Aups Maritims (Occitan)
Location of Alpes-Maritimes in France
|• President of the Departmental Council||Charles-Ange Ginésy (LR)|
|• Total||4,299 km2 (1,660 sq mi)|
|• Density||250/km2 (650/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|^1 French Land Register data, which exclude estuaries and lakes, ponds and glaciers larger than 1 km2|
Alpes-Maritimes (French: [alp(ə)maʁitim] ; Occitan : Aups Maritims; Italian : Alpi Marittime, "Maritime Alps") is a department of France located in the country's southeast corner, on the Italian border and on the Mediterranean coast. Part of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region, it had a population of 1,083,310 in 2017.
It has become one of the world's most attractive destinations in recent years, featuring cities such as Nice (prefecture), Grasse (subprefecture), Cannes and Antibes, as well as numerous alpine ski resorts.[ citation needed ] Alpes-Maritimes also entirely surrounds the Principality of Monaco. The department's inhabitants are called Maralpins (masculine) or Maralpines (feminine); it has the same flag and arms as the City of Nice.
The Alpes-Maritimes department is surrounded by the departments of Var in the southwest, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence in the northwest, Italy to the north and east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It surrounds the Principality of Monaco on the west, north and east.
Its topography is very mixed. As its name suggests, most of the department is a constituent part of the overall topographic Alps – including the Maritime Alps – but it also has the distinction of being a coastal district with its Mediterranean coast. The coastal area, urbanized and densely populated (shaded in red on the map), includes all the cities in an almost continuous conurbation from Cannes to Menton, while the larger but sparsely populated mountainous area (light green) is fully rural with the exception of the three large resorts of Valberg (created in 1936), Auron (created in 1937), and Isola 2000 (created in 1971).
The highest point of the department is the Cime du Gélas (3,143 metres, 10,312 ft) on the Franco-Italian border which dominates the Vallée des Merveilles further east. The summit of Monte Argentera is higher at 3,297 metres (10,817 ft) above sea level, but it is located in Italy. There is also Mount Mounier (2,817 metres, 9,242 ft), which dominates the south of the vast Dôme de Barrot, formed of a mass more than 900 metres (3,000 ft) thick of red mudstones deeply indented by the gorges of Daluis and Cians. Except in winter, four passes allow passage to the north of the Mercantour/Argentera mountain range whose imposing 62-kilometre-long (39 mi) barrier is covered in winter snow which is visible from the coast. From the west, the Route des Grandes Alpes enters the Cayolle Pass (2,326 metres, 7,631 ft) first on the way to the Alps and the sources of the Var in the commune of Entraunes. Then the route follows the Col de la Bonette – the highest pass in Europe at 2,715 metres (8,907 ft) – to connect to the valley of the Tinée then the Ubaye. Further east, the Col de la Lombarde (2,350 metres, 7,710 ft) above Isola 2000 allows access to the shrine of Saint-Anne de Vinadio in Italy. Finally, at its eastern end, the Col de Tende (1,871 metres, 6,138 ft) links with Cuneo in Italy.
The only region of the Alps close to Nice has an afforestation rate of 60.9%, slightly higher than the average of the department and well above the average of 39.4% for the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region.
The rivers in alphabetical order are:
This section needs additional citations for verification .(November 2019)
It is the climate that made the Côte d'Azur famous. The current department of Alpes-Maritimes, however, does not have only one climate, the complex terrain and high mountains divide the department between those who are well exposed (the south-facing side) and those which are less (the north-facing side) and even with the mild Mediterranean climate there can be violent storms and prolonged droughts.
The coastal area has a Mediterranean climate (rainfall in autumn and spring especially, summer drought, mild winter and dry). The interior, especially in the north, has a mountain climate (winter quite bright, summer storms). Around Cannes is a particularly warm micro-climate due to the high hills warming the air which descends on the city.
One of the attractions of the department is its level of sunshine: 300 days per year. Despite this the department is also the most stormy of France with an average of 70 to 110 thunderstorm days per year, arising from the differences in temperature due to a warm sea in autumn.
As soon as one moves away from the coast, towards the west of the department, the interior plains (in particular near Grasse) the climate is a little less temperate but just as sunny. In summer, the temperature very easily exceeds 30 °C (86 °F), while the average is only 27 °C (81 °F) on the Nice coast for July and August. Occasional frost is possible in the interior during winter when, unlike in Nice and rest of the coast, where they are very rare.
In the east of the department, unlike the west, there are no plains. In the Menton region, the altitude increases very rapidly inland, so the sea tempers the atmosphere much more: the maximum in summer is on average 25 °C (77 °F) and the winters are milder than in the interior Frost is rare.
