Aluminium nitrate

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Aluminium nitrate
Aluminium nitrate.png
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Names
IUPAC name
Aluminium nitrate
Other names
Nitric Aluminum salt
aluminum nitrate
aluminium(III) nitrate
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.033.396
PubChem CID
RTECS number
  • BD1040000 (anhydrous)
    BD1050000 (nonahydrate)
Properties
Al(NO3)3
Molar mass 212.996 g/mol (anhydrous)
375.134 g/mol (nonahydrate)
AppearanceWhite crystals, solid
hygroscopic
Odor odorless
Density 1.72 g/cm3 (nonahydrate)
Melting point 66 °C (151 °F; 339 K)(anhydrous) [1]
73.9 °C (165.0 °F; 347.0 K) (nonahydrate)
Boiling point 150 °C (302 °F; 423 K)(nonahydrate) decomposes
anhydrous:
60.0 g/100ml (0°C)
73.9 g/100ml (20 °C)
160 g/100ml (100 °C)
nonahydrate:
67.3 g/100 mL
Solubility in methanol 14.45 g/100ml
Solubility in ethanol 8.63 g/100ml
Solubility in ethylene glycol 18.32 g/100ml
1.54
Hazards
Safety data sheet External MSDS
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
Flammability code 3: Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions. Flash point between 23 and 38 °C (73 and 100 °F). E.g. gasolineHealth code 0: Exposure under fire conditions would offer no hazard beyond that of ordinary combustible material. E.g. sodium chlorideReactivity code 3: Capable of detonation or explosive decomposition but requires a strong initiating source, must be heated under confinement before initiation, reacts explosively with water, or will detonate if severely shocked. E.g. hydrogen peroxideSpecial hazard OX: Oxidizer. E.g. potassium perchlorateAluminium nitrate
3
0
3
OX
Flash point 35 °C (95 °F; 308 K)(nonahydrate)
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
4280 mg/kg, oral (rat)
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):
PEL (Permissible)
none [2]
REL (Recommended)
2 mg/m3 [2]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
N.D. [2]
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Aluminium nitrate is a white, water-soluble salt of aluminium and nitric acid, most commonly existing as the crystalline hydrate, aluminium nitrate nonahydrate, Al(NO3)3·9H2O.

Salt (chemistry) Ionic compound consisting of cations and anions

In chemistry, a salt is a solid chemical compound consisting of an ionic assembly of cations and anions. Salts are composed of related numbers of cations and anions so that the product is electrically neutral. These component ions can be inorganic, such as chloride (Cl), or organic, such as acetate ; and can be monatomic, such as fluoride (F), or polyatomic, such as sulfate.

Aluminium Chemical element with atomic number 13

Aluminium is a chemical element with the symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, non-magnetic and ductile metal in the boron group. By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth's crust; it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon and the most abundant metal in the crust, though it is less common in the mantle below. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. Aluminium metal is highly reactive, such that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals.

Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.

Contents

Preparation

Aluminium nitrate cannot be synthesized by the reaction of aluminium with concentrated nitric acid, as the aluminium forms a passivation layer.

Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, less affected or corroded by the environment of future use. Passivation involves creation of an outer layer of shield material that is applied as a microcoating, created by chemical reaction with the base material, or allowed to build from spontaneous oxidation in the air. As a technique, passivation is the use of a light coat of a protective material, such as metal oxide, to create a shell against corrosion. Passivation can occur only in certain conditions, and is used in microelectronics to enhance silicon. The technique of passivation strengthens and preserves the appearance of metallics. In electrochemical treatment of water, passivation reduces the effectiveness of the treatment by increasing the circuit resistance, and active measures are typically used to overcome this effect, the most common being polarity reversal, which results in limited rejection of the fouling layer. Other proprietary systems to avoid electrode passivation, several discussed below, are the subject of ongoing research and development.

Aluminium nitrate may instead be prepared by the reaction of nitric acid with aluminium(III) chloride. Nitrosyl chloride is produced as a by-product; it bubbles out of the solution as a gas. More conveniently, the salt can be made by reacting nitric acid with aluminium hydroxide.

Aluminium chloride chemical compound

Aluminium chloride (AlCl3), also known as aluminium trichloride, is the main compound of aluminium and chlorine. It is white, but samples are often contaminated with iron(III) chloride, giving it a yellow color. The solid has a low melting and boiling point. It is mainly produced and consumed in the production of aluminium metal, but large amounts are also used in other areas of the chemical industry. The compound is often cited as a Lewis acid. It is an example of an inorganic compound that reversibly changes from a polymer to a monomer at mild temperature.

Nitrosyl chloride is the chemical compound with the formula NOCl. It is a yellow gas that is most commonly encountered as a decomposition product of aqua regia, a mixture of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid. It is a strong electrophile and oxidizing agent. It is sometimes called Tilden's reagent.

