Alwar

Last updated

Alwar
Urban
Nickname(s): 
Tiger Gate of Rajasthan
India Rajasthan location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Coordinates: 27°32′59″N76°38′08″E / 27.549780°N 76.635539°E / 27.549780; 76.635539 Coordinates: 27°32′59″N76°38′08″E / 27.549780°N 76.635539°E / 27.549780; 76.635539
RajasthanCountry India
State Rajasthan
District Alwar
Founded byVikrami samvat
Area
  Urban8,380 km2 (3,240 sq mi)
Elevation
268 m (879 ft)
Population
 (2011)
  Urban315,379
  Rank8th in Rajasthan
  Density38/km2 (97/sq mi)
   Metro
341,422
Languages
  Official English
  Regional Rajasthani
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
301001
ISO 3166 code RJ-IN
Vehicle registration RJ-02
Website http://alwar.rajasthan.gov.in/
Neemrana Neemrana Fortress, Alwar district.jpg
Neemrana
New residential Buildings in Neemrana Alwar Under construction residential Buildings.jpg
New residential Buildings in Neemrana Alwar

Alwar located 150 km south of Delhi and 150 km north of Jaipur, is a city in India's National Capital Region and the administrative headquarters of Alwar District in the state of Rajasthan. Alwar is a hub of tourism with several forts, lakes, heritage havelis and nature reserves, including the Bhangarh Fort, the Sariska Tiger Reserve and Siliserh lake.

Delhi Megacity and union territory of India, containing the national capital

Delhi, officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India containing New Delhi, the capital of India. It is bordered by Haryana on three sides and by Uttar Pradesh to the east. The NCT covers an area of 1,484 square kilometres (573 sq mi). According to the 2011 census, Delhi's city proper population was over 11 million, the second-highest in India after Mumbai, while the whole NCT's population was about 16.8 million. Delhi's urban area is now considered to extend beyond the NCT boundaries and include the neighboring satellite cities of Faridabad, Gurgaon, Sonipat, Ghaziabad and Noida in an area now called Central National Capital Region (CNCR) and had an estimated 2016 population of over 26 million people, making it the world's third-largest urban area according to United Nations. As of 2016, recent estimates of the metro economy of its urban area have ranked Delhi either the most or second-most productive metro area of India. Delhi is the second-wealthiest city in India after Mumbai and is home to 18 billionaires and 23,000 millionaires. Delhi ranks fifth among the Indian states and union territories in human development index. Delhi has the second-highest GDP per capita in India.

Jaipur Metropolis in Rajasthan, India

Jaipur is the capital and the largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan. As of 2011, the city had a population of 3.1 million, making it the tenth most populous city in the country. Jaipur is also known as the Pink City, due to the dominant color scheme of its buildings. It is located 268 km from the national capital New Delhi.

India Country in South Asia

India, also known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Contents

History

Early history

Alwar was a part of the Matsya Kingdom, one of the sixteen ancient Mahājanapadas. [1]

Matsya Kingdom

Matsya Kingdom was one of the solasa (sixteen) Mahajanapadas.

Medieval

The history of Alwar dates back to 1000 CE. The king of Amer (the former seat of Jaipur state) ruled the area in the eleventh century and his territory extended up to the present-day city of Alwar. He founded the city of Alpur in 1106 Vikrami samvat (1049 CE) under his own name, which eventually became Alwar. [2] From time to time, a different Rajput sub-clan came to rule Alwar. Examples include the Khanzada Rajputs, the Nikumbh Rajputs, the Badgujjar Rajputs, and finally the Naruka (Kachwaha) Rajputs who took the control over this area. Bhadanakas (Bhadana) clan of Gurjar, The Maratha Empire and Jats of Bharatpur State also ruled this region for a short period. A Rajput, Partap Singh, took the Alwar Fort from the Jat Raja of Bharatpur and laid down the foundation for modern day Alwar.

The Khanzada or Khan Zadeh are a community of Muslim Rajputs found in the Mewat region of state of Rajistan, India. This community is distinct from the Rajasthani Khanzada, the descendants of Wali-e-Mewat Raja Naher Khan, who are a sub-clan of Jadaun gotra. They are also a community of Muslim Rajputs. They refer to themselves as Musalmaan Rajputs, or sometimes just Rajputs. In addition, a small number of Khanzada are also found in the Terai region of Nepal. After independence of Pakistan in 1947, many members of this community migrated to Pakistan and settled mainly in Karachi.

