Almora

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Almora
Hill station
Almora Uttarakhand India 2013.jpg
View of Almora City in 2013
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Almora
Location in Uttarakhand, India
India Uttarakhand location map.svg
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Almora
Almora (Uttarakhand)
Coordinates: 29°35′50″N79°39′33″E / 29.5971°N 79.6591°E / 29.5971; 79.6591 Coordinates: 29°35′50″N79°39′33″E / 29.5971°N 79.6591°E / 29.5971; 79.6591
CountryFlag of India.svg  India
State Uttarakhand
Division Kumaon
District Almora
Established1568
Founded byKalyan Chand
Government
  Type Mayor–Council
   Mayor Prakash Joshi [1]
Area
  Total7.6 km2 (2.9 sq mi)
Elevation
1,642 m (5,387 ft)
Population
(2011) [2]
  Total35,513
  Rank 14th (in Uttarakhand)
  Density4,700/km2 (12,000/sq mi)
Languages
  Official Hindi
Sanskrit
  Spoken Kumaoni
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
263601
Telephone code91-5962
Vehicle registration UK-01
Sex ratio 1142 /
Climate Alpine (BSh) and Humid subtropical(Cwb) (Köppen)
Avg. annual temperature−3 to 28 °C (27 to 82 °F)
Avg. summer temperature12 to 28 °C (54 to 82 °F)
Avg. winter temperature−3 to 15 °C (27 to 59 °F)
Website almora.nic.in

Almora (Hindustani pronunciation:  [əlmoːɽaː] ) is a municipal board and a cantonment town in the Almora district in the state of Uttarakhand, India. It is the administrative headquarters of Almora district. [3] Almora is located on a ridge at the southern edge of the Kumaon Hills of the Himalaya range, at a distance of 363 km (via NH9) [4] from the national capital New Delhi and 415 km via Saharanpur Rd, 351 km via NH109 and 388.6 km via Ambala- Dehradun- Haridwar Rd from the state capital Dehradun. According to the provisional results of the 2011 national census of India, Almora has a population of 35,513. Nestled within higher peaks of the Himalaya, Almora enjoys a year-round mild temperate climate.

A cantonment is a military or police quarters.

Almora district District in Uttarakhand, India

Almora district is a district in the Kumaon division of Uttarakhand state, India. The headquarters is at Almora. It is 1,638 meters above sea level. The town of Almora is surrounded by Pithoragarh district to the east, Garhwal region to the west, Bageshwar district to the north and Nainital district to the south.

Uttarakhand State in Northern India

Uttarakhand, formerly known as Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India. It is often referred to as the Devabhumi due to a large number of Hindu temples and pilgrimage centres found throughout the state. Uttarakhand is known for the natural environment of the Himalayas, the Bhabhar and the Terai. On 9 November 2000, Uttarakhand became the 27th state of the Republic of India, being created from the Himalayan districts of Uttar Pradesh. It borders Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north; the Sudurpashchim Pradesh of Nepal to the east; the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh to the south and Himachal Pradesh to the west and north-west. The state is divided into two divisions, Garhwal and Kumaon, with a total of 13 districts. The interim capital of Uttarakhand is Dehradun, the largest city of the state, which is a railhead. The High Court of the state is located in Nainital.

Contents

Almora was founded in 1568 [5] by King Kalyan Chand, [6] [7] [8] however there are accounts of human settlements in the hills and surrounding region in the Hindu epic Mahabharata [9] (8th and 9th century BCE [10] ). Almora was the seat of Chand kings that ruled over the Kumaon Kingdom. It is considered the cultural heart of the Kumaon region of Uttarakhand.

<i>Mahabharata</i> one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India

The Mahābhārata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa. It narrates the struggle between two groups of cousins in the Kurukshetra War and the fates of the Kaurava and the Pāṇḍava princes and their succession. Along with the Rāmāyaṇa, it forms the Hindu Itihasa.

Chand kings

The Chand Kings were a medieval Kshatriya ruling clan later also known as Rajput of Kumaon region of the Uttarakhand state of India, which ruled the region after the decline of Katyuri Kings in 11th century AD. It claimed Raghuvanshi ancestry.

Kumaon Kingdom

Kumaon Kingdom was a Himalayan kingdom ruled by Many Himalayan dynasties in the Kumaon region of present-day Uttarakhand state of India

Etymology

Almora got its name from Bhilmora, a kind of sorrel,(although some have tried to derive it from Berberis "kilmora" [11] [12] ) a short plant commonly found there [13] which was used for washing the utensils of the sun temple at Katarmal. The people bringing the Bhilmora/kilmora were called Bhilmori/Kilmori and later "Almori" and the place came to be known as "Almora". [14] [15]

Katarmal Village in Uttarakhand, India

Katarmal is a remote village located in Kumaon Division, in Almora District, Uttarakhand, India. This Kosi-Katarmal is in a spectacular position with uncut Himalaya View & crowned by lush green forests.

When king Bhishm Chand laid the foundation of the town, he had initially named it Alamnagar. Prior to that, Almora was known as 'Rajapur' during the early phase of Chand rule. [16] [17] [18] The name 'Rajpur' is also mentioned over a number of ancient copper plates. [18] There is still a place called Rajpur in Almora.

History

Almora was founded in 1568 [19] by Kalyan Chand during the rule of the Chand dynasty. [20] Prior to that the region was under the control of Katyuri King Bhaichaldeo who donated a part of Almora to Sri Chand Tiwari.

The Katyuri kings were a medieval ruling clan of present-day Uttarakhand, India. They ruled over the region now known as Kumaon from 800 to 1100 AD. They called their state Kumaonchal, the land of Kurma, the second avatar of Vishnu, from which the present name is derived. Their capital was Kartripura.

Almora in the 1860s Almora, 1860s.jpg
Almora in the 1860s

According to local tradition, the earliest inhabitants in Almora were Tewaris who were required to supply Sorrel daily for cleansing the vessels of sun temple at Katarmal. [2] :8 Ancient lore mentioned in Vishnu Purana and Mahabharata present primordial accounts of human settlements in the City. [2] :8 The Sakas, the Nagas, the Kiratas, the Khasas and the Hunas are credited to be the most ancient tribes. [2] :8 The Kauravas and Pandavas of the Hastinapur royal family were the next important princes from the plains who are said to have affected the conquest of these parts. [21] :166 After the Mahabharata war the district seems to have remained for some time under the sway of the kings of Hastinapur whose authority was never more than nominal. [21] :166 The actual rulers were the local chiefs of whom the Kulindas (or Kunindas) were probably strong in the southern and western part of the city. [2] :8 The Khasas were another ancient people who belonged to an early Aryan stock and were widely scattered in those times. [21] :167 They gave this region the name Khasadesha or Khasamandala. [2] :8 [21] :167

Sorrel species of plant

Common sorrel or garden sorrel, often simply called sorrel, is a perennial herb in the family Polygonaceae. Other names for sorrel include spinach dock and narrow-leaved dock. It is a common plant in grassland habitats and is cultivated as a garden herb or salad vegetable.

The 'Vishnu Purana' is one of the eighteen Mahapuranas, a genre of ancient and medieval texts of Hinduism. It is an important Pancharatra text in the Vaishnavism literature corpus.

Khasas Ancient Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group

Khasas were an ancient Bahliki speaking Indo-Aryan tribes. They were mentioned in the various historical Indian inscriptions and ancient Indian and Tibetan literatures. They were native Indic peoples who were reported to have lived around Gandhara, Trigarta and Madra Kingdom in the northern Indian subcontinent.

Almora Bazaar, c1860 Almora Bazaar. c1860.jpg
Almora Bazaar, c1860

The next age's silent of them may probably be the ones signaling many petty states, rivaling each-other for supremacy and ultimately chartering the inauguration of the noted and enduring dynasty of Chands. Earlier to this, the Katyuris are recorded as the dominant clans in copper and stone engravings. [22] The Chand dynasty from their inception in 953 A.D. to their ouster in the late 18th century present a saga of strife, with horrifying series of wars with rulers of Garhwal culminating in the destruction of this prosperous land and establishment of inglorious Gurkha rule. This dynasty was peculiar in that it made Almora the seat of strongest hill power in 1563 A.D. [23] From that time onwards, the limits of kingdom of Kumaon extended over the entire tracts of districts of Almora and Nainital. Towards the end of the 17th century, Chand Rajas again attacked the Garhwal kingdom, and in 1688, king Udyot Chand erected several temples at Almora, including Tripur Sundari, Udyot Chandeshwer and Parbateshwer, to mark his victory over Garhwal and Doti. The Parbateshwar temple was renamed twice, to become the present Nanda Devi temple.

