Alfredo Baldomir

Last updated
Alfredo Baldomir Ferrari
AlfredoBaldomir.jpg
27th President of Uruguay
In office
19 June 1938 1 March 1943
Vice President César Charlone
Preceded by Gabriel Terra
Succeeded by Juan José de Amézaga
Personal details
Born27 August 1884
Paysandú, Uruguay
Died25 February 1948 (aged 63)
Nationality Uruguayan
Political party Colorado Party
Spouse(s)Sara Terra
Alma mater University of the Republic, Uruguay
Occupation Politician, soldier, architect

Alfredo Baldomir Ferrari (August 27, 1884 – February 25, 1948) was an Uruguayan soldier, architect and politician. He served as President of Uruguay from 1938 to 1943 and is most notable for leading Uruguay to support the Allies during World War II.

Uruguay republic in South America

Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, is a country in the southeastern region of South America. It borders Argentina to its west and Brazil to its north and east, with the Río de la Plata to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast. Uruguay is home to an estimated 3.44 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the metropolitan area of its capital and largest city, Montevideo. With an area of approximately 176,000 square kilometers (68,000 sq mi), Uruguay is geographically the second-smallest nation in South America, after Suriname.

The president is a common title for the head of state in most republics. In politics, president is a title given to leaders of republican states.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Contents

Background

Baldomir was born in Montevideo. He joined the army in 1900 and studied architecture and engineering. He designed many famous buildings in Uruguay, eventually directed the army corps of engineers and worked as a professor.

Montevideo Capital city in Uruguay

Montevideo is the capital and largest city of Uruguay. According to the 2011 census, the city proper has a population of 1,319,108 in an area of 201 square kilometres (78 sq mi). The southernmost capital city in the Americas, Montevideo is situated on the southern coast of the country, on the northeastern bank of the Río de la Plata.

By 1930, Baldomir was becoming involved in politics. He served as chief of police of Montevideo from 1931 to 1934 and as defense minister of Uruguay from 1935 to 1938, and was thus strongly identified with the rule of his brother-in-law, then President of Uruguay Gabriel Terra.

President of Uruguay head of state and head of government of Uruguay

The President of Uruguay, officially known as the President of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay is the head of state and head of government of Uruguay. His or her rights are determined in the Constitution of Uruguay. Conforms with the Secretariat of the Presidency, the Council of Ministers and the director of the Office of Planning and Budget, the executive branch. In case of absence, his office is exercised by the vice president. In turn, the president of the republic is the commander in chief of the armed forces.

Gabriel Terra President of Uruguay

Dr. Gabriel Terra Leivas was the President of Uruguay from 1931 to 1938.

President of Uruguay

He was elected President of Uruguay in 1938 as a member of the long-ruling Colorado Party. He took office as President on June 19, 1938; the Vice President of Uruguay during his period of Presidential office was Alfredo Navarro. Baldomir set a high priority in involving Uruguay in international affairs, and appointed the famous diplomat Alberto Guani as foreign minister.

Colorado Party (Uruguay) political party of Uruguay

The Colorado Party is a political party in Uruguay.

Vice President of Uruguay

The Vice President of Uruguay is the person with the second highest position in the executive branch of the Uruguayan government, after the President of Uruguay. The Vice President replaces the elected President in case of his death or absence. As long as the President is in his functions, the Vice President is the president of the Chamber of Senators and of the General Assembly.

Alfredo Navarro (1868–1951) was a Uruguayan political figure.

World War II

As World War II broke out (Baldomir was President during the Battle of the River Plate), Baldomir discouraged support for the Axis within the country, and early in 1942, he broke off diplomatic relations with the Axis Powers. In 1942, Baldomir, now a general in the army, expanded his powers through a military coup dissolving parliament and declaring an emergency. His term, which was soon to expire, was extended for a year. Soon a new Constitution came into force.

Battle of the River Plate first naval battle of the Second World War

The Battle of the River Plate was the first naval battle in the Second World War and the first one of the Battle of the Atlantic in South American waters. The German panzerschiff Admiral Graf Spee had cruised into the South Atlantic a fortnight before the war began, and had been commerce raiding after receiving appropriate authorisation on 26 September 1939. One of the hunting groups sent by the British Admiralty to search for Graf Spee, comprising three Royal Navy cruisers, HMS Exeter, Ajax and Achilles, found and engaged their quarry off the estuary of the River Plate close to the coast of Uruguay in South America.

Constitution of Uruguay of 1942

The fourth Constitution of Uruguay was in force between 1942 and 1952.

In 1943, Baldomir voluntarily held elections and gave up power, but the continued dominance of the Colorados was insured.

Retirement and death

Baldomir retired from office on March 1, 1943.

Five years later he died of an illness in Montevideo.

Legacy

Baldomir's actions to identity Uruguay with the Allied cause in World War II have lessened his reputation as a controversial historical figure. It may be noted that he was a leading supporter of the previous President of Uruguay Gabriel Terra, who ruled by decree.

Allies of World War II Grouping of the victorious countries of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the "United Nations" from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945). The Allies promoted the alliance as a means to control German, Japanese and Italian aggression.

See also

Political offices
Preceded by
Gabriel Terra
President of Uruguay
19381943
Succeeded by
Juan José de Amézaga


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