Alid dynasties of northern Iran

Last updated
Zaydi Alid dynasties of northern Iran

علویون طبرستان
تبرسّون ِعلویون
864–900
914–928
WhiteFlag.png
Flag
Alavids-map.png
Map of the Alid Emirate
Capital Amol
Common languages Arabic, Mazandarani
Religion
Zaydi Islam
Government Theocratic monarchy
Imam/Emir  
 864–884 (first)
Hasan ibn Zayd al-Da'i ila'l-Haqq
 927–928 (last)
Hasan ibn Qasim al-Da'i ila'l-Haqq
Historical era Middle Ages
 Established
864
 Disestablished
928
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Black flag.svg Abbasid Caliphate
Samanid dynasty (819-999).GIF Samanid dynasty
Samanid dynasty Samanid dynasty (819-999).GIF
Late-9th or early-10th century bowl with white slip, incised design, colored, and glazed. Excavated at Sabz Pushan, Nishapur, Iran. Bowl Iran sabz.JPG
Late-9th or early-10th century bowl with white slip, incised design, colored, and glazed. Excavated at Sabz Pushan, Nishapur, Iran.

Alid dynasties of northern Iran or Alâvids. In the 9th–14th centuries, the northern Iranian regions of Tabaristan, Daylam and Gilan, sandwiched between the Caspian Sea and the Alborz range, came under the rule of a number of Alid dynasties, espousing the Zaydi branch of Shia Islam.

Iran Country in Western Asia

Iran, also called Persia and officially known as the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center.

Tabaristan

Tabaristan, also known as Tapuria, was the name applied to Mazandaran, a province in northern Iran. Although the natives of the region knew it as Mazandaran, the region was called Tabaristan from the Arab conquests to the Seljuk period.

Daylam city

Daylam, also known in the plural form Daylaman, was the name of a mountainous region of inland Gilan, Iran. It was so named for its inhabitants, known as the Daylamites.

Contents

The first and most powerful Zaydi emirate was established in Tabaristan in 864 and lasted until 928. It was interrupted by Samanid occupation in 900, but restored in 914 by another Alid branch.

The second period of the Alid emirate was plagued by internal dissensions and power struggles between the two branches, and ended in the second conquest of the region by the Samanids in 928. Subsequently, some of the soldiers and generals of the Alavids joined the Samanids, among them Mardavij, founder of the Ziyarid dynasty, and the three sons of Buya (Ali, Hassan and Ahmad), founders of the Buyid dynasty.

Mardavij Ziyarid ruler

Mardavij, was a Gilaki prince, who established the Ziyarid dynasty, ruling from 930 to 935.

Local Zaydi rulers survived in Daylam and Gilan until the 16th century.

List of Zaydi emirs and imams of Tabaristan

Hasan ibn Zayd

Al-Ḥasan ibn Zayd ibn Muḥammad ibn Ismā‘il ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Zayd, also known as al-Da‘ī al-kabīr, was an Alid who became the founder of the Zaydid dynasty of Tabaristan.

A regnal name, or reign name, is the name used by monarchs and popes during their reigns and, subsequently, historically. Since ancient times, some monarchs have chosen to use a different name from their original name when they accede to the monarchy.

Abu Abdallah Muḥammad ibn Zayd ibn Muḥammad ibn Ismā‘il ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Zayd, also known as al-Da‘ī al-ṣaghīr, was an Alid who succeeded his brother, Hasan, as ruler of the Zaydid dynasty of Tabaristan in 884. Little is known of his early life, before coming to Tabaristan after Hasan established Zaydid rule there in 864. He served his brother as a general and governor, and continued his policies after his accession. His reign was troubled by rebellions and wars, most notably by the invasion of Rafi' ibn Harthama in 889–892, which occupied most of his domains. After Rafi' fell out of favour with the Abbasids, Muhammad recovered his position and secured the allegiance of Rafi', but did not particularly support him against the Saffarids. In 900, following the Saffarids' defeat by the Samanids, he tried to invade Khurasan, but was defeated and died of his wounds, whereupon Tabaristan fell to the Samanids.

See also

History of Iran History of Iran

The history of Iran, which was commonly known until the mid-20th century as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.

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Ziyarid dynasty dynasty

The Ziyarid dynasty was an Iranian dynasty of Gilaki origin that ruled Tabaristan from 930 to 1090. At its greatest extent, it ruled much of present-day western and northern Iran.

Vushmgir 10th century ruler of the Ziyarids

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Nasr II Iranian ruler

Nasr ibn Ahmad or Nasr II, nicknamed "the Fortunate", was the ruler (amir) of Transoxiana and Khurasan as the head of the Samanid dynasty from 914 to 943. His reign marked the high point of the Samanid dynasty's fortunes. He was the son of Ahmad ibn Isma’il.

Imams of Yemen

The Imams of Yemen and later the Kings of Yemen were religiously consecrated leaders belonging to the Zaidiyyah branch of Shia Islam. They established a blend of religious and secular rule in parts of Yemen from 897. Their imamate endured under varying circumstances until the republican revolution in 1962. Zaidiyyah theology differed from Sevener/Ismaili or Twelver Shi'ites by stressing the presence of an active and visible imam as leader. The imam was expected to be knowledgeable in religious scholarship, and to prove himself a worthy headman of the community, even in battle if this was necessary. A claimant of the imamate would proclaim a "call" (da'wa), and there were not infrequently more than one claimant.

Abu Mansur Makan ibn Kaki was a Daylamite military leader active in northern Iran in the early 10th century. He became involved in the succession disputes of the Alids of Tabaristan, and managed to establish himself as the ruler of Tabaristan and Gurgan for short periods of time, in competition to other Daylamite warlords such as Asfar ibn Shiruya or the Ziyarid brothers Mardavij and Vushmgir. He alternately opposed and secured support from the Samanid governors of Khurasan, and eventually fell in battle against a Samanid army.

Hasan al-Utrush

Abu Muḥammad al-Ḥasan ibn ‘Alī ibn al-Ḥasan ibn ‘Alī ibn ‘Umar al-Ashraf ibn ‘Alī Zayn al-‘Ābidīn, better known as al-Ḥasan al-Uṭrūsh, was an Alid Shia missionary of the Zaydi sect who re-established Zaydid rule over the province Tabaristan in northern Iran in 914, after fourteen years of Samanid rule. He ruled Tabaristan until his death under the regnal name of al-Nāṣir li'l-Ḥaqq, and became known as al-Nāṣir al-Kabīr to distinguish him from his descendants who bore the same surname. He is still known and recognized as Imam among the Zaydis of Yemen.

Qarin I, was the eighth ruler of the Bavand dynasty from 839 to 867.

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Sharwin II, was the tenth ruler of the Bavand dynasty from 896 to 930.

The Firuzanids (Perozanids) were an Iranian princely family of Daylamite origin which ruled Shukur, and at their greatest extent ruled all of Tabaristan.

Al-Hasan ibn al-Fairuzan was a Daylamite prince from the Firuzanid family.

Justan III was the sixth king of the Justanid dynasty, ruling from 865 to 919. He was the brother and successor of Khurshid of Dailam.

Asfar ibn Shiruya was an Iranian military leader of Gilaki origin, active in northern Iran in the early 10th century. He played a major role in the succession disputes of the Alids of Tabaristan, and managed to establish himself as the ruler of Tabaristan and northern Jibal briefly from 928 to 930.

References

Wilferd Madelung British Islamic scholar

Wilferd Ferdinand Madelung is a scholar of Islam. He was born in Stuttgart, Germany, where he completed his early education at Eberhard-Ludwigs-Gymnasium.

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