Almora in the 1777 map of Delhi and Agra 1777 Rennell - Dury Wall Map of Delhi and Agra, India - Geographicus - DelhiAgrah-dury-1777.jpg
Almora in the 1777 map of Delhi and Agra
View of Almora, with soldiers of 3rd Gurkha Rifles, 1895. View of Almora, with soldiers of 3rd Gurkha, 1895.jpg
View of Almora, with soldiers of 3rd Gurkha Rifles, 1895.

In 1791, the Gorkhas of Nepal while expanding their kingdom westwards across Kali River, invaded and overran Almora. [2] :8 [24] In the meantime, the British were engaged in preventing the Gorkhas from over-running the whole of the northern frontier. [25] The Gorkha rule lasted for twenty-four years. Due to their repeated intrusion into British territories in the Terai from 1800 onwards, Lord Moira, the Governor-General of India, decided to attack Almora in December 1814, [26] marking the beginning of the Anglo-Gorkha war. The war that broke out in 1814, [27] [28] resulted in the defeat of the Gorkhas and subsequently led to the signing of the Treaty of Sugauli in 1816. [29] :594 [30] According to the treaty, Nepal had to cede all those territories which the Gorkhas had annexed to the British East India Company. After the war, the old Lal Mandi fort, near Almora was renamed ‘Fort Moira’.

Unlike the neighboring hill stations like Nainital and Shimla which were developed by the British, [31] [32] [33] Almora was developed much before by the Chand kings. [34] The place where the present cantonment is located was formerly known as Lalmandi. [18] [35] [36] Presently where the collectorate exists, the 'Malla Mahal' (Upper Court) of Chand kings was located. [18] [37] The site of present District Hospital used to be 'Talla Mahal' (Lower Court) of Chand rulers. [18] [38] Almora had a Population of 8596 in 1901. [39]

Geography

Location

Kosi River valley near Almora, Uttarakhand, India Kosi River valley near Almora, Uttarakhand, India.jpg
Kosi River valley near Almora, Uttarakhand, India
Almora city in Uttarakhand India 1 Almora Uttarakhand India.jpg
Almora city in Uttarakhand India
Himalayan view from Kasar Devi, Almora Kasar Devi - panoramio.jpg
Himalayan view from Kasar Devi, Almora

Almora is located at 29°35′50″N79°39′33″E / 29.5971°N 79.6591°E / 29.5971; 79.6591 [40] in Almora district in Uttarakhand. Almora is situated 365 km north-east the national capital New Delhi and 415 km south-east the state capital Dehradun. It lies in the revenue Division Kumaon [41] and is located 63 km north of Nainital, the administrative headquarters of Kumaon. [42] It has an average elevation of 1,861 m (6,106 ft) above mean Sea Level.

Almora is situated on a ridge at the southern edge of the Kumaon Hills [18] of the Central Himalaya range in the shape of a horse saddle shaped hillock. The eastern portion of the ridge is known as Talifat [43] and the western one is known as Selifat. [18] The Almora Market is situated at the top of the ridge, where these two, Talifat and Selifat jointly terminate. [18] It is surrounded by thick forests of pine and fir trees. Flowing alongside the city are rivers of Koshi (Kaushiki) and Suyal (Salmale). The snow-capped Himalayas can be seen in the background.