Aluminium hydroxide chemical compound

Aluminium hydroxide, Al(OH)3, is found in nature as the mineral gibbsite (also known as hydrargillite) and its three much rarer polymorphs: bayerite, doyleite, and nordstrandite. Aluminium hydroxide is amphoteric in nature, i.e., it has both basic and acidic properties. Closely related are aluminium oxide hydroxide, AlO(OH), and aluminium oxide or alumina (Al2O3), the latter of which is also amphoteric. These compounds together are the major components of the aluminium ore bauxite.

Aluminium nitrate may also be prepared a metathesis reaction between aluminium sulfate and a nitrate salt with a suitable cation such as barium, strontium, calcium, silver, or lead. e.g. Al2(SO4)3 + 3 Ba(NO3)2 → 2 Al(NO3)3 + 3 BaSO4.

Aluminium sulfate chemical compound

Aluminium sulfate is a chemical compound with the formula Al2(SO4)3. It is soluble in water and is mainly used as a coagulating agent (promoting particle collision by neutralizing charge) in the purification of drinking water and waste water treatment plants, and also in paper manufacturing.

Uses

Aluminium nitrate is a strong oxidizing agent. It is used in tanning leather, antiperspirants, corrosion inhibitors, extraction of uranium, petroleum refining, and as a nitrating agent.

Tanning (leather) process of treating animal skin to produce leather

Tanning is the process of treating skins and hides of animals to produce leather. A tannery is the place where the skins are processed.

Deodorant substance applied to the body to prevent body odor

A deodorant is a substance applied to the body to prevent or mask (hide) body odor due to bacterial breakdown of perspiration in the armpits, groin, and feet, and in some cases vaginal secretions. A subclass of deodorants, called antiperspirants, prevents sweating itself, typically by blocking sweat glands. Antiperspirants are used on a wider range of body parts, at any place where sweat would be inconvenient or unsafe, since unwanted sweating can interfere with comfort, vision, and grip. Other types of deodorant allow sweating but prevent bacterial action on sweat, since human sweat only has a noticeable smell when it is decomposed by bacteria.

A corrosion inhibitor is a chemical compound that, when added to a liquid or gas, decreases the corrosion rate of a material, typically a metal or an alloy. The effectiveness of a corrosion inhibitor depends on fluid composition, quantity of water, and flow regime. A common mechanism for inhibiting corrosion involves formation of a coating, often a passivation layer, which prevents access of the corrosive substance to the metal. Permanent treatments such as chrome plating are not generally considered inhibitors, however. Instead corrosion inhibitors are additives to the fluids that surround the metal or related object.

The nonahydrate and other hydrated aluminium nitrates have many applications. These salts are used to produce alumina for preparation of insulating papers, in cathode ray tube heating elements, and on transformer core laminates. The hydrated salts are also used for the extraction of actinide elements. [3]

Paper thin, flexible material mainly used for writing upon, printing upon, drawing or for packaging

Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets. It is a versatile material with many uses, including writing, printing, packaging, cleaning, decorating, and a number of industrial and construction processes. Papers are essential in legal or non-legal documentation.

Transformer electrical device that transfers energy through electromagnetic induction

A transformer is a passive electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits. A varying current in one coil of the transformer produces a varying magnetic flux, which, in turn, induces a varying electromotive force across a second coil wound around the same core. Electrical energy can be transferred between the two coils, without a metallic connection between the two circuits. Faraday's law of induction discovered in 1831 described the induced voltage effect in any coil due to changing magnetic flux encircled by the coil.

The actinide or actinoid series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.

It is used in the laboratory and classroom such as in the reaction

Al(NO3)3 + 3 NaOH → Al(OH)3 + 3 NaNO3

It is, however, much less often encountered than aluminium chloride and aluminium sulfate.

Related Research Articles

Sulfuric acid chemical compound

Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid), also known as vitriol, is a mineral acid composed of the elements sulfur, oxygen and hydrogen, with molecular formula H2SO4. It is a colorless, odorless, and syrupy liquid that is soluble in water and is synthesized in reactions that are highly exothermic.

Sodium hydroxide chemical compound

Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye and caustic soda, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations Na+
and hydroxide anions OH
.

In chemistry, a reactivity series (or activity series) is an empirical, calculated, and structurally analytical progression of a series of metals, arranged by their "reactivity" from highest to lowest. It is used to summarize information about the reactions of metals with acids and water, double displacement reactions and the extraction of metals from their ores.

Sodium sulfate chemical compound

Sodium sulfate (also known as sodium sulphate or sulfate of soda) is the inorganic compound with formula Na2SO4 as well as several related hydrates. All forms are white solids that are highly soluble in water. With an annual production of 6 million tonnes, the decahydrate is a major commodity chemical product. It is mainly used for the manufacture of detergents and in the kraft process of paper pulping.

