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|Duke of Aosta|
Portrait as King of Spain, by Vicente Palmaroli
| King of Spain |
|Reign||16 November 1870 –11 February 1873|
|Predecessor|| Isabella II |
as Queen of Spain
as Regent of Spain
|Successor|| Estanislao Figueras |
as President of the Republic
as King of Spain
|Born||30 May 1845|
Royal Palace, Turin, Sardinia
|Died||18 January 1890 44) (aged|
Royal Palace, Turin, Kingdom of Italy
Basilica of Superga, Italy
|Spouse|| Maria Vittoria dal Pozzo |
Maria Letizia Bonaparte
|Issue|| Prince Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta |
Prince Vittorio Emanuele, Count of Turin
Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi
Prince Umberto, Count of Salemi
|Father||Victor Emmanuel II of Italy|
|Mother||Adelaide of Austria|
Amadeo I (Italian: Amedeo, sometimes anglicized as Amadeus; 30 May 1845 –18 January 1890), was an Italian prince who reigned as King of Spain from 1870 to 1873. The only King of Spain from the House of Savoy, he was the second son of King Vittorio Emanuele II of Italy and was known for most of his life as the Duke of Aosta, but was appointed King of Spain briefly, from 1870 to 1873.
The House of Savoy is a royal family that was established in 1003 in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, the family grew in power from ruling a small county in the Alps north-west of Italy to absolute rule of the kingdom of Sicily in 1713 to 1720. Through its junior branch, the House of Savoy-Carignano, it led the unification of Italy in 1861 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 until 1946 and, briefly, the Kingdom of Spain in the 19th century. The Savoyard kings of Italy were Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I, Victor Emmanuel III, and Umberto II. The last monarch ruled for a few weeks before being deposed following the Constitutional Referendum of 1946, after which the Italian Republic was proclaimed.
Victor Emmanuel II was King of Sardinia from 1849 until 17 March 1861. At that point, he assumed the title of King of Italy and became the first king of a united Italy since the 6th century, a title he held until his death in 1878. The Italians gave him the epithet of Father of the Fatherland. The monument Altare della Patria in Rome was built in his honor.
He was elected by the Cortes as Spain's monarch in 1870, following the deposition of Isabella II, and was sworn in the following year. Amadeo's reign was fraught with growing republicanism, Carlist rebellions in the north, and the Cuban independence movement. He abdicated and returned to Italy in 1873, and the First Spanish Republic was declared as a result.
The Cortes Generales are the bicameral legislative chambers of Spain, consisting of the Congress of Deputies, and the Senate.
Isabella II was Queen of Spain from 1833 until 1868. She came to the throne as an infant, but her succession was disputed by the Carlists, whose refusal to recognize a female sovereign led to the Carlist Wars. After a troubled reign, she was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1868, and formally abdicated in 1870. Her son, Alfonso XII, became king in 1874.
The Spanish Republic, commonly known as the First Spanish Republic to distinguish it from the Spanish Republic of 1931–39, was the short-lived political regime that existed in Spain between the parliamentary proclamation on 11 February 1873 and 29 December 1874 when General Arsenio Martínez Campos's pronunciamiento marked the beginning of the Bourbon Restoration in Spain. The Republic's founding started with the abdication as King on 10 February 1873 of Amadeo I, following the Hidalgo Affair, when he had been required by the radical government to sign a decree against the artillery officers. The next day, 11 February, the republic was declared by a parliamentary majority made up of radicals, republicans and democrats.
Granted the hereditary title of Duke of Aosta in the year of his birth, he founded the Aosta branch of Italy's royal House of Savoy, which is junior in agnatic descent to the branch descended from King Umberto I that reigned in Italy until 1900, but senior to the branch of the Dukes of Genoa.
In the mid-13th century the Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick II, made the County of Aosta a duchy; its arms were carried in the Savoyard coat of arms until the unification of Italy in 1870. The region remained part of Savoy lands, with the exception of a French occupation, 1539—1563. The title Duke of Aosta was given to various princes of the dynasty of Sardinia, second sons of the reigning monarch. It can be compared to the English Duke of York, French Duke of Orléans, Swedish Duke of Södermanland and the Scottish Duke of Albany. It remained in the branch of Prince Amedeo of Savoia, the second son of king Victor Emanuel II of Italy, as he was the first ever cadet prince Duke of Aosta who left male heirs. The subsidiary titles of the Duke of Aosta are, from the heritage of Maria Vittoria dal Pozzo, the mother of Duke Emanuele Filiberto, Prince della Cisterna and of Belriguardo, Marquess of Voghera, and Count of Ponderano. Ponderano was created in 1559, Voghera in 1618; Cisterna and Belriguardo as princely in 1670. The title has been used since July 2006 by Amedeo's son Prince Aimone, Duke of Apulia, who is married to Princess Olga of Greece, younger daughter of Prince Michael of Greece and Denmark.
Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage. It generally involves the inheritance of property, rights, names or titles by persons related through male kin.
Umberto I, nicknamed the Good, was the King of Italy from 9 January 1878 until his assassination on 29 July 1900.
Prince Amedeo of Savoy was born in Turin (then part of the Kingdom of Sardinia). He was the second son of King Vittorio Emanuele II (King of Piedmont, Savoy, Sardinia and, later, first King of Italy) and of Archduchess Adelaide of Austria. He was styled the Duke of Aosta from birth.
Turin is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy. It is the capital city of Piedmont and of the Metropolitan City of Turin, and was the first Italian capital from 1861 to 1865. The city is located mainly on the western bank of the Po River, in front of Susa Valley, and is surrounded by the western Alpine arch and Superga Hill. The population of the city proper is 875,698 while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat to be 1.7 million inhabitants. The Turin metropolitan area is estimated by the OECD to have a population of 2.2 million.
The Kingdom of Sardinia was a state in Southern Europe from the early 14th until the mid-19th century.
Sardinia is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is located west of the Italian Peninsula and to the immediate south of the French island of Corsica.
Entering the army as captain in 1859 he fought through the Third Italian War of Independence in 1866 with the rank of major-general, leading his brigade into action at the Battle of Custoza and being wounded at Monte Torre. In 1868, after his marriage, he was created vice admiral of the Italian navy, but this position ended when he ascended the Spanish throne.
The army rank of captain is a commissioned officer rank historically corresponding to the command of a company of soldiers. The rank is also used by some air forces and marine forces. Today, a captain is typically either the commander or second-in-command of a company or artillery battery. In the Chinese People's Liberation Army, a captain may also command a company, or be the second-in-command of a battalion.
The Third Italian War of Independence was a war between the Kingdom of Italy and the Austrian Empire fought between June and August 1866. The conflict paralleled the Austro-Prussian War and, like that war, ended in an Austrian defeat, with Austria conceding the region of Venetia to Italy. Italy's acquisition of this wealthy and populous territory represented a major step in the process of Italian unification.
The Battle of Custoza took place on the 24 June 1866 during the Third Italian War of Independence in the Italian unification process.
In 1867 his father yielded to the entreaties of parliamentary deputy Francisco Cassins, and on 30 May of that year, Amedeo was married to Donna Maria Vittoria dal Pozzo. The King initially opposed the match on the grounds that her family was of insufficient rank, as well as his hopes for his son's marriage to a German princess.Despite her princely title, Donna Maria Vittoria was not of royal birth, belonging rather to the Piedmontese nobility. She was, however, the sole heir of her father's vast fortune, which subsequent Dukes of Aosta inherited, thereby obtaining wealth independent of their dynastic appanage and allowances from Italy's kings. The wedding day of Prince Amedeo and Donna Maria Vittoria was marred by the death of a stationmaster who was crushed under the wheels of the honeymoon train.
Don, abbreviated as D., is an honorific prefix primarily used in Italy, Spain, Portugal, Latin America, and the Philippines.
Maria Vittoria dal Pozzo was an Italian noblewoman and became the Princess della Cisterna in her own right. Married to Prince Amadeo of Savoy, Duke of Aosta, second son of King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy, she was the Queen consort of Spain from 1870 until her husband's abdication in 1873. She is an ancestress of the current Duke of Aosta, a claimant to the erstwhile throne of Italy.