View of Almora city Almora IMG 20160619 113441256 HDR (33029071745) (2) (Cropped).jpg
View of Almora city

Climate

view of Almora after rains Almora after rain sunlight.jpg
view of Almora after rains

The climate of Almora is characterized by relatively high temperatures and evenly distributed precipitation throughout the year. The main seasons are summer from March to June, the monsoon season from July to November and winter from December to February. In summer, Almora is largely under the influence of moist, maritime airflow from the western side of the subtropical anticyclonic cells over low-latitude ocean waters. Temperatures are high and can lead to warm, oppressive nights. Summers are usually somewhat wetter than winters, with much of the rainfall coming from convectional thunderstorm activity; tropical cyclones also enhance warm-season rainfall in some regions. The coldest month is usually quite mild, although frosts are not uncommon, and winter precipitation is derived primarily from frontal cyclones along the polar front. The Köppen climate classification subtype for this climate is Cwa (Humid Subtropical Climate). [44]

The average temperature for the year in Almora is 23.5 °C or 74.3 °F. [45] The warmest month, on average, is June with an average temperature of 31.1 °C or 88.0 °F. [45] The coolest month on average is January, with an average temperature of 13.3 °C or 55.9 °F. [45] The average amount of precipitation for the year in Almora is 1,132.5 millimetres or 44.59 inches. [45] The month with the most precipitation on average is August with 330.3 millimetres or 13.00 inches of precipitation. [45] The month with the least precipitation on average is November with an average of 4.8 millimetres or 0.19 inches. [45] There are an average of 46.8 days of precipitation, with the most precipitation occurring in August with 11.9 days and the least precipitation occurring in November with 0.6 days. [45]

Climate data for Almora
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)20.0
(68.0)
22.8
(73.0)
28.7
(83.7)
34.9
(94.8)
38.1
(100.6)
37.0
(98.6)
32.9
(91.2)
32.4
(90.3)
32.2
(90.0)
31.1
(88.0)
26.9
(80.4)
21.8
(71.2)
29.9
(85.8)
Daily mean °C (°F)13.3
(55.9)
15.9
(60.6)
21.1
(70.0)
27.1
(80.8)
30.6
(87.1)
31.1
(88.0)
28.7
(83.7)
28.4
(83.1)
27.5
(81.5)
24.5
(76.1)
19.4
(66.9)
14.7
(58.5)
23.5
(74.3)
Average low °C (°F)6.6
(43.9)
8.9
(48.0)
13.5
(56.3)
19.3
(66.7)
23.0
(73.4)
25.2
(77.4)
24.7
(76.5)
24.5
(76.1)
22.9
(73.2)
17.9
(64.2)
12.0
(53.6)
7.7
(45.9)
17.2
(63.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches)26.6
(1.05)
26.1
(1.03)
21.3
(0.84)
15.2
(0.60)
31.9
(1.26)
140.9
(5.55)
318.4
(12.54)
330.3
(13.00)
172.2
(6.78)
34.4
(1.35)
4.6
(0.18)
10.6
(0.42)
1,132.5
(44.6)
Average precipitation days2.12.01.91.31.94.911.311.96.21.80.61.046.8
Average snowy days6.33.80.10.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.74.415.2
Mean daily sunshine hours 10.911.612.413.314.114.514.313.612.711.811.110.712.6
Source: India Meteorological Department [46]
Weatherbase [47]

Flora and fauna

Forests in Almora over hills Forests and Valley of Uttarakhand India (2).jpg
Forests in Almora over hills

The region is immensely rich with 4000 species of plants, having remarkable diversity in its natural vegetation by virtue of its being at a great range of elevation. In addition to its climatic variations, particularly in temperature and precipitation associated with the alignment and altitudes of ranges and nature of valleys, determine the altitudinal growth and variety of vegetation. The flora of this region may be classified into tropical, Himalayan sub-tropical and sub alpine and alpine vegetation. The alpine and sub alpine zones are considered as the most natural abode of the largest number of medicinal plants.

The sub-alpine zones of Almora and outskirts are a natural sanctuary for leopard, Langur, Himalayan black bear, kakar, goral etc. Whereas the high altitude zones abound musk deer, popularly called "Kastura Mrig", snow leopard, blue sheep, thar etc. The entire zone is rich in a remarkable variety of birds possessing plumage of magnificent design and colours like peacock, which include Grey Quail, Black francolin/Kala Titar, Whistling thrush, Chakor, Monal, cheer pheasant, koklas pheasant etc.