Snow is rare on the coast, however, it happens that good falls surprise the Côte d'Azur, as was the case in the winter of 2004-2005 when the city of Nice woke up with a few centimetres of snow, creating traffic problems. More recently, in February 2010, more than 10 centimetres (3.9 in) of snow was measured in Cannes and nearly 30 centimetres (12 in) in the Grasse region.
In the north of the department the climate in the Alps is mountainous, and there is snow from November to May.
|Climate data for Nice|
|Average high °C (°F)||13.1|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||9.2|
|Average low °C (°F)||5.3|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||69.0|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)||5.8||4.7||4.6||7.1||5.2||3.8||1.8||2.4||4.9||7.2||7.2||6.4||61.1|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||158||171||217||224||267||306||348||316||242||187||149||139||2,724|
|Source: Meteorological data for Nice – 2 m altitude, from 1981 to 2010 January 2015 (in French)|
Alpes-Maritimes is divided into two arrondissements: Grasse and Nice, twenty-seven cantons and 163 communes.
As of 1 January 2014, there were seven intercommunalities:
The most populous cities in the department in 2012 were:
This section needs additional citations for verification .(November 2019)
The Roman military district of Alpes Maritimae was created by Augustus in 14 BC. It became a full Roman province in the middle of the 1st century AD, with its capital first at Cemenelum (today Cimiez, a suburb north of Nice) and subsequently at Embrun. At its greatest extent in AD 297, the province reached north to Digne and Briançon.
Conquered by the French First Republic during the French Revolutionary Wars, a department of Alpes-Maritimes was first set up in 1793 with different boundaries from those of the modern department. In 1793, Alpes-Maritimes included Monaco (Port Hercules), but not Grasse, which was then part of the department of Var as an historical part of France. In 1805, San Remo (San Rème) was included after the disbandment of the Ligurian Republic. In 1812, the department had three arrondissements with the following cantons:
The population of the department in 1812 was 131,266, and its area was 3,226.74 square kilometres (1,245.85 sq mi), covering both present-day Arrondissement of Nice, Principality of Monaco and Province of Imperia.
In 1814, at the close of the Napoleonic Wars, the territory was restored to the Crown of Savoy by the Congress of Vienna.
In 1860 Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, one of the architects of Italian unity with the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, negotiated support for Napoleon III in exchange for Savoy and the County of Nice as set forth in the Treaty of Turin. The annexation was confirmed on 15 and 16 April 1860 by 30,712 male electors enrolled in the 89 communes of the County of Nice who, for the first time, had universal male suffrage by plebiscite. The "Yes" vote for reunification with France was 83.8% of registered voters and 99.2% of votes.The new department of Alpes-Maritimes consisted of the former County of Nice, divided into an Arrondissement of Nice and an Arrondissement of Puget-Théniers (both arrondissements existed in the former Department (1793–1814)), and a portion of the Var department, which formed the Arrondissement of Grasse. However, the County of Nice did not include Tende and La Brigue, which were still part of Piedmont-Sardinia.
For economic reasons, the Arrondissement of Puget-Théniers was merged into to the Arrondissement of Nice in 1926. Since that time, the department has had two arrondissements.
In 1947, in accordance with the Treaty of Paris and as a referendum result favourable to their attachment to France, the communes of Tende and La Brigue (also parts of communes in the high valleys of Vésubie and Tinée: part the commune of Isola) which had not been ceded to France in 1860, were attached to the department.
Argent, an eagle crowned of gules displayed with wings inverted, on a mountain of three hillocks sable issuant from the pointed waves of a sea azure waved in argent.
Since the Second World War, the department has voted to the right. It has nine constituencies for the National Assembly. Following the legislative election of 2017, six constituencies are represented by members of The Republicans (LR) right-wing party and three by the centrist La République En Marche! (REM) party. Of the five Senators representing the department in the upper house of Parliament, four are right-wing (LR) and one is left-wing (Socialist Party, PS). Of the fifty-two departmental councilors, forty-two are right and ten are left.
Alpes-Maritimes has experienced problems of corruption in its politicians in the 1980s and 1990s which led to criminal convictions, including those of Nice Mayor Jacques Médecin and Cannes Mayor Michel Mouillot, as well as Antibes Mayor Pierre Merli, criminally indicted in 1995 for a real estate scam and convicted four years later.
