Alfredo Alves Reinado (11 November 1968 – 11 February 2008), sometimes spelled Reinhado, was a major in the military of Timor-Leste, the Timor Leste Defence Force (F-FDTL). He deserted on 4 May 2006 to join approximately 600 former soldiers who had been sacked in March 2006 after complaining of regional discrimination in promotions, sparking the 2006 East Timor crisis. Reinado was one of the leaders of the rebel soldiers, and the highest-ranking deserter.
Major is a military rank of commissioned officer status, with corresponding ranks existing in many military forces throughout the world.
A military is a heavily-armed, highly-organised force primarily intended for warfare, also known collectively as armed forces. It is typically officially authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, with its members identifiable by their distinct military uniform. It may consist of one or more military branches such as an Army, Navy, Air Force and in certain countries, Marines and Coast Guard. The main task of the military is usually defined as defence of the state and its interests against external armed threats. Beyond warfare, the military may be employed in additional sanctioned and non-sanctioned functions within the state, including internal security threats, population control, the promotion of a political agenda, emergency services and reconstruction, protecting corporate economic interests, social ceremonies and national honor guards.
The Timor Leste Defence Force is the military body responsible for the defence of East Timor. The F-FDTL was established in February 2001 and comprised two small infantry battalions, a small naval component and several supporting units.
Reinado was captured by the Indonesian military (TNI) during their invasion of East Timor in 1975, and served as a porter for TNI in Sulawesi and Kalimantan.
A porter, also called a bearer, is a person who carries objects or cargoes for others. The range of services conducted by porters is extensive, from shuttling luggage aboard a train to bearing heavy burdens at altitude in inclement weather on multi-month mountaineering expeditions. They can carry items on their backs (backpack) or on their heads. The word porter derives from the Latin portare.
Sulawesi, formerly known as Celebes, is an island in Indonesia. One of the four Greater Sunda Islands, and the world's eleventh-largest island, it is situated east of Borneo, west of the Maluku Islands, and south of Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago. Within Indonesia, only Sumatra, Borneo and Papua are larger in territory, and only Java and Sumatra have larger populations.
Kalimantan is the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo. It comprises 73% of the island's area. The non-Indonesian parts of Borneo are Brunei and East Malaysia. In Indonesia, "Kalimantan" refers to the whole island of Borneo. In 2019, the Indonesian President Joko Widodo has announced a move of Indonesia's capital, possibly to Kalimantan.
He escaped to Australia in 1995 as one of 18 Timorese refugees who fled in a leaky boat and was detained at the Curtin Immigration Detention Centre in Derby, W.A. He later worked in the shipyards in Western Australia. After the referendum in which East Timor voted for independence, Reinado returned to the country to captain a tugboat owned by Rooney's Shipping.On the request of the Timorese government, Reinado entered the military of East Timor (Falintil-FDTL, or simply FDTL) and was appointed commander of the Naval Unit (which consists of two patrol vessels donated by the Portuguese Navy).
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 25 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide.
Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, and the Southern Ocean to the south, the Northern Territory to the north-east, and South Australia to the south-east. Western Australia is Australia's largest state, with a total land area of 2,529,875 square kilometres, and the second-largest country subdivision in the world, surpassed only by Russia's Sakha Republic. The state has about 2.6 million inhabitants – around 11 percent of the national total – of whom the vast majority live in the south-west corner, 79 per cent of the population living in the Perth area, leaving the remainder of the state sparsely populated.
The Portuguese Navy is the naval branch of the Portuguese Armed Forces which, in cooperation and integrated with the other branches of the Portuguese military, is charged with the military defense of Portugal.
However, due to his acerbic style, he was eventually transferred to the Army headquarters in the capital Dili by Brigadier-General Taur Matan Ruak, the commander of the FDTL.
Dili, also known as “City of Peace”, is the capital, largest city, chief port, and commercial centre of East Timor (Timor-Leste). Dili is part of a free trade zone, the Timor Leste–Indonesia–Australia Growth Triangle (TIA-GT).
José Maria VasconcelosGColIH, popularly known by his nom de guerreTaur Matan Ruak is an East Timorese politician who has served as the Prime Minister of East Timor since 22 June 2018. He was also President of East Timor from 20 May 2012 to 20 May 2017. Before entering politics, he was the Commander of the FALINTIL-Forças de Defesa de Timor-Leste (F-FDTL), the military of East Timor, from 2002 until 6 October 2011. Prior to serving in the F-FDTL, he was the last commander of the Armed Forces of National Liberation of East Timor or FALINTIL, the insurgent army which resisted the Indonesian occupation of the territory from 1975 to 1999.
Reinado's father and sister live in Australia. Over several years, Reinado travelled to Australia to receive military training from the Australian Defence Force, studying defence management in October 2003 and emergency management in August 2004. In 2005 he completed a three-month navy training module at the Australian Command and Staff College in Canberra.Reinado has also received training from the Portuguese military and the Brazilian military. He was eventually assigned to the military police, where he was in charge of a platoon of 33 troops.
The Australian Defence Force (ADF) is the military organisation responsible for the defence of Australia. It consists of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), Australian Army, Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) and a number of 'tri-service' units. The ADF has a strength of just under 80,000 full-time personnel and active reservists, and is supported by the Department of Defence and several other civilian agencies.
Canberra is the capital city of Australia. Founded following the federation of the colonies of Australia as the seat of government for the new nation, it is Australia's largest inland city and the eighth-largest city overall. The city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory; 280 km (170 mi) south-west of Sydney and 660 km (410 mi) north-east of Melbourne.
Military police (MP) are law enforcement agencies connected with, or part of, the military of a state.
On 4 May, Reinado and 20 members of his platoon, along with four riot police, deserted their barracks and joined the rebel soldiers in the hills, taking with them two trucks full of weapons and ammunition.
Riot police are police who are organized, deployed, trained or equipped to confront crowds, protests or riots.
In an interview, Reinado said that he was motivated to leave his barracks and join the rebels following an incident on 28 April in which FDTL forces fired upon a crowd of rebel soldiers and unemployed youths demonstrating in the streets of Dili. He asserted that the Prime Minister Mari Alkatiri had given the order to fire into the crowd, because in his role as a military policeman he had escorted Colonel Lere Anan Timor, the chief of staff to FDTL commander Brigadier-General Ruak, to a meeting with Alkatiri, and had heard Lere say immediately after the meeting that "I already have orders to take action."Reinado also called for a full investigation into the events of 28 April, saying that Alkatiri's orders were "an unjustified act under the constitution".
It is alleged that on 23 May 2006, during negotiations with loyalists from 1st Battalion F-FDTL in the Fatuhai Pass east of Bekora, Reinado shot dead the lead loyalist scout as a patrol approached his position. The following day, Reinado and other Petitioner rebels from the Military Police platoon joined up with the Salsinha Petitioners and rebel Reserve Police, launching a major assault on Dili. Although these assaults were eventually halted by loyalist forces, they came close to cutting the town in half. Indeed, "at one stage the fighting closed the Dos Direitos Humanos Avenue... at Dili Helo Pad... and Petitioners seized the Telecom transmission tower near the then President Xanana Gusmão's house."
He was subsequently detained by Portuguese and Australian soldiers in Dili on 26 July on charges of illegally possessing weapons. Angered by his arrest he refused to sign court papers. He was later charged with murder.
On 30 August 2006, Reinado escaped from Dili's main jail with more than 50 other prisoners. Prison warden Carlos Sarmento said at least 57 inmates fled after breaking down several walls on the east wing. The break-out occurred within the New Zealand Defence Force area of operations and came just a week after the UN was given approval to replace the Australian-led mission responsible for keeping law and order.
The escape was by coincidence on the anniversary of the 1999 vote for independence from Indonesia in a referendum.
The escape created a new crisis for international security forces in East Timor, which were struggling to curb gang violence. Prime Minister José Ramos-Horta, said after visiting the jail two weeks earlier that security there should be improved.
Paulo Remedios, Major Reinado's lawyer, said that Major Reinado had been worried for some time about the lack of security at the jail.