Demographics

Population Growth of Almora 
CensusPop.
18716,260
18817,39018.1%
18917,8265.9%
19018,5969.8%
191110,56022.8%
19218,359-20.8%
19319,68815.9%
194110,99513.5%
195112,75716.0%
196116,60230.1%
197120,88125.8%
198122,7058.7%
199128,05123.5%
200132,35815.4%
201135,5139.8%
source: [2] [48] [49] [50] [51]
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Religions in Almora (2011)

   Hinduism (90.84%)
   Islam (7.54%)
   Sikhism (0.23%)
  Other or not religious (1.39%)

As of 2011 India census, Almora has population of 35,513 of which 18,306 are males while 17207 are females. [2] :20 out of the total population, The Almora Municipal Board has population of 34,122 [52] while The Almora Cantonment Board has population of 1,391. [53] Population of Children with age of 0-6 is 3081 which is 8.67% of total population of Almora. [2] :20 Literacy rate of Almora city is 86.19 % [2] :21 higher than state average of 78.82%. Male literacy is around 88.06% while female literacy rate is 84.21%. [2] :21 Almora had a population of 32,358 according to the 2001 Census of India. [54]

The earliest known reference to the population of Almora occurs in the book Kingdom of Nepal by Francis Hamilton. In Fatehgarh Pt. Hariballav Pande had told Hamilton that in Almora, during the time of the Gorkha rule, there were around 1000 houses. [24] :297 Mr. G.W. Traill, the second commissioner of Kumaon division, writes that in 1821 A.D. there were 742 houses in Almora in which lived 1369 men, 1178 women and 968 children and thus the total population was 3505. [55] :115

Hinduism is Practised by 90.84% of the total population and is the majority religion of Almora. Islam is practised by 7.54% people and is the largest Minority religion. Other Religions like Sikhism, Christianity and Buddhism are also practised by small number of People. Hindi and Sanskrit are the official languages of the state while Kumaoni is the mother tongue of the majority.

Municipal board (Nagar Palika Parishad) of Almora was established in 1864. The Almora Nagar Palika Parishad has population of 34,122 of which 17,358 are males while 16,764 are females as per report released by Census India 2011. [52] Population of Children with age of 0-6 is 2950 which is 8.65% of total population of Almora (NPP). [52] In Almora Nagar Palika Parishad, Female Sex Ratio is of 966 against state average of 963. [52] Moreover, Child Sex Ratio in Almora is around 857 compared to Uttarakhand state average of 890. [52] Literacy rate of Almora city is 94.51% higher than state average of 78.82%. [52] In Almora, Male literacy is around 96.84% while female literacy rate is 92.13%. [52] Schedule Caste (SC) constitutes 16.38% while Schedule Tribe (ST) were 1.00% of total population in Almora (NPP). [52] Out of total population, 10,057 were engaged in work or business activity. Of this 7,901 were males while 2,156 were females. [52] Of total 10057 working population, 93.25% were engaged in Main Work while 6.75% of total workers were engaged in Marginal Work. [52] Almora Nagar Palika Parishad has total administration over 8,014 houses to which it supplies basic amenities like water and sewerage, it is divided into 11 wards for which elections are held every 5 years.

Culture

These mountains are associated with the best memories of our race: Here, therefore, must be one of centres, not merely of activity, but more of calmness of meditation, and of peace and I hope some one to realize it.

Swami Vivekananda (replying to the address given to him by the people of Almora.)

[56] [57]

Temples

Kasar Devi Temple Kasar Devi Temple.JPG
Kasar Devi Temple

Almora has many notable temples, including Kasar Devi, Nanda Devi, Doli Daana, Shyayi Devi, Khakmara, Asht Bhairav, Jakhandevi, Katarmal (Sun Temple), Pataal Devi, Raghunath Mandir, Badreshwar, Banari Devi, Chitai, Jageshwar, [58] Binsar Mahadev, Garhnath and Baijnath.

Kasar Devi temple was visited by Swami Vivekananda and this area has a Chabad House. [59] [60] :96 [61] Rudreshwar Mahadev Temple, near Sanara Ganiya, is dedicated to Lord Shiva. It is beside the river Ram Ganga. A sun temple (only the second in the world) is at Katarmal, a short distance from the town. The famous temple of Manila Devi, Devi Maa, the family goddess of the Katyuri clan, lies around 85 km from Ranikhet. Udaipur a famous temple of Golu devta is 5 km. from Binta near Dwarahat.