The President of the Departmental Council is Charles-Ange Ginésy,who succeeded Éric Ciotti in 2017. Both are members of The Republicans (LR) party. The LR majority in the departmental council is one of the largest majorities in any such institution in France.
|French Communist Party||3|
Alpes-Maritimes elected the following members of the National Assembly during the 2017 legislative election:
|Alpes-Maritimes's 1st constituency||Éric Ciotti||The Republicans|
|Alpes-Maritimes's 2nd constituency||Loîc Dombreval||La République En Marche!|
|Alpes-Maritimes's 3rd constituency||Cédric Roussel||La République En Marche!|
|Alpes-Maritimes's 4th constituency||Alexandra Valetta-Ardisson||La République En Marche!|
|Alpes-Maritimes's 5th constituency||Marine Brenier||The Republicans|
|Alpes-Maritimes's 6th constituency||Laurence Trastour-Isnart||The Republicans|
|Alpes-Maritimes's 7th constituency||Éric Pauget||The Republicans|
|Alpes-Maritimes's 8th constituency||Bernard Brochand||The Republicans|
|Alpes-Maritimes's 9th constituency||Michèle Tabarot||The Republicans|
As of 2020, the department's five Senators are Marc Daunis (PS, since 2008), Colette Giudicelli (LR, since 2008), Jean-Pierre Leleux (LR, since 2008), Dominique Estrosi Sassone (LR, since 2014) and Henri Leroy (LR, since 2017).
In 2011, the draft departmental budget amounted to €1.3 billion of which 498 million (38.3%) was devoted to social action and 346 million to operations (26.6%).Capital expenditures was just over 250 million euros (19.2%).
In 2010, the department was the third most indebted in France with €942 million of debt or 68.4% of the annual budget.This debt amounted to 2,460 euros per fiscal tax unit (household) and 859 euros per person. The trend of change in debt over the last decade has been a sharp increase: + 440% between 2001 and 2009 and 26% between 2009 and 2010. There was only €43 million in debt in 2003.
The Departmental Council of Alpes-Maritimes is currently sponsoring several large projects:
The Alpes-Maritimes Departmental Council has charged 1 euro per vehicle journey in the department, regardless of distance, since 1 January 2008.
When Nice became part of France in 1860, it was still a small town; the department had fewer than 200,000 inhabitants. However, the population grew quickly from 300,000 at the beginning of the 20th century to over a million. The population is aging because of the number of retirees who move to the coast.
The population is now concentrated in the urban region that includes Antibes, Cannes, Grasse, Nice, and Menton, and which constitutes 90% of the total population.
The department had 1,083,310 inhabitants in 2017, making it the 20th most populated department in France.There are 163 communes including 107 under 2000 inhabitants (representing a total of 60,065 inhabitants), 38 from 2000 to 9999 inhabitants (total 171,935 inhabitants), 13 between 10,000 and 49,999 inhabitants (total 263,102 inhabitants), 4 between 50,000 and 199,999 inhabitants (Antibes, Cannes, Cagnes-sur-Mer and Grasse, total 248,191 inhabitants), and one with over 200,000 inhabitants (Nice, with 340,017 inhabitants). The population density was 252 inhabitants per square kilometre in 2017.
According to INSEE 39.5% of children born in 2011 in the department of Alpes-Maritimes have at least one parent born abroad (regardless of nationality), 15.4% have a father born in North Africa.
The area is also known for its extremely large population of people of Italian descent. About 40% of the population of the Alpes-Maritimes claim their ancestry as being solely Italian, and as many as 80% of the population can trace some degree of ancestry back to Italy before it was annexed by France in the 1860s.
The economy of the Alpes-Maritimes is characterized by the importance of the tertiary sector. The department has, in addition to tourism and traditional services, a relatively high level of corporate research and higher level of services. Agriculture is of little importance and industry plays a relatively small role although it has diversified into activities with high technological value. The construction and public works sector is quite important. The economy is very sensitive to changes in the national and international situation. The rate of unemployment is 9.1%.
According to the INSEE, in 2005 the GDP per capita of the Alpes-Maritimes was 27,723 euros which ranked it as the thirteenth highest department in France.GDP was 29.6 billion euros. According to Eurostat, GDP per capita at market prices in 2008, the department had a GDP per capita of 30,700 euros, which is also ranked it thirteenth in France.
|Services Sector||Industry||Construction & Public Works||Agriculture|
Tourism is an essential industry for the entire coastal region (Côte d'Azur) and is highly developed. On the coast, thanks to the mild climate, towns are resort destinations all year round. In the mountains, there are winter sports stations that have received abundant snow in recent years, particularly Isola 2000.
There are also well-developed industries such as the perfume industry in Grasse, new technologies from Sophia-Antipolis, and the aerospace industry in Cannes-Mandelieu, where there is the first European satellite buildersand the first industrial plant dedicated to spacecraft manufacturing.
