfred de Grazia website
  2. de Grazia, Alfred de. "The Personal Archive: On Retrieving Valuable Cultural Resources" on the Alfred de Grazia website
  3. ""Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library, oral history, interview of Nancy Shlaes de Grazia"" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-10-10. Retrieved 2016-10-10.
  4. ""Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library, oral history, interview of Nancy de Grazia"" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-10-10. Retrieved 2016-10-10.
  5. "The Dad and his Music," in "The Babe," autobiography
  7. "New York Times"
  9. Chicago Tribune
  10. Memoir "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-02-20. Retrieved 2005-12-19.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 "Contemporary Authors Online". Gale. 2009. Reproduced in "Biography Resource Center". Farmington Hills, Michigan: Gale. 2009.
  12. Binkley, W. E. The New York Times (August 26, 1951) p.6
  13. Heckscher, August New York Herald Tribune Book Review (March 18, 1951) p.13.
  14. University of Chicago Law Review, Volume 18, Issue 4 (1951)
  15. 1 2 3 The Proper Gander Archived February 18, 2015, at the Wayback Machine magazine of the Psychological Operations Regiment at Fort Bragg, NC, Vol. 1, No. 1. (October 2014)
  16. See credits of Bauer, Christian. The Ritchie Boys (documentary film, 2004)
  17. 1 2 de Grazia, Alfred. The Taste of War: Soldiering in World War II Archived 2010-11-30 at the Wayback Machine Metron, 1992.
  18. Herz, Martin and de Grazia, Alfred. Combat Propaganda by Leaflet Shell, Psychological Warfare study produced for the Supreme Headquarters of the Allied Expeditionary Force Archived 2010-07-04 at the Wayback Machine Georgetown University Library, Washington D.C.
  19. "Wartime Love Story to Unfold on the Net" Chicago Sun-Times (February 14, 1997)
  20. Quoted in Spain, Tom and Shohl, Michael. I'll Be Home for Christmas: The Library of Congress Revisits the Spirit of Christmas in World War II. Delacorte Press (1999).
  21. Turow, Scott. "Ordinary Heroes"
  22. US Army Military History Institute. Psychological Warfare since WWII – A working bibliography [ permanent dead link ]
  24. Ranking 47th of 161 in 2014, Journal Citation Reports (Thomson Reuters, 2015, 62 years after publication
  25. Muller, Steven (Spring 1954) Review by Steven Muller, American Quarterly Vol. 6, No. 1, pp.88, 90-91)
  26. Lowen, Rebecca S. (1997). Creating the Cold War university: the transformation of Stanford. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN   9780520917903.
  27. Dahl, Robert A. (December 1961) "The Behavioral Approach in Political Science: Epitaph for a Monument to a Successful Protest" in The American Political Science Review, Vol. 55, No. 4, pp.763-772.
  28. Clifton, Brock (April 1967). "Political science". Library Trends . Illinois Digital Environment for Access for Learning and Scholarship (IDEALS), special issue: Bibliography: Current State and Future Trends, Part 2. 15 (4): 628–647. PDF
  29. Alfred de Grazia, Republic in Crisis: Congress against the Executive Force Federal Legal Publications, Inc. (1965)
  30. Review by Cornelius Cotter, American Political Science Review Vol 60, Issue 03, September 1966 p723-724
  31. Tatalovich, Raymond and Schier, Steven (2014) The Presidency and political science: paradigms of presidential power from the founding to the present Routledge. p.130
  32. Schlesinger, Arthur M. and de Grazia, Alfred. (1967) Congress and the Presidency: their Role in Modern Times American Enterprise Institute
  33. 1 2 Polanyi, Michael "Lecture 4: Myths, ancient and modern", Lecture at University of Chicago Spring 1969. Polanyi archive
  34. Lakatos, Imre; Feyerabend, Paul and Motterlini, Matteo. For and against method: including Lakatos's lectures on scientific method and the Lakatos-Feyerabend correspondence. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999. ISBN   0-226-46774-0 ISBN   0-226-46775-9
  35. 1 2 3 Bauer, Henry H. (1985). "Inside the Velikovsky Affair" (PDF). Skeptical Inquirer . 9 (3): 284–288.
  36. Morgan, Ted (1990). Literary Outlaw. New York: Avon. pp. 453–454. ISBN   0-8050-0901-9.
  37. Staff entry
  38. "Publisher's Note" Archived 2009-08-26 at the Wayback Machine on the Alfred de Grazia website
  39. De Grazia, Alfred (1984). Cosmic Heretics, Metron. ISBN   0-940268-08-6. "Chapter 15: 'The Knowledge Industry'", p. 329.
  40. "Ten Historians are elected to the American Academy" American Historical Association (November 2005)
  41. Hunter, Floyd in Social Forces Vol. 29, No. 2 (December 1950), pp. 220-221, University of North Carolina Press
  42. Merriam, Charles E., in The University of Chicago Law Review Vol. 18, No. 4 (Summer, 1951), pp. 825-826
  43. Stapleton, Laurence in The New England Quarterly Vol. 25, No. 1 (March 1952), p. 129
  44. Brockunier, S. H. in The Mississippi Valley Historical Review Vol. 38, No. 1 (June 1951), pp. 92-93, publ. by Organization of American Historians
  45. Willard N. Hogan in Indiana Law Review
  46. Ebenstein, William in The Western Political Quarterly Vol. 5, No. 3 (September 1952), pp. 539-540, publ. by University of Utah on behalf of Western Political Science Association
  47. Steven Muller, in American Quarterly Vol. 6, No. 1 (Spring, 1954), pp. 88+90-91, The Johns Hopkins University Press
  48. C.J.C. in International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1944-) Vol. 31, No. 4 (October 1955), p. 552, Blackwell Publishing
  49. Wright, Esmond in International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs: 1944-) Vol. 34, No. 2 (April 1958), pp. 263-264, Blackwell Publishing
  50. Review by Barrett Lyons in Social Work Vol.7 Issue 2 (1962, p 112)
  51. Paul T. David in Political Science Quarterly Vol. 79 No 4 (December 1964), pp. 612-614
  52. Revista Mexicana de Sociologia, Vol. 26, No. 3 (September–December 1964), pp. 908-910
  53. W. Wayne Shannon, in The Journal of Politics Vol. 29, No. 4 (November 1967), pp. 889-890, Cambridge University Press on behalf of Southern Political Science Association
  54. Thomas E. Cronin in Public Administration Review Vol. 29, No 6 (Nov.-Dec. 1969 pp. 670-679)
  55. "Passage" on the Alfred de Grazia website
  56. "Babe" on the Alfred de Grazia website
  57. "The Student" on the Alfred de Grazia website
  58. "Fire-Sale" on the Alfred de Grazia website

Further reading