Dunagiri has the highly revered temple of Shakti or Mother Goddess. Dunagiri is known as the birthplace of modern-day Kriya Yoga. There is a very famous and notable temple in Almora district which is in the village of Chaura near Bhaisor Gaun, Someshwar. This temple is dedicated to lord Golu who is considered as a lord of justice in Uttarakhand. This temple is about 40 km from Almora town. Another very famous temple of Almora district is Airdau which is in Someshwar. Someshwar is a small town in Almora district, which is very rich in agricultural way.

Pandu Kholi is another famous and ancient temple in Almora district. According to Hindu mythology Pandvas spent some time here to escape from Duryodhana. The distance of this temple from Almora is about 80 km. Another very ancient and holy Shiva temple in Someshwar town is known as Khakeshwar Mahadev temple. It is in Bhaisor Gaun village, on the bank of a river.

Transport

Kathgodam is the nearest railway station to Almora Kathgodam station.jpg
Kathgodam is the nearest railway station to Almora

Pantnagar Airport, located in Pantnagar is the primary Airport serving entire Kumaon Region. Indira Gandhi International Airport, located in Delhi is the nearest international Airport. Kathgodam railway station is the nearest railway station. Kathgodam is the last terminus of the broad gauge line of North East Railways that connects Kumaon with Delhi, Dehradun and Howrah.

Almora is well connected by motorable roads with major destinations of Uttarakhand state and northern India. Uttarakhand Transport Corporation runs Buses from Almora bus station to Delhi and Dehradun. Taxis and Private Buses, mostly run by K.M.O.U, connect Almora to other major destinations of Kumaon region. Government of Uttarakhand is constructing an ISBT near lower mall road [62] which will be very helpful for establishing a large tourist network in city and around nearby destinations of kumaon region. It will be the second ISBT of uttarakhand after Dehradun. [63] A Sub Regional Transport Office is located in Almora [64] where Vehicles are registered by the number UK-01. [65]

Education

Almora has one university, Uttarakhand Residential University. Almora has a total of 23 Primary Schools, 7 Middle Schools, 2 Secondary Schools and 9 Senior Secondary Schools.

Media and communications

All India Radio has a local station in Almora which transmits programs of mass interest. [66] Almora station of A.I.R. was founded in June 1986 and is a primary channel station running on medium wave catering the whole of Kumaon division. [67] The main service providers are Dish TV and Doordarshan. BSNL, Vodafone and Airtel have the three largest cellular networks in the city. There are Internet cafés in and around the city, but broadband connectivity is limited. Satellite dishes exist in most homes in the region and the channels available throughout India are also available here.

Multiple local Hindi and English newspapers are published, whereas regional and national Hindi and English newspapers, printed elsewhere in India, are also circulated in Almora. a number of historical newspapers and magazines have been published from Almora like Prabuddha Bharata, Almora Akhbar, Shakti and Swadhin Praja etc. [68]

In 1871 A.D. Pt. Buddhiballav Pant opened a debating club. [69] :134 When Sir William Muir, the then provincial Governor, came here he was highly pleased with the working of this club. [55] :120 It is said that he also advised to open a press here and publish a newspaper. Mr. Pant, as advised, opened a press here and started publishing a weekly magazine Almora Akhbar. [68] :21 Almora Akhbar was the oldest Hindi weekly of this province. In 1913 A.D. Badri Datt Pandey took over the editing work of the magazine. Almora Akhbar made much progress; The number of its customers rose from 50-60 to 1500; however, it was closed in 1917. In 1918 one of the partners purchased the Debating Club Press and named it Vindhyavasini Press. From 1922 A.D. a weekly named Zila Samachar began to be published. [55] :120 Later on it came to be called Kumaun Kumud and was still being published until the late 1930s. [55] :120

