Amangkurat I (Amangkurat Agung; 1619–1677) was the susuhunan of Mataram from 1646 to 1677. He was the son of Sultan Agung of Mataram. He experienced many rebellions during his reign. He died in exile in 1677, and buried in Tegalwangi (near Tegal), hence his posthumous title, Sunan Tegalwangi or Sunan Tegalarum. He was also nicknamed as Sunan Getek, because he was wounded when suppressing the rebellion of Raden Mas Alit, his own brother.
Born as Raden Mas Sayyidin, he was the son of the powerful Sultan Agung. His mother was styled Ratu Wetan, daughter of Tumenggung Upasanta, Regent of Batang (descendant of Ki Juru Martani). When becoming a crown prince, he was styled Pangeran Arya Prabu Adi Mataram.
Like other Mataram monarchs, Amangkurat I had two queen consorts: Ratu Kulon, daughter of Pangeran Pekik of Surabaya, who gave birth to RM. Rahmat (later Amangkurat II); and Ratu Wetan, originating from Kajoran family, who gave birth to RM. Darajat alias Pangeran Puger (later Pakubuwono I).
In 1645, he was appointed as Mataram monarch succeeding his father, styled Susuhunan Ing Alaga. Following his coronation in 1646, he was styled Kanjeng Susuhunan Prabu Amangkurat Agung, abbreviated as Amangkurat. In Javanese, the word Amangku means "to administer", and Rat means "world", thus Amangkurat means "administering the world". He then became a king who had full power over entire Mataram Sultanate and its vassal states. At his coronation, all royal family members swore allegiance to him.
Amangkurat I got his father's heritage in the form of vast Mataram territory. In this case, he applied centralization. Upon taking the throne, he tried to bring long-term stability to the Sultanate of Mataram's realm, which was considerable in area but marred by continual rebellions. He murdered local leaders that were insufficiently deferential to him, including the still-powerful noble from Surabaya, Pangeran Pekik,his father-in-law. Other victims were Tumenggung Wiraguna and Tumenggung Danupaya, who was ordered to invade Blambangan Kingdom which had been conquered by Kingdom of Bali in 1647, but they were murdered en route to the east. He also closed ports and destroyed ships in coastal cities to prevent them from getting too powerful from their wealth.
To further his glory, the new king abandoned Karta, Sultan Agung's capital, and moved to a grander red-brick palace in Plered (formerly the palace was built of wood).The palace's movement was slanted by rebellion of Raden Mas Alit or Prince Danupoyo, his own brother who opