Alwar

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Alwar
Urban
City of Alwar from bala quila.jpg
City of Alwar from bala quila
Nickname(s): 
Tiger Gate of Rajasthan
India Rajasthan location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Alwar
Coordinates: 27°32′59″N76°38′08″E / 27.549780°N 76.635539°E / 27.549780; 76.635539 Coordinates: 27°32′59″N76°38′08″E / 27.549780°N 76.635539°E / 27.549780; 76.635539
Country India
State Rajasthan
District Alwar
Founded byVikrami samvat
Government
  BodyMunicipal Council
Area
  Urban8,380 km2 (3,240 sq mi)
Elevation
268 m (879 ft)
Population
 (2018)
  Urban461,618
  Rank8th in Rajasthan
  Density55/km2 (140/sq mi)
   Metro
341,422
Languages
  Official English
  Regional Rajasthani
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
301001
ISO 3166 code RJ-IN
Vehicle registration RJ-02
Website http://alwar.rajasthan.gov.in/

Alwar located 150 km south of Delhi and 150 km north of Jaipur, is a city in India's National Capital Region and the administrative headquarters of Alwar District in the state of Rajasthan. Alwar is a hub of tourism with several forts, lakes, heritage havelis and nature reserves, including the Bhangarh Fort, the Sariska Tiger Reserve and Siliserh lake.

Contents

History

Early history

Alwar was a part of the Matsya Kingdom, one of the sixteen ancient Mahājanapadas. [1]

The Darbar of Raja Bakhtawar Singh of Alwar in 1810 2 The Darbar of Raja Bakhtawar Singh of Alwar. alwar, 1810, San Diego.jpg
The Darbar of Raja Bakhtawar Singh of Alwar in 1810

Medieval

The history of Alwar dates back to 1000 CE. The king of Amer Maharaja Alaghraj(the former seat of Jaipur state) ruled the area in the eleventh century and his territory extended up to the present-day city of Alwar. He founded the city of Alpur in 1106 Vikrami samvat (1049 CE) under his own name, which eventually became Alwar. [2] From time to time, a different Rajput sub-clan came to rule Alwar. Examples include the Khanzada Rajputs, the Nikumbh, the Badgujjar, and finally the Naruka (Kachwaha) Rajputs who took the control over this area. Bhadanakas (Bhadana) clan of Gurjar, The Maratha Empire also ruled this region for a short period. A Rajput, Partap Singh, took the Alwar Fort from the Jat Raja of Bharatpur and laid down the foundation for modern day Alwar.

The Hindu King Hemchandra Vikramaditya (Hemu), born into a Brahmin family in Machari, Rajgarh, a village in Alwar, was a Hindu emperor of North India during the 16th century. This was a period when the Mughals and Afghans were vying for power in the region. Hemu acceded to the throne of Delhi on 7 October 1556 after defeating Akbar's Mughal forces in the Battle of Delhi in the Tughlakabad area in Delhi, and became the de facto king. He won twenty-two battles in succession and became the last Hindu emperor of North India before the seventeenth century Maratha Empire [ citation needed ]

Colonial era

Neemrana Neemrana Fortress, Alwar district.jpg
Neemrana

Alwar State, a princely state established in 1770, was established by a Kachwaha Rajput named Pratap Singh who was earlier a jagirdar of "Dhai Gaon" (two-and-a-half villages) near Machari. His successor "Bakhtawar Singh Kachwaha" was defeated after launching an armed incursion into neighbouring Jaipur State (ruled by their Kachwaha seniors, erstwhile overlords of his predecessor) and being forced to accept the consequent treaty mediated by East India Company prohibiting him from political relations with other states without the consent of the colonial British. [3] According to the "Gazetteer of Ulwar" published by the British raj, Alwar State was subdivided into four regions:

New residential Buildings in Neemrana Alwar Under construction residential Buildings.jpg
New residential Buildings in Neemrana Alwar

Post-independence

Alwar acceded to the dominion of India following the independence of India in 1947. On 18 March 1948, the state merged with three neighbouring princely states (Bharatpur, Dholpur and Karauli) to form the Matsya Union. On 15 May 1949, it was united with neighbouring princely states [ which? ] and the territory of Ajmer to form the present-day Indian state of Rajasthan. Alwar was designated as part of the National Capital Region, resulting in additional development projects including rapid-rail to Delhi and drinking water improvements. [9] The military cantonment of Itarana lies on the outskirts of Alwar.

Origin of Name

There are many theories about the derivation of the name Alwar. Cunningham holds that the city derived its name from the Salva tribe and was originally Salwapur, then, Salwar, Halawar and eventually Alwar. According to another school it was known as Aravalpur or the city of Aravali (A Hill system dividing Rajasthan roughly into third and two-thirds). A research conducted during the reign of Maharaja Jai Singh of Alwar revealed that Maharaja Alaghraj, second son of Maharaja Kakil Dev of Amer (old seat of Jaipur State) ruled the area in the eleventh century and his territory extended up-to the present city of Alwar. He founded the city of Alpur in 1106 Vikrami Samvat (1049 A.D.) after his own name (Maharaja Alaghraj) which eventually became Alwar from Alpur. It was formerly spelt as 'Ulwar' but in the reign of Jai Singh the spelling was changed to 'Alwar'. [10]

Tourist attractions

AlwarFort.jpg
Fort View of Alwar

Alwar is the first major city when travelling from Delhi to Rajasthan. The city's heritage, apart from being a draw for tourists, has been an attraction for Bollywood film shoots including Shakespeare Wallah , Maharaja (1998) , Karan Arjun at Sariska palace and Dadikar fort and Bhangarh, Saajan Chale Sasural at Sariska palace, Talaash: The Hunt Begins... and Trip to Bhangarh . The Mega Alwar trade fair is held at Dusshera ground every year. Alwar is also known for its hand-made Papier-mâché.

Fairy Queen

The Fairy Queen, a national treasure (cultural artifact) of India and the world's oldest working locomotive engine (c. 1855 CE), [11] operates as a tourist luxury train between Delhi and Alwar.

Bala Qila

Bala Qila (lit. "High Fort"), also known as Alwar Fort, is a fort approximately 300 meters above the city, founded by the 15th-century Khanzada Rajput ruler Hasan Khan Mewati and built on the foundations of a 10th-century mud fort. [12] Situated on the Aravalli Range, the fort is 5 kilometres long and about 1.5 kilometres wide with turrets, a large gate, a temple, and a residential area. [13]

City Palace

The City Palace, also known as Vinay Vilas Mahal, built in 1793 CE by Raja Bakhtawar Singh, blends the Rajputana and Islamic architectural styles and has marble pavilions on lotus-shaped bases in its courtyard. The palace houses a state museum with a collection of manuscripts, including one depicting Emperor Babur’s life, Ragamala paintings and miniatures, and historic swords that once belonged to Muhammad Ghori, Emperor Akbar and Aurangzeb; and a golden Durbar hall. This palace that once belonged to the Maharaja (lit. Great Ruler) has now been converted into a District Administrative office also housing the District Court. [14]

Moosi Maharani ki Chhatri

This cenotaph was built by Vinay Singh in the memory of King Bakhtawar Singh and his queen, Moosi, in 1815.

Sariska Tiger Reserve

The Sariska Tiger Reserve, a National Park and Tiger Reserve, is located in the Aravali hills only a few kilometres away from Alwar. Declared a Wildlife reserve in 1955 and a National Park in 1982, it is the first reserve in the world to have successfully relocated tigers. The sanctuary, which became a part of India's Project Tiger in 1978, also preserves other species including rare birds and plants. [15]

Bhangarh Fort

Bhangarh Fort, branded as the fourth most haunted palace in the world, and the most haunted palace in Asia, is a 17th-century fort built by Bhagwant das for his younger son Madho Singh I.[ disputed (for: Identity of father/son are being discussed elsewhere) ] The fort, a monument protected by the Archaeological Survey of India and is known for its association to legends and paranormal activities, [16] is a tourist attraction for visitors across the world. [17]

Ashoka's Buddhist stupa

Nearby Viratnagar there is a Buddhist stupa and an inscription from the Mauryan emperor Ashoka. According to legends, Pandavas spent some time in their ignorance[ clarification needed ] here. There are a large number of religious devotees on the Pandupole-Bharthari Loktirtha. Alwar contains a number of historical monuments, such as 'Deewan ji ki lal haweli', which was built in 1754 and owned by Rajendra Kumar Jain.

Hill Fort Kesroli

Hill Fort Kesroli, a 14th-century fort, has now been converted into and is conserved as a heritage hotel. [18]

Bharthari Temple

Bharthari temple is dedicated to the king of Ujjain, who became a saint and is now commonly known as Baba Bharthari. He is sometimes identified with Bhartṛhari, a 7th-century poet. He is revered and prayed to, the temple is visited by the local population, and a fair is also organized each year known as 'Bharthari Baba ka Mela'.there is a temple of hanuman baba in ghata bhanwar tehsil kathumar

Transport

Alwar Junction railway station Rail station outside, Alwar.jpg
Alwar Junction railway station

As of 2019, the most commonly used forms of medium-distance transport in Alwar are government-owned services such as railways and buses, as well as privately operated lok pariwahan buses, taxis and auto rickshaws. Bus services operate from the Alwar old Bus Station which is 5 km away from the Alwar railway junction. In addition to this it is also planned that a metro rail system from Delhi to Alwar via Behror route will be started. The nearest airports to Alwar are Indira Gandhi International Airport in Delhi (143 km away), Jaipur International Airport (150 km away), and an airport currently under development in Bhiwadi airport (90 km away). Alwar Junction railway station, on the Delhi–Jaipur line, is connected with Delhi, Jaipur, and Mumbai. Alwar is connected by roads from major cities of Rajasthan and nearby states. [19] [20] [21]

Geography and climate

Alwar is located at 27°34′N76°36′E / 27.57°N 76.6°E / 27.57; 76.6 . It has an average elevation of 271 m (889 ft). The Ruparail River is a major river near the city. Alwar is fairly rich in mineral wealth; it produces marble, granite, feldspar, dolomite, quartz, limestone, soap stone, barites, copper clay, copper ore and pyrophylite. [22]

Demographics

Population Growth of Alwar City 
CensusPopulation
189152,400
190156,7008.2%
191141,300−27.2%
192144,8008.5%
194154,100
195157,9007.0%
196172,70025.6%
1971100,80038.7%
1981140,00038.9%
1991210,10050.1%
2001266,20326.7%
2011341,42228.3%
source: [23]

At the time of the 2011 census, the population of Alwar city and Alwar district were 341,422 and 1,015,310 respectively, with Hindus representing 90.7% of the population, Muslims representing 4.3%, Sikhs representing 2.6%, Jains representing 2.1%, and the remaining 1.3% belonging to other religions. [24] [25]

Education

Raj Rishi Bhartrihari Matsya University was established in 2012–13. Alwar has several schools such as Kendriya Vidyalaya, Adinath Public School, Chinar Public School, Alwar Public School, St. Anslem's Senior Secondary School, Sri Guru Harkrishan Public School, Step By Step Senior Secondary School, Raath International School, National Academy and Silver Oak, and colleges (Raj Rishi college, Siddhi Vinayak College, Presidency College, Government Law College, KCRI College, IET College). The Employee's State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) Medical College is constructed with a whooping INR 800 crore budget and started operating from 2017. [26]

Notable people

Notable people from Alwar include the Teacher and Appguru Imran Khan; [27] [28] actor Sakshi Tanwar, Jitendra Kumar, Aastha Chaudhary; entrepreneur Karmesh Gupta [29] [30] and Rahul Yadav; player Bhuvneshwari Kumari; politician Mahesh Sharma; the military commander Pran Sukh Yadav and the Army officer Saurabh Singh Shekhawat

A great Sikh scholar and theologian known for his expertise of Gurmat and Gurbani Panth Ratan Singh Sahib Giani Sant Singh Ji Maskeen[ citation needed ]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Rajgarh, Alwar city in Rajasthan, India

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Ranthambore Fort fort within the Ranthambore National Park

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Alwar State

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Bhangarh Fort Historical fort in India

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Alwar fort Fort in Alwar, Rajasthan

Bala Quila also known Alwar fort is a fort in Alwar in Indian state of Rajasthan. It is situated on a hill in the Aravalli Range, above the town of Alwar. The fort is 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) long and is about 1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) wide. The fort was originally occupied by Nikumbh Rajputs.In 1492 Khanzada Alawal Khan won Bala Quila from Nikumbh Rajputs. stop practice of human sacrifice. Nikumbh Rajput and their successor moved to the southeast part of India through baroda eastern khandesh part and settled over eastern khandesh during 15th century onwards due to the Moguls. As Mougal Empire was expanding in and around eastern Indian which was centralized in capital of Delhi of that time. It was re-constructed in 15th century by the Hasan Khan Mewati. In the following centuries it went to the Marathas, Nikumbh क्षत्रिय राजवंश of Rajputs. moved to the south part of Indian subcontinent. Major rivers like Narmada, Tapi, Girna basins were suitable for The Nikumbh Rajput Warriors For Settle down. As Rajput found it suitable place for there successors. Which has ample of water and land for cultivation. Arwali mountain range divided mevad मेवाड़ & मारवा marwad.

The Badgujar or Bargujar is an Indian caste of Rajputs.

References

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  29. "40 लाख रु. का कर्ज चढ़ा लेकिन महज दाे साल में 3300 प्रतिशत की ग्रोथ हासिल की". DB Corp Ltd. 6 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
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