"Threats have been made against Alfredo and he was taking them seriously," Mr Remedios said. "He told me of a plan to snatch him from the jail and to take him out of Dili on a boat — that was the rumour that my client heard."
A senior foreign security analyst based in East Timor said Major Reinado, former chief of the country's military police, "could easily disappear into the mountains" if not caught quickly. "And the problem is, there are still plenty of guns unaccounted for up in the mountains," he said.
Whilst on the run from authorities, Reinado made an appearance on Indonesia's Metro TV talk show Kick Andy. On the program, Reinado made open statements about his escape and his aims. Nobody but host Andy F. Noya and his crew knew the location of the interview.
Following his escape, Reinado fled to his main support base in Maubisse, in the mountains. Australian soldiers from the SASR and 4 RAR were subsequently involved in an intensive search for the escapees. From his safe base, however, Reinado attempted to negotiate a pardon. As late as December 2006 he was being flown to negotiations by Australian helicopter. Ramos-Horta eventually lost his patience with Reinado's public demands and threats, and finally ordered ISF to cease negotiations in January 2007. Following a large man-hunt he was finally tracked to a mountain compound in Same in late February 2007.
The situation became serious after Reinado’s rebels raided a police station west of Maliana on 25 February 2007 and stole radios, automatic assault rifles, pistols and ammunition. Australian and New Zealand forces from ISF, including infantry from 6RAR and 1RNZIR and armour from 3/4CAV, were ordered to seal off Same. Negotiations between the Timor Leste government and the rebels subsequently failed and the decision was made to detain Reinado by force.
After cornering Reinado in Same, Australian Special Forces entered the town and conducted an assault. Reinado evaded capture but five of his men were killed in the Battle of Same. In mid-April 2007, Prime Minister José Ramos-Horta said that the search for Reinado was being called off to facilitate dialogue.Reinado met with Ramos-Horta, who was by this time President, in August 2007, and they backed the initiation of a dialogue that would seek a peaceful resolution.
Xanana Gusmão opened talks with the Petitioners considered to be disaffected with Reinado and Salsinha's leadership, and a number were eventually convinced to enter cantonment in Dili under the leadership of Major Augusto Tara. In late 2007 Reinado was charged with eight counts of murder and numerous weapons offences relating to the violence in May 2006. Reinado failed to appear in court to face these charges on 24 January 2008. The Timor Leste government once again made plans to capture Reinado. According to one source: "with his support base fracturing, Reinado was increasingly isolated and [began] planning desperate action."
On 11 February 2008, East Timorese army spokesman Major Domingos da Câmara said that Reinado had been killed during coordinated attacks on Prime Minister Xanana Gusmão and President Ramos-Horta.Reinado's funeral, attended by hundreds of people, was held peacefully on 14 February in Dili. Alfredo Reinado's role as rebel leader was succeeded by Lieutenant Gastão Salsinha.
Some hold that Reinado had been shot at "very close range" in the back of the head, leading to speculation that he had been executed instead of shot in defence,despite the fact that the original autopsy report actually said "the manner of death specified is "Homicide" as a result of multiple gunshot wounds, including one inflicted from the front into the neck" and it is Leopoldino Mendonça Exposto, the other rebel who was killed along with Alfredo Reinado, that was shot in the back of the head.
José Manuel Ramos-Horta is an East Timorese politician who was the President of East Timor from 20 May 2007 to 20 May 2012. Previously he was Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2002 to 2006 and Prime Minister from 2006 to 2007. He is a co-recipient of the 1996 Nobel Peace Prize along with Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo, for working "towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor".
Kay Rala Xanana Gusmão, GColIH, GCL, GCMG is an East Timorese politician. A former militant, he was the first President of East Timor, serving from May 2002 to May 2007. He then became the fourth Prime Minister of East Timor, serving from 8 August 2007 to 16 February 2015. He has been Minister of Planning and Strategic Investment since February 2015.
East Timor is a country in Southeast Asia, officially known as Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste. The country comprises the eastern half of the island of Timor and the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco. The first inhabitants are thought to be descendant of Australoid and Melanesian peoples. The Portuguese began to trade with Timor by the early 16th century and colonised it throughout the mid-century. Skirmishing with the Dutch in the region eventually resulted in an 1859 treaty for which Portugal ceded the western half of the island. Imperial Japan occupied East Timor during World War II, but Portugal resumed colonial authority after the Japanese surrender.