Piedmont is a region in northwest Italy, one of the 20 regions of the country. It borders the Liguria region to the south, the Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna regions to the east and the Aosta Valley region to the northwest; it also borders Switzerland to the northeast and France to the west. It has an area of 25,402 square kilometres (9,808 sq mi) and a population of 4,377,941 as of 30 November 2017. The capital of Piedmont is Turin.
In March 1870, the Duchess appealed to the King to remonstrate with his son for marital infidelities that caused her hurt and embarrassment. But the King wrote in reply that, while understanding her feelings, he considered that she had no right to dictate her husband's behaviour and that her jealousy was unbecoming.
After the Spanish revolution deposed Isabella II, the new Cortes decided to reinstate the monarchy under a new dynasty. The Duke of Aosta was elected King as Amadeus (Amadeo) on 16 November 1870. He swore to uphold the constitution in Madrid on 2 January 1871.
The election of the new King coincided with the assassination of General Prim, his main backer. After that, Amadeo had to deal with difficult situations, with unstable Spanish politics, republican conspiracies, Carlist uprisings, separatism in Cuba, same-party disputes, fugitive governments and assassination attempts.
He could count on the support of only the progressive party, whose leaders were trading off in the government thanks to parliamentary majority and electoral fraud. The progressives divided into monarchists and constitutionalists, which made the instability worse, and in 1872 a violent outburst of interparty conflicts hit a peak. There was a Carlist uprising in the Basque and Catalan regions, and after that, republican uprisings happened in cities across the country. The artillery corps of the army went on strike, and the government instructed the King to discipline them.
Though warned of a plot against his life on 18 August 1872, he refused to take precautions, and, while returning from Buen Retiro Park to Madrid in company with the queen, was repeatedly shot at in Via Avenal. The royal carriage was struck by several revolver and rifle bullets, the horses wounded, but its occupants escaped unhurt. A period of calm followed the event.
With the possibility of reigning without popular support, Amadeus issued an order against the artillery corps and then immediately abdicated from the Spanish throne on 11 February 1873. At ten o'clock that same night, Spain was proclaimed a republic, at which time Amadeo made an appearance before the Cortes, proclaiming the Spanish people ungovernable.
Completely disgusted, the ex-monarch left Spain and returned to Italy, where he resumed the title of Duke of Aosta. The First Spanish Republic lasted less than two years, and in November 1874 Alfonso XII, the son of Isabella II, was proclaimed king, with Antonio Cánovas del Castillo, Spanish intermittent prime minister from 1873 until his assassination in 1897, briefly serving as regent.
After the death of his first wife, Amadeo married his French niece, Princess Maria Letizia Bonaparte (20 November 1866 –25 October 1926), daughter of his sister Maria Clotilde and of Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte, a nephew of Napoleon I. They had one child, Umberto (1889–1918), who died of the flu during the First World War.
Amadeo remained in Turin, Italy until his death on 18 January 1890, less than two years after marrying his second wife. His friend Puccini composed the famous elegy for string quartet Crisantemi in his memory.
Lake Amadeus in central Australia is named after him, as is the Philippine municipality of Amadeo, Cavite.
By Maria Vittoria dal Pozzo:
By Maria Letizia Bonaparte:
|Ancestors of Amadeo I of Spain|
|Royal styles of|
Amadeo I of Spain
|Reference style||His Majesty|
|Spoken style||Your Majesty|
His Majesty Amadeo the First, By the Grace of God and Will of the Nation, King of Spain, Duke of Aosta.
Charles Emmanuel III was the Duke of Savoy and King of Sardinia from 1730 until his death.
Prince Vittorio Emanuele of Savoy, Prince of Naples is the only son of Umberto II, the last King of Italy, and his wife, Marie-José of Belgium. Vittorio Emanuele also uses the title Duke of Savoy and claims the headship of the House of Savoy. These claims are disputed by supporters of his third cousin, Amedeo, 5th Duke of Aosta.
Prince Aimone, 4th Duke of Aosta was a prince of Italy's reigning House of Savoy and an officer of the Royal Italian Navy. The second son of Prince Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta he was granted the title Duke of Spoleto on 22 September 1904. He inherited the title Duke of Aosta on 3 March 1942 following the death of his brother Prince Amedeo, in a British prisoner of war camp in Nairobi.
Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi was an Italian mountaineer and explorer, briefly Infante of Spain as son of Amadeo I of Spain, member of the royal House of Savoy and cousin of the Italian King Victor Emmanuel III. He is known for his Arctic explorations and for his mountaineering expeditions, particularly to Mount Saint Elias (Alaska–Yukon) and K2 (Pakistan–China). He also served as an Italian admiral during World War I.
Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta was the third Duke of Aosta and a first cousin, once removed of the King of Italy, Victor Emmanuel III. During World War II, he was the Italian Viceroy of Italian East Africa.
Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta is a claimant to the headship of the House of Savoy, the family which ruled Italy from 1861 to 1946. Until 7 July 2006, Amedeo was styled Duke of Aosta; on that date he declared himself Duke of Savoy, a title that is disputed between him and his third cousin, Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples. In the event that Vittorio Emanuele and his son will fail to produce any legitimate male heirs, their claim to the Italian throne will pass on to Amedeo and his male-line descendants.
Prince Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy, Prince of Venice, usually called Emanuele Filiberto di Savoia, is a member of the House of Savoy. He is the son and heir of Vittorio Emanuele di Savoia and only male-line grandson of Umberto II, the last King of Italy. In his latter days, Umberto II created and gave the title of "Prince of Venice" to his grandson Emanuele Filiberto, but as heir-apparent to the disputed headship of the House of Savoy, Emanuele Filiberto also styles himself as "Prince of Piedmont".
Prince Emanuele Filiberto, 2nd Duke of Aosta was an Italian general and member of the House of Savoy. He was Prince of Asturias from 1870 to 1873, as the son of Amadeo I, and was also a cousin of Victor Emmanuel III of Italy. Filiberto was also commander of the Italian Third Army during World War I, which earned him the title of the "Undefeated Duke". After the war he became a Marshal of Italy.
Adelaide of Austria was the Queen of Sardinia by marriage to Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia, future King of Italy, from 1849 until 1855 when she died as a result of childbirth. She was the mother of Umberto I of Italy.
Prince Aimone of Savoy-Aosta, Duke of Aosta is the second child and first son of Prince Amedeo, 5th Duke of Aosta, one of the two claimants to the former throne of Italy. In 2006, his father declared himself Duke of Savoy and head of the House of Savoy; since then Prince Aimone has styled himself Duke of Aosta. However, because the headship of the royal house is disputed between his father and Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples, he is still referred to as Duke of Apulia.
The Italian monarchy was abolished in June 1946 following a referendum which established a republic. The present pretender is in dispute between Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples and Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta.
Prince Vittorio Emanuele of Savoy-Aosta, Infante of Spain, Count of Turin was a grandchild of King Victor Emmanuel II and a member of the House of Savoy. He was a cousin of Victor Emmanuel III.
Prince Umberto of Savoy was a member of the Aosta branch of the House of Savoy and was styled the Count of Salemi.
Maria Letizia Bonaparte was one of three children born to Prince Napoléon and his wife Princess Maria Clotilde of Savoy. In 1888 she married Prince Amadeo, Duke of Aosta, the former king of Spain and her uncle. Maria Letizia became the Duchess of Aosta, Duke of Aosta being a title by which Amadeus was known before and after his kingship. Their marriage was instrumental in almost reviving French hopes of reinstating the Bonaparte dynasty into a position of power, as seen in the days of Napoleon III.
Princess Claude of Orléans is a French princess of the House of Orléans. She is the former wife of Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta, a disputed head of the House of Savoy.
Carlo Emanuele dal Pozzo, 5th Principe della Cisterna was a nobleman and politician in the Kingdom of Sardinia. His other titles were 5th Principe di Belriguardo, 6th Marchese di Voghera, 6th Conte di Reano, 8th Conte di Ponderano, 8th Conte di Bonvicino, 6th Conte di Neive, 6th Conte di Perno, among others.
Countess Louise de Mérode was a member of the House of Merode by birth and Princess della Cisterna by marriage. She was the mother of Maria Vittoria dal Pozzo, Queen consort of Spain.
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Amadeo I of SpainBorn: 30 May 1845 Died: 18 January 1890
Title last held byIsabel II
| King of Spain |
Title next held byAlfonso XII
Title last held byVittorio Emanuele
| Duke of Aosta |