Alonso de Góngora Marmolejo (1523–1575) was a Spanish conquistador and chronicler of the early conquest and settlement of the Captaincy General of Chile, and the start of the Arauco War.
Marmolejo was born in the town of Carmona, Andalucía, in 1523. He was the son of the regidor of the town, Juan Jiménez de Góngora Marmolejo and of Teresa Núñez de Tanfarva.In April 1551 he came as a soldier to Santiago, Chile and shortly after was transferred to Concepción to join the expedition that Pedro de Valdivia had prepared to continue his southern conquests. He attended the foundation of Valdivia, where he lived and was regidor in 1555.
In 1557 he was transferred from Valdivia by sea to serve Don García Hurtado de Mendoza who had just arrived as new Governor and was on Quiriquina Island. Góngora participated in the campaign there and later was part of the garrison of the fort of Tucapel and helped frustrate Caupolicán's attack on the fort that resulted in his being captured and executed. Don Garcia made him an encomendero of Cañete and there he was also regidor in 1558 and 1559.
He was in Santiago, in June 1561, when Francisco de Villagra took provisional control of the government and it is probable that he accompanied Villagra in his southern campaigns. Prevailed on by Pedro de Villagra, he returned to Valdivia where he carried out the position of Royal official. In 1571 he was corregidor of Villarrica. In 1575 Rodrigo de Quiroga named him judge investigator of the indigenous wizards, but by the end of that year he had died.
Góngora Marmolejo was the author of History of All the Things that Have happened in the Kingdom of Chile and of those who had governed it (Spanish : Historia de Todas las Cosas que han Acaecido en el Reino de Chile y de los que lo han gobernado) which roughly covers the period between the first Spanish incursions into the territory of Chile and the time of his own death (1536–1575). Góngora Marmolejo was many times an eyewitness of the events he chronicles or wrote about them based on the reports of others who had been present at the events from that time. His history tried to maintain an even-handed vision and has been considered by historians of the period as one of the better sources. Its text is interesting as the work of a soldier who in spite of being a man of culture, used a direct and simple style, and is believed to have been inspired by the publication of Alonso de Ercilla's "La Araucana".
Pedro Gutiérrez de Valdivia or Valdiva was a Spanish conquistador and the first royal governor of Chile. After serving with the Spanish army in Italy and Flanders, he was sent to South America in 1534, where he served as lieutenant under Francisco Pizarro in Peru, acting as his second in command.
Colocolo was a Mapuche leader in the early period of the Arauco War. He was a major figure in Alonso de Ercilla y Zúñiga's epic poem La Araucana, about the early Arauco War. In the poem he was the one that proposed the contest between the rival candidates for Toqui that resulted in the choice of Caupolicán. As a historical figure there are some few contemporary details about him. Stories of his life were written long after his lifetime and display many points of dubious historical accuracy.
Francisco de Villagra Velázquez was a Spanish conquistador, and three times governor of Chile.
Rodrigo de Quiroga López de Ulloa was a Spanish conquistador of Galician origin. He was twice the Royal Governor of Chile.
Francisco de Aguirre was a Spanish conquistador who participated in the conquest of Peru, Bolivia, Chile and Argentina.
Marina Ortiz de Gaete González was the wife of Pedro de Valdivia, and played an important role in the politics of the conquest and early history of the Kingdom of Chile.
Pedro Mariño de Lobera (1528–1594) was a Galician soldier, conquistador and chronicler of the Arauco War in the Captaincy General of Chile.
Battle of Peteroa was a battle in the Arauco War in 1556, in a plain beside a river in the Mataquito River valley, called Peteroa. The battle was between the Spanish forces of Pedro de Villagra, and Mapuche headed by their toqui Lautaro.
Jerónimo de Alderete y Mercado was a Spanish conquistador who was later named governor of Chile, but died before he could assume his post.
The Battle of Penco, on March 12, 1550 was a battle between 60,000 Mapuche under the command of their toqui Ainavillo with his Araucan and Tucapel allies and Pedro de Valdivia's 200 Spaniards on horse and afoot with many yanakuna including 300 Mapochoes auxiliaries under their leader Michimalonco, defending their newly raised fort at Penco. It was part of a war.
The Battle of Mataquito was fought in the Arauco War on April 30, 1557, between the Spanish forces of the governor, Francisco de Villagra, and Mapuche headed by their toqui Lautaro. It was a dawn surprise attack on Lautaro's fortified camp between a wooded mountain and the shore of the Mataquito River. The battle is notable for ending Mapuche pretensions to expulse the Spanish from Santiago, while also avenging the death of former governor Pedro de Valdivia who had been killed by Lautaro's warriors four years earlier.
Peteroa is a small town west southwest of the town of Sagrada Familia, Chile.
Juan Godíñez Conquistador Juan Godínez, was born in the city of Úbeda, Spain. He came to the Americas in 1532. After coming to Peru, he campaigned with Diego de Almagro in Chile. He later served in Peru in the subjugation of Manco Inca, and in the expeditions of the captains Pedro de Candia and Diego de Rojas. Afterward, he returned to Chile in 1540 with Pedro de Valdivia serving in the wars of the Conquest of Chile until the arrival of García Hurtado de Mendoza.
Illangulién, Quiromanite, Queupulien or Antiguenu, was the Mapuche toqui elected to replace Lemucaguin or Caupolicán the younger in 1559 following the Battle of Quiapo to his death in battle in the Battle of Angol in 1564.
Lorenzo Bernal del Mercado (1530–1593) was a Spanish captain who was one of the more successful soldiers in the Arauco War in Chile rising to the rank of Maestre de Campo and temporary Capitán General of the Captaincy General of Chile.
During the Siege of Concepcion of the Arauco War, 20,000 warriors of the army of the Mapuche laid siege to the Spanish garrison and civil population in the fortress of Concepcion, Chile.
Millalelmo or Millarelmo was a Mapuche military leader in the second great Mapuche rebellion that began in 1561 during the Arauco War. Probably the toqui of the Arauco region, he commanded the Mapuche army of that area at the siege of Arauco from May 20 to June 30, 1562.
Loble, also known as Lig-lemu or Lillemu,(d. ca. 1565) was the Mapuche vice-toqui of the Moluche north of the Bio-Bio River who led the second Mapuche revolt during the Arauco War.
Llanganabal was a Moluche toqui who led the Mapuche army that defeated the Spanish led by Martín Ruiz de Gamboa in the Battle of Catirai in 1569. In 1560 Llanganabal is listed as one of the caciques heading an encomienda along the Bio Bio River. Shortly after began the outbreak of the 1561 Mapuche revolt. By 1569 Llanganabal had risen to command the Araucan army with Millalelmo and other captains as his subordinates. To resist the Spanish who had been burning the fields and houses on the south bank of the Bio Bio, Millalelmo had built a strong fortress on a hill in Catirai in a difficult position on steep wooded slopes. Despite the warnings of Lorenzo Bernal del Mercado who had reconnoitered the position, Spaniards new to Chile and the Arauco War prevailed on Governor Melchor Bravo de Saravia to order Martín Ruiz de Gamboa to take his command and attack the place. Meanwhile, Llanganabal had gathered all his army there to resist the attack. Gamboa's force was badly defeated while attempting to attack up the steep thickly wooded hill into Llanganabal's fortified position.
Pailacar or Paylacar was a leader of Purén, who led a force of 2000 warriors in the defeat of the Spanish army of Don Miguel Avendaño de Velasco in the Battle of Purén in September 1570.