Aluminum chlorohydrate is a group of specific aluminum salts having the general formula AlnCl(3n-m)(OH)m. It is used in cosmetics as an antiperspirant and as a coagulant in water purification.

Barium chloride chemical compound

Barium chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula BaCl2. It is one of the most common water-soluble salts of barium. Like most other barium salts, it is white, toxic, and imparts a yellow-green coloration to a flame. It is also hygroscopic, converting first to the dihydrate BaCl2(H2O)2. It has limited use in the laboratory and industry.

Barium nitrate chemical compound

Barium nitrate is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ba(NO3)2. It, like most barium salts, is colorless, toxic, and water-soluble. It burns with a green flame and is an oxidizer; the compound is commonly used in pyrotechnics.

Chromium(III) oxide chemical compound

Chromium(III) oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula Cr
2
O
3
. It is one of the principal oxides of chromium and is used as a pigment. In nature, it occurs as the rare mineral eskolaite.

A nitrate test is a chemical test used to determine the presence of nitrate ion in solution. Testing for the presence of nitrate via wet chemistry is generally difficult compared with testing for other anions, as almost all nitrates are soluble in water. In contrast, many common ions give insoluble salts, e.g. halides precipitate with silver, and sulfate precipitate with barium.

Iron(III) nitrate chemical compound

Iron(III) nitrate, or ferric nitrate, is the chemical compound with the formula Fe(NO3)3. Since it is deliquescent, it is commonly found in its nonahydrate form Fe(NO3)3·9H2O in which it forms colourless to pale violet crystals. When dissolved, it forms yellow solution due to hydrolysis.

Iron(III) sulfate chemical compound

Iron(III) sulfate (or ferric sulfate), is the chemical compound with the formula Fe2(SO4)3. Usually yellow, it is a salt and soluble in water. A variety of hydrates are also known. Solutions are used in dyeing as a mordant, and as a coagulant for industrial wastes. It is also used in pigments, and in pickling baths for aluminum and steel.

Gallium nitrate chemical compound

Gallium nitrate (brand name Ganite) is the gallium salt of nitric acid with the chemical formula Ga(NO3)3. It is a drug used to treat symptomatic hypercalcemia secondary to cancer. It works by preventing the breakdown of bone through the inhibition of osteoclast activity, thus lowering the amount of free calcium in the blood. Gallium nitrate is also used to synthesize other gallium compounds.

Cadmium hydroxide chemical compound

Cadmium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula Cd(OH)2. It is a white crystalline ionic compound that is a key component of NiCd batteries.

Compounds of lead exist in two main oxidation states: +2 and +4. The former is more common. Inorganic lead(IV) compounds are typically strong oxidants or exist only in highly acidic solutions.

Aluminium triacetate, formally named aluminium acetate, is a chemical compound with composition Al(CH
3
CO
2
)
3
. Under standard conditions it appears as a white, water-soluble solid that decomposes on heating at around 200 °C. The triacetate hydrolyses to a mixture of basic hydroxide / acetate salts, and multiple species co-exist in chemical equilibrium, particularly in aqueous solutions of the acetate ion; the name aluminium acetate is commonly used for this mixed system.

Compounds of aluminium class of chemical compounds

Aluminium (or aluminum) combines characteristics of pre- and post-transition metals. Since it has few available electrons for metallic bonding, like its heavier group 13 congeners, it has the characteristic physical properties of a post-transition metal, with longer-than-expected interatomic distances. Furthermore, as Al3+ is a small and highly charged cation, it is strongly polarizing and aluminium compounds tend towards covalency; this behaviour is similar to that of beryllium (Be2+), an example of a diagonal relationship. However, unlike all other post-transition metals, the underlying core under aluminium's valence shell is that of the preceding noble gas, whereas for gallium and indium it is that of the preceding noble gas plus a filled d-subshell, and for thallium and nihonium it is that of the preceding noble gas plus filled d- and f-subshells. Hence, aluminium does not suffer the effects of incomplete shielding of valence electrons by inner electrons from the nucleus that its heavier congeners do. Aluminium's electropositive behavior, high affinity for oxygen, and highly negative standard electrode potential are all more similar to those of scandium, yttrium, lanthanum, and actinium, which have ds2 configurations of three valence electrons outside a noble gas core: aluminium is the most electropositive metal in its group. Aluminium also bears minor similarities to the metalloid boron in the same group; AlX3 compounds are valence isoelectronic to BX3 compounds (they have the same valence electronic structure), and both behave as Lewis acids and readily from adducts. Additionally, one of the main motifs of boron chemistry is regular icosahedral structures, and aluminium forms an important part of many icosahedral quasicrystal alloys, including the Al–Zn–Mg class.

References

  1. "aluminum nitrate".
  2. 1 2 3 NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0024". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  3. Pradyot Patnaik. Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. McGraw-Hill, 2002, ISBN   0-07-049439-8.
Salts and covalent derivatives of the nitrate ion