In 1893-94, Babu Devidas opened Kumaun Printing Press which published a weekly named Kurmanchal Samachar. [55] :120 Another weekly named Kurmanchal Mitra was also published but it was stopped after sometime. [55] :120 The Prabuddha Bharata started publication in August 1898 from Almora, and was edited by Swami Swarupananda. [70] In 1918 A.D. Badri Datt Pandey with the help of his friends opened a press named Deshbhakta and started publishing a magazine Shakti from it. [68] :21 [69] :134 [71] :45 Being displeased at the policy of Shakti, some of his partners filed suits and withdrew their shares and in 1919 A.D. opened Sombari Press from which for some time a magazine named 'Jyoti' was published. [55] :120 Later on this press also was sold and the publication was stopped. Shakti continued published till 1942, when owing to policies of the government, its publication was stopped. [69] :134 The publication resumed again in 1946 with the efforts of Pandit Gobind Ballabh Pant. [71] [69] :134

In 1930 A.D. a paper named Swadhin Praja was published. [69] :134 [72] Its director was patriot Victor Mohan Joshi. [72] In 1934 A.D. a weekly named Samta was published. [72] Directed by an artisan, Hari Prasad Tamta, [72] it received a monthly help of Rs. 2001- from the government. [55] :120 Formerly it was printed in Indra Printing Press but later the publication shifted to Krishna Press in Haldwani. [55] :120 Since 1935 A.D. an illustrated monthly magazine named Natkhat is being published from Indra Printing Press. [55] :120

Notable people

Swami Vivekananda visited Almora thrice during his Himalayan sojourns Vivekananda Image August 1894.jpg
Swami Vivekananda visited Almora thrice during his Himalayan sojourns
Govind Ballabh Pant was born in Almora Pandit Govind Ballabh Pant.jpg
Govind Ballabh Pant was born in Almora
Cricketer Mahendra Singh Dhoni has Ancestral roots in Almora Mahendra Singh Dhoni January 2016.jpg
Cricketer Mahendra Singh Dhoni has Ancestral roots in Almora

Further reading

Related Research Articles

Kumaon division Administrative division of Uttarakhand, India

For Kumaoni people see Kumaoni people

Champawat Town in Uttarakhand, India

Champawat is a town and a Nagar Palika Parishad in Champawat district in the state of Uttarakhand, India. It is the administrative headquarters of Champawat district. The town was the former capital of the Kumaon Kingdom.

Nanda Devi Raj Jat

The three-week-long Nanda Devi Raj Jat is a pilgrimage and festival of Uttarakhand in India. People from the entire Garhwal division-Kumaon division as well as other parts of India and the world participate in Nanda Devi Raj Jat Yatra. The goddess Nanda Devi is worshipped at dozens of places in Kumaon and Garhwal, but the region around Mt. Nanda Devi and its sanctuary, which falls in the Pithoragarh district, Almora district and Chamoli district, is the prime area related to Nanda Devi. In Chamoli, Nanda Devi Raj Jaat is organized once in 12 years. The Jaat starts from kansuwa village near Karnprayag and goes up to the heights of Roopkund and Homekund with a four horned sheep. After the havan - yagna is over, the sheep is freed with decorated ornaments, food and clothings, and the other offerings are discarded.

Doti District District in Sudurpaschim, Nepal

Doti District, is one of the 77 districts of Nepal. This district, with Silgadhi as its headquarters, covers an area of 2,025 square kilometres (782 sq mi) with a population of 207,066 in 2001 and increasing marginally to 211,746 in 2011.

Bageshwar district District in Uttarakhand, India

Bageshwar District is a district of Uttarakhand state in northern India. The town of Bageshwar is the district headquarters. The district of Bageshwar was established in the year 1997. Prior to this, Bageshwar was part of Almora district.

Bageshwar Town in Uttarakhand, India

Bageshwar is a town and a municipal board in Bageshwar district in the state of Uttarakhand, India. It is located at a distance of 470 km from the National Capital New Delhi and 332 km from the State Capital Dehradun. Bageshwar is known for its scenic beauty, Glaciers, Rivers and Temples. It is also the administrative headquarters of Bageshwar district.

Kashipur, Uttarakhand City in Uttarakhand, India

Kashipur[kaːʃiːpʊr] is a city of Udham Singh Nagar district in the Indian state of Uttarakhand, and one of its seven subdivisions. Located in the western part of Udham Singh Nagar district, it is Kumaun's third most populous city and the sixth most populous in Uttarakhand. According to the 2011 Census of India, the population is 121,623 for the city of Kashipur and 283,136 for Kashipur Tehsil.