The Bargujar also called Badgujar are one of the Suryavanshi Rajput clans of the Indian subcontinent.

Kachwaha

The Kachwaha are a caste group with origins in India. Traditionally they were peasants involved in agriculture but in the 20th century they began to make claims of being a Rajput clan. Some families within the caste did rule a number of kingdoms and princely states, such as Alwar, Amber and Maihar.

The Hindu King Hemchandra Vikramaditya (Hemu), born into a Brahmin family in Machari, a village in Alwar, was a Hindu emperor of North India during the 16th century. This was a period when the Mughals and Afghans were vying for power in the region. Hemu acceded to the throne of Delhi on 7 October 1556 after defeating Akbar's Mughal forces in the Battle of Delhi in the Tughlakabad area in Delhi, and became the de facto king. He won twenty-two battles in succession and became the last Hindu emperor of India.

Hemu General and Chief Minister of Adil Shah Suri

Hemu was a Hindu king who previously served as a general and Chief Minister of Adil Shah Suri of the Suri Dynasty during a period in Indian history when the Mughals and Afghans were vying for power across North India. He fought Afghan rebels across North India from the Punjab to Bengal and the Mughal forces of Humayun and Akbar in Agra and Delhi, winning 22 battles for Adil Shah.

Brahmin is a varna (class) in Hinduism specialising as priests, teachers (acharya) and protectors of sacred learning across generations.

Colonial era

Alwar State, a princely state established in 1770, was established by a Kachwaha Rajput named Pratap Singh who was earlier a jagirdar of "Dhai Gaon" (two-and-a-half villages) near Machari. His successor "Bakhtawar Singh Kachwaha" was defeated after launching an armed incursion into neighbouring Jaipur State (ruled by their Kachwaha seniors, erstwhile overlords of his predecessor) and being forced to accept the consequent treaty mediated by East India Company prohibiting him from political relations with other states without the consent of the colonial British. [3] According to the "Gazetteer of Ulwar" published by the British raj, Alwar State was subdivided into four regions:

Alwar State

Alwar State was a princely state with its capital at Alwar ruled by a Kachwaha Rajput dynasty during the period of the British Raj in India. Founded in 1770 CE by Pratap Singh Prabhakar, its last reigning ruler, H.H. Maharaja Sir Tej Singh Prabhakar Bahadur, signed the accession to the Indian Union on 7 April 1949.

Princely state Type of vassal state

A princely state, also called native state, feudatory state or Indian state, was a vassal state under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj. Though the history of the princely states of the subcontinent dates from at least the classical period of Indian history, the predominant usage of the term princely state specifically refers to a semi-sovereign principality on the Indian subcontinent during the British Raj that was not directly governed by the British, but rather by a local ruler, subject to a form of indirect rule on some matters. In actual fact, the imprecise doctrine of paramountcy allowed the government of British India to interfere in the internal affairs of princely states individually or collectively and issue edicts that applied to all of India when it deemed it necessary.

Rajput member of one of the patrilineal clans of western, central, northern India and some parts of Pakistan and Nepal

Rajput is a large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the Indian subcontinent. The term Rajput covers various patrilineal clans historically associated with warriorhood: several clans claim Rajput status, although not all claims are universally accepted.

Behror City in Rajasthan, India

Behror is a city in Alwar district of Rajasthan India. It is popularly known as Ahirwal region and Raath area. Behror is also a part of the National Capital Region.

Neemrana Historical town in Rajasthan, India

Neemrana is an ancient historical town in Alwar district of Rajasthan, India, situated at 84 km from Gurgaon; 122 km from Delhi and 150 km from Jaipur on the Delhi-Jaipur highway in Neemrana tehsil. It is situated in between Behror and Shahajahanpur. Neemrana is an industrial hub. This area is also known as Ahirwal region in India. It is the site of a 16th-century hill-fort occupied by Chauhans till 1947. The erstwhile ruling family is considered to be of the direct lineage of Prithviraj Chauhan. Some distance from Neemrana is another fort, Kesroli in Alwar district, that is one of the oldest heritage sites. Historians trace it to the Matsya Janapada of the Mahabharata times. In Kesroli one gets to see the oldest remains of Buddhist Vihara at Viratnagar where the Pandavas spent the last year of their exile incognito; Pandupole, with the only reclining statue of Hanuman; the samadhi of the ruler saint Bhartrihari. Haryanvi language and culture have followed this area as it is just a few kilometers away from the border of Haryana and Rajasthan.