Mari bin Amude Alkatiri, GCIH is a Timorese politician. He was Prime Minister of East Timor from May 2002 until his resignation on 26 June 2006 following weeks of political unrest in the country, and again from September 2017 until May 2018. He is the Secretary-General of the Fretilin party, as well as President of the Special Administrative Region of Oecusse.
The 2006 East Timorese crisis began as a conflict between elements of the military of East Timor over discrimination within the military, and expanded to a coup attempt and general violence throughout the country, centred in the capital Dili. The crisis prompted a military intervention by several other countries and led to the resignation of the Prime Minister Mari Alkatiri.
Kirsty Sword Gusmão AO is an Australian-East Timorese activist who served as the First Lady of East Timor from 2002 until 2007. She is married to Xanana Gusmão, former Prime Minister and President of East Timor albeit separated in 2015. She is the founding director of the Alola Foundation, which seeks to improve the lives of women in Timor-Leste, a nation with one of the world's lowest per capita GDPs.
Presidential elections were held in East Timor in 2007. The first round on 9 April 2007 saw six of the eight candidates eliminated. The remaining two candidates, incumbent Prime Minister José Ramos-Horta and FRETILIN President Francisco Guterres, faced each other in a runoff election on 9 May 2007. Ramos-Horta won the second round with 69% of the vote.
A parliamentary election was held in East Timor on 30 June 2007. Although a narrow plurality was achieved by the Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor (FRETILIN), a coalition involving the next three largest groups formed a government. New Prime Minister Xanana Gusmão of the National Congress for Timorese Reconstruction (CNRT) was sworn in on 8 August 2007; Fernando de Araújo of the Democratic Party became President of the National Parliament.
José Luís Guterres is an East Timorese politician and diplomat.
Rogerio Tiago Lobato is an East Timorese politician and former Interior Minister belonging to Fretilin. He was a founding member of the first independent government of East Timor, in 1975, led by Fretilin. He is also the brother of the late Nicolau Lobato, second President of the country who was killed in action after the Indonesian invasion, in late 1978.
Rebel East Timorese soldiers invaded the homes of the President and Prime Minister of East Timor on 11 February 2008, leading to the shooting and serious wounding of President José Ramos-Horta, the shooting up of the car of Prime Minister Xanana Gusmão, and the fatal shooting of rebel leader Alfredo Reinado. The attacks have been variously interpreted as attempted assassinations, attempted kidnappings and an attempted coup d'état. The rebels' intentions remain unknown.
Lieutenant Gastão Salsinha was the de facto leader of the East Timor rebel movement following the death of former leader Major Alfredo Reinado.
The Battle of Same was fought in the village of Same in Timor Leste, 50 kilometres (31 mi) south of the capital Dili, between Australian Special Forces and Petitioner rebels under the command of Alfredo Reinado. The operation occurred under the auspices of Operation Astute, being the deployment of Australian forces in the wake of 2006 East Timorese crisis, and resulted in the Australians successfully securing the target compound and defeating the small rebel force, before the assault was called off by the Timor Leste government. Reinado and nine other rebels subsequently evaded the Australian cordon, however, and made good their escape into the mountains.
The Minor Seminary of Our Lady of Fatima, the oldest Roman Catholic Seminary in East Timor was founded in 1936. The seminary was initially established in Manatutu district, south of Dili. In 1951 it was moved to Dare. In 1954 the Vatican canonically registered the seminary. It was taken over by the Jesuits in 1958.
A presidential election was held in Timor-Leste on 17 March and 16 April 2012 to choose a president for a five-year term. Incumbent president Jose Ramos-Horta, who was eligible for a second and final term as president, announced that he would seek nomination to be a candidate in the election. The election was seen as a test for the "young democracy" in seeking to take control of its own security. Former military commander Taur Matan Ruak provisionally beat Francisco Guterres in a second round runoff.
The following lists events that happened during 2008 in East Timor.