Rudrapur, Uttarakhand City in Uttarakhand, India

Rudrapur is a city in Udham Singh Nagar district in the Indian state of Uttarakhand. Located at a distance of about 250 km (160 mi) northeast of New Delhi and 250 km (160 mi) south of Dehradun, Rudrapur has a history of over 500 years. It was established in the 16th century by King Rudra Chand, and was the residence of the governor of Tarai region of Kumaon. The city continues to serve as the headquarters of the Udham Singh Nagar district apart from being a major industrial and educational hub today.

Tanakpur Town in Uttarakhand, India

Tanakpur is a town and a municipal board in Champawat district of the Indian state, Uttarakhand. Located in the foothills of Himalayas in the northern part of India as the gateway for Purnagiri Temple as well as the 'Gateway to the Kumoun Himalayas'. Tanakpur is a calm and small town located on riverside of Sarda River and touched to Nepal border. It is the last plain area on the road to Kumaoun zone of Uttarakhand and acts as a junction for the Kumaon District's mountainous part. It is also the first point in the Kailash Manasarovar Pilgrimage. Gradually benefitting from the nationwide progress, Tanakpur is growing steadily into a buzzing town. Being on the Indo-Nepal Border Tanakpur is very important on the security perspective of India as a nation. Tanakpur is famous for Devi Purnagiri temple which is situated approximately 24 km. at the north of town.

Chandola is a North Indian Garhwali and Kumaoni Brahmin surname of the Nagvanshi clan and mostly used in the Indian state of Uttarakhand. Chandolas are mainly found in the North Indian Region of Garhwal India, Kumaon Region and Dehradun. They are considered as the one of the highest castes of the Hindu Religion and are known to be one of the purest races of Aryans. Chandolas now are found in various parts of the world, however still mainly in Garhwal Region of Uttrakhand and Dehradun. While their origins are largely unknown, some link the origins of the Chandola clan to Central India, due to the famous Chandola Lake in Ahmedabad and the Chandela dynasty.

Baijnath, Uttarakhand town in Uttarakhand, India

Baijnath is a small town on the banks of the Gomati river in the Bageshwar district of Uttarakhand, India. The place is most noted for its ancient temples, which have been recognized as Monuments of National Importance by the Archaeological Survey of India in Uttarakhand. Baijnath has been selected as one of the four places to be connected by the 'Shiva Heritage Circuit' in Kumaun, under the Swadesh Darshan Scheme of the Government of India.

Binsar Wildlife Sanctuary

Binsar Wildlife Sanctuary is perched on top of the Jhandi Dhar hills in the Himalayas. It is about 33 km north of the Almora town in Uttarakhand, India.

Kumauni or Kumaoni or Kumai are people from Kumaon region of Uttarakhand, India. In colloquial language, people of Kumaon are also referred to as "Pahari". Kumain is addressed to person having origin in Kumaon region. The word Kumain is a direct derivative of Kumaoni.

Kanda, Uttarakhand town in Uttarakhand, India

Kanda is a small historic, scenic town and tehsil in Bageshwar district, in the state of Uttarakhand, India.

Bagnath Temple human settlement in India

Bagnath Temple is an ancient shrine dedicated to Lord Shiva, situated in the Bageshwar city at the confluence of Sarayu and Gomati rivers. Bagnath Temple is festooned with bells of all sizes and features impressive carvings. It is the most famous Temple in Bageshwar District. It is flooded with devotees on the occasion of Shivratri. The city of Bageshwar gets its name from this Temple.

Mankot Village in Uttarakhand, India

Mankot is a Village situated in Bageshwar district in the State of Uttarakhand, India. It is located at a distance of 18 kilometres (11 mi) from Bageshwar on the National Highway 309A. Mankot is a medium-sized village with total 114 families residing.

The Coolie-Begar movement was a non-violent movement by the general public of Kumaun in the Bageshwar town of United Provinces in 1921. This movement was led by Badri Datt Pandey, who was awarded the title of 'Kumaon Kesari' after the success of this movement. The aim of this movement was to put pressure on the British to end the practice of Coolie-Begar. Mahatma Gandhi, while praising the movement, named it 'Bloodless Revolution'.

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