Zamindar Indian hereditary aristocrat

A zamindar, zomindar, zomidar, or jomidar, in the Indian subcontinent was an aristocrat. The term means land owner in Persian. Typically hereditary, zamindars held enormous tracts of land and control over their peasants, from whom they reserved the right to collect tax on behalf of imperial courts or for military purposes. Their families carried titular suffixes of lordship. In the 19th and 20th centuries, with the advent of British imperialism, many wealthy and influential zamindars were bestowed with princely and royal titles such as Maharaja, Raja (King) and Nawab.

Post-independence

Alwar acceded to the dominion of India following the independence of India in 1947. On 18 March 1948, the state merged with three neighbouring princely states (Bharatpur, Dholpur and Karauli) to form the Matsya Union. On 15 May 1949, it was united with neighbouring princely states [ which? ] and the territory of Ajmer to form the present-day Indian state of Rajasthan. Alwar was designated as part of the National Capital Region, resulting in additional development projects including rapid-rail to Delhi and drinking water improvements. [9] The military cantonment of Itarana lies on the outskirts of Alwar.

Tourist attractions

Alwar is the first major city when travelling from Delhi to Rajasthan. The city's heritage, apart from being a draw for tourists, has been an attraction for Bollywood film shoots including Shakespeare Wallah , Maharaja (1998) , Karan Arjun at Sariska palace and dadigarh fort and Bhangarh, Saajan Chale Sasural at Sariska palace, Talaash: The Hunt Begins... and Trip to Bhangarh . The Mega Alwar trade fair is held at Dusshera ground every year. Alwar is also known for its hand-made Papier-mâché.

Fairy Queen

The Fairy Queen, a national treasure (cultural artifact) of India and the world's oldest working locomotive engine (c. 1855 CE), [10] operates as a tourist luxury train between Delhi and Alwar.

Bala Qila

Bala Qila (lit. "Young Fort"), also known as Alwar Fort, is a fort approximately 300 meters above the city, founded by the 15th-century Khanzada Rajput ruler Hasan Khan Mewati and built on the foundations of a 10th-century mud fort. [11] Situated on the Aravalli Range, the fort is 5 kilometres long and about 1.5 kilometres wide with turrets, a large gate, a temple, and a residential area. [12]

Alwar city top view from Bala Quila Alwar city from Bala Quila.jpg
Alwar city top view from Bala Quila
Sunset from the top of Alwar fort/Bala Quila. Sunset Alwar.jpg
Sunset from the top of Alwar fort/Bala Quila.

City Palace

The City Palace, also known as Vinay Vilas Mahal, built in 1793 CE by Raja Bakhtawar Singh, blends the Rajputana and Islamic architectural styles and has marble pavilions on lotus-shaped bases in its courtyard. The palace houses a state museum with a collection of manuscripts, including one depicting Emperor Babur’s life, Ragamala paintings and miniatures, and historic swords that once belonged to Muhammad Ghori, Emperor Akbar and Aurangzeb; and a golden Durbar hall. This palace that once belonged to the Maharaja (lit. Great Ruler) has now been converted into a District Administrative office also housing the District Court. [13]

Moosi Maharani ki Chhatri

This cenotaph was built by Vinay Singh in the memory of King Bakhtawar Singh and his queen, Moosi, in 1815.

Sariska Tiger Reserve

The Sariska Tiger Reserve, a National Park and Tiger Reserve, is located in the Aravali hills only a few kilometres away from Alwar. Declared a Wildlife reserve in 1955 and a National Park in 1982, it is the first reserve in the world to have successfully relocated tigers. The sanctuary, which became a part of India's Project Tiger in 1978, also preserves other species including rare birds and plants. [14]

Bhangarh Fort

Bhangarh Fort, branded as the fourth most haunted palace in the world, and the most haunted palace in Asia, is a 17th-century fort built by Bhagwant das for his younger son Madho Singh I.[ disputed (for: Identity of father/son are being discussed elsewhere) ] The fort, a monument protected by the Archaeological Survey of India and is known for its association to legends and paranormal activities, [15] is a tourist attraction for visitors across the world. [16]

Ashoka's Buddhist stupa

Nearby Viratnagar there is a Buddhist stupa and an inscription from the Mauryan emperor Ashoka. According to legends, Pandavas spent some time in their ignorance[ clarification needed ] here. There are a large number of religious devotees on the Pandupole-Bharthari Loktirtha. Alwar contains a number of historical monuments, such as 'Deewan ji ki lal haweli', which was built in 1754 and owned by Rajendra Kumar jain.

Museum near Alwar fort with Aravali hill in background Alwarfort.jpg
Museum near Alwar fort with Aravali hill in background
Cenotaph of Musi Maharani Cenotaph of Musi Maharani, Alwar.jpg
Cenotaph of Musi Maharani

Hill Fort Kesroli

Hill Fort Kesroli, a 14th-century fort, has now been converted into and is conserved as a heritage hotel. [17]

Bharthari Temple

Bharthari temple is dedicated to the king of Ujjain, who became a saint and is now commonly known as Baba Bharthari. He is sometimes identified with Bhartṛhari, a 7th-century poet. He is revered and prayed to, the temple is visited by the local population, and a fair is also organized each year known as 'Bharthari Baba ka Mela'.there is a temple of hanuman baba in ghata bhanwar tehsil kathumar

Transport

The nearest airports are Indira Gandhi International Airport in Delhi (143 km away), Jaipur International Airport (150 km away), and an airport currently[ when? ] under development in Bhiwadi airport (90 km away). Alwar railway station, on the Delhi–Jaipur line, is connected with Delhi, Jaipur, and Mumbai. Alwar is connected by roads from major cities of Rajasthan and nearby states.

Geography and climate

Alwar is located at 27°34′N76°36′E / 27.57°N 76.6°E / 27.57; 76.6 . It has an average elevation of 271 m (889 ft). The Ruparail River is a major river near the city. Alwar is fairly rich in mineral wealth; it produces marble, granite, feldspar, dolomite, quartz, limestone, soap stone, barites, copper clay, copper ore and pyrophylite. [18]

Demographics

Population Growth of Alwar City 
CensusPop.
189152,400
190156,7008.2%
191141,300−27.2%
192144,8008.5%
194154,100
195157,9007.0%
196172,70025.6%
1971100,80038.7%
1981140,00038.9%
1991210,10050.1%
2001266,20326.7%
2011341,42228.3%
source: [19]

At the time of the 2011 census, the population of Alwar city and Alwar district were 341,422 and 1,015,310 respectively, with Hindus representing 90.7% of the population, Muslims representing 4.3%, Sikhs representing 2.6%, Jains representing 2.1%, and the remaining 1.3% belonging to other religions. [20] [21]


Alwar district main castes are the :- Yadav & Meo

Education

Raj Rishi Bhartrihari Matsya University was established in 2012-13. Alwar has several schools such as Kendriya Vidyalaya, Army Public School, Chinar Public School, Alwar Public School, St. Anslem's Senior Secondary School and Silver Oak, and colleges (Raj Rishi college, Siddhi Vinayak College, Presidency College, Government Law College, IET College). The Employee's State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) Medical College is constructed with a whooping INR 800 crore budget and started operating from 2017. [22]

Notable people

Notable people from Alwar include the actress Sakshi Tanwar, the entrepreneur Rahul Yadav, the military commander Pran Sukh Yadav (1802–1888) and the most decorated Army officer [[Saurabh Singh Shekhawat].

See also

Related Research Articles

Rajasthan State in India

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Amer, India Town in Rajasthan, India

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Pratap Singh Prabhakar Maharaja of Alwar

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Sariska Tiger Reserve

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Rajgarh, Alwar city in Rajasthan, India

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Ranthambore Fort fort within the Ranthambore National Park

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References

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Bibliography