The presence of the Mediterranean Sea and the French Alps under a mild sky has favoured one dominant activity: tourism, which accounts for 64,000 jobs directly in the Alpes-Maritimes. For only the city of Nice the tourism turnover represents a 12 to 13% share of the whole tourism market in France. The capital of the Côte d'Azur is the fifth most populous city in France. The city of Nice also has the second largest airport in France (Nice Côte d'Azur Airport), after Paris and its three airports at Roissy, Orly and Le Bourget. There are nearly 13.5 million passengers per year passing through Nice Airport.
The seaside where the majority of the population resides is one of the most popular parts of the world with many attractions:
The area inland from the busy French Riviera is an excellent base for many outdoor sports: cycling, mountain biking, skiing, walking, rock climbing, canyoning, canoeing, rafting, fishing, horse riding, Adventure parks, caving and the area has the first ever underground via ferrata . The area has internationally renowned paragliding and hang gliding flying sites at Col-de-Bleyne, Gourdon, Gréolières and Lachens.
In the mountains, skiing and hiking bring life to Saint-Étienne-de-Tinée (Auron), Beuil, Péone (Valberg), Saint-Martin-Vésubie, Isola, Gréolières, Peïra-Cava, Col de Turini, and Turini-Camp d'argent in the Authion mountains.
According to the general census of the population on 1 January 2008, 23.2% of available housing in the department were second homes.
Cultural life is rich and fully described in the daily regional Nice-Matin newspaper and announced in the weekly supplement JV Wednesday.
Famous museums include:
The department has 222 nursery schools, 357 primary schools and one special school. It also hosts 72 colleges, 14 vocational schools and 22 high schools, to which must be added 65 private schools.
The University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, in Nice and neighboring areas, was founded in 1965.
Higher education is relatively underdeveloped in the department. The urban area of Nice has 35,000 students,while Rennes and Bordeaux each have 60,000.
A campus of the Paris Institute of Political Studies (Sciences Po) was established in Menton in October 2005. The Menton campus is dedicated to the relationship between the northern and southern shores of the Mediterranean and the relationship of Europe with the Middle East.
Several engineering schools are also located in Sophia Antipolis:
In addition, two major business schools are located in the region:
There are is the French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation (INRIA) and the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) in Sophia Antipolis.
The asteroid 100122 Alpes Maritimes is named in the department's honour, on the occasion of the thousandth discovery made from its territory.
The following is a list of the 163 communes of the Alpes-Maritimes department of France.
Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur is one of the eighteen administrative regions of France, the far southeastern on the mainland. Its prefecture and largest city is Marseille. The region is roughly coterminous with the former French province of Provence, with the addition of the following adjacent areas: the former papal territory of Avignon, known as Comtat Venaissin; the former Sardinian-Piedmontese County of Nice, whose coastline is known in English as the French Riviera and in French as the Côte d'Azur; and the southeastern part of the former French province of Dauphiné, in the French Alps. Previously known by the acronym PACA, the region adopted the name Région Sud as a commercial name or nickname in December 2017. 5,007,977 people live in the region according to the 2015 census.
The French Riviera is the Mediterranean coastline of the southeast corner of France. There is no official boundary, but it is usually considered to extend from Toulon, Le Lavandou or Saint-Tropez in the west to Menton at the France–Italy border in the east. The coast is entirely within the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of France. The Principality of Monaco is a semi-enclave within the region, surrounded on three sides by France and fronting the Mediterranean. Riviera is an Italian word that corresponds to the ancient Ligurian territory, wedged between the Var and Magra rivers. The Côte d'Azur or French Riviera, is a nickname given by France to the County of Nice after its annexation in 1860, because the rain and the Mistral were stopped by the Alps and the climate was similar to that of the north of Italy, even in winter, with a sky as blue as its sea, the French Riviera. When the Mistral and the Tramontane are blowing, this provokes an upwelling phenomenon between Languedoc and Provence: they push the surface waters out to sea and bring deeper, cooler waters up to the seaside. Consequently, on these beaches, the temperature of the Mediterranean can be very cool in summer depending on the wind regime. This phenomenon is observed very little or not on the coast between the French Riviera and the Italian Riviera. After the 2000s it was extended to the rest of Southern France, although the geography, culture or climate is different. The County of Nice is a mountainous area like Italy which stands out from the South of France. While the Saharan warm wind Sirocco blows over Italy, the cold wind Mistral blows over the south of France. As the County of Nice is protected by the Alps, it has a northern Italian climate. This corresponds to the mountain range of the Apennines and Ligurian Alps and located between the rivers of Var and Magra.
Sophia Antipolis is a technology park in France. Much of the park falls within the commune of Valbonne, which lies northwest of Antibes and southwest of Nice, France. Gérald Hanning was the consultant advisor to the DATAR for this industrial/scientific complex created in 1970–1984; it houses primarily companies in the fields of computing, electronics, telecommunication, pharmacology and biotechnology. Several institutions of higher learning are also located here, along with the European headquarters of W3C and the ETSI. In the early years, one of the main challenges of Sophia Antipolis was to relate people and to create a sense of community. The "Human Factor" is what was to distinguish the Science and Technology Park in the world as a landmark of science, invention, innovation and research. It was to focus on building an international environment, creating an international community. This means taking into account and improving tenant interaction, networking and cross fertilization of ideas. The concept was that bringing together people from different intellectual horizons and "making" them meet, would bring added value and generate innovation. Many professional clubs were thus launched: The Sophia business angels club, the Sophia Nordic link, Art Sophia, Telecom Valley are just a few.
The Urban community of Nice Côte d'Azur, is the former intercommunal structure gathering the city of Nice (France) and some of its suburbs.
Valbonne is a commune near Nice in the Alpes-Maritimes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France. Valbonne means "the good valley" in Provençal and translates to "Vaubona" in Occitan.
The arrondissement of Grasse is an arrondissement of France in the Alpes-Maritimes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region. It has 62 communes. Its population is 561,067 (2016), and its area is 1,231.2 km2 (475.4 sq mi).
The arrondissement of Nice is an arrondissement of France in the Alpes-Maritimes department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region. It has 101 communes. Its population is 522,637 (2016), and its area is 3,067.4 km2 (1,184.3 sq mi).
This is a list of the 27 cantons of the Alpes-Maritimes department, in France, following the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015:
Nice-Ville station, also known as Nice-Thiers station, is the main railway station of Nice, France. It is situated on the Marseille–Ventimiglia railway and constitutes the southwestern terminus of the Nice–Breil-sur-Roya railway. Nice-Ville is served by TER, Intercités and TGV services, as well as the Gare Thiers stop on Line 1 of the Nice tramway.
Antibes station is a railway station located in Antibes, Alpes-Maritimes, southern France. The station is located on the Marseille–Ventimiglia railway. The train services are operated by SNCF.
The A8 autoroute, also known as La Provençale, is a 224-kilometer (139 mi)-long highway in France that runs between Aix-en-Provence and the A7 to the Côte d'Azur.
Nice metropolitan area as defined by INSEE is a residential area near Nice. It has 933,020 inhabitants and an area that covers a large strip of territory from the city of Villefranche-sur-Mer to the westernmost part of the Alpes-Maritimes département, including cities like Antibes, Grasse, Cannes and Cagnes-sur-Mer.
Saint-Cézaire-sur-Siagne is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in southeastern France.
Golfe-Juan is a seaside resort on France's Côte d'Azur. The distinct local character of Golfe-Juan is indicated by the existence of a demonym, "Golfe-Juanais", which is applied to its inhabitants.
The Canton of Saint-Laurent-du-Var-Cagnes-sur-Mer-Est is a former French canton, located in the arrondissement of Grasse, in the Alpes-Maritimes département.
The Communauté d'agglomération de Sophia Antipolis (CASA) is the communauté d'agglomération, an intercommunal structure, centred on the city of Antibes. It is located in the Alpes-Maritimes department, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region, southeastern France. It was created in 2002, and takes its name from the technology park Sophia Antipolis. Its population was 179,920 in 2014, of which 76,981 in Antibes.
Métropole Nice Côte d'Azur is the métropole, an intercommunal structure, centred on the city of Nice. It is located in the Alpes-Maritimes department, in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region, southeastern France. It was created in December 2011, replacing the previous Communauté urbaine Nice Côte d'Azur and the communautés de communes of les stations du Mercantour, La Tinée and Vésubie-Mercantour. In 2013 the commune Coaraze left the métropole, and in 2014 the communes Bonson, Le Broc, Gattières and Gilette joined it. Its population was 544,977 in 2014, of which 347,636 are located in Nice proper.
Côte d'Azur University is a public research university located in Nice, France and neighboring areas. In 2019, it replaced the University of Nice Sophia Antipolis and the community (ComUE) that was created in 2013. On 9 January 2020, Jeanick Brisswalter was elected as president of Côte d'Azur University.
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Alpes-Maritimes .|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alpes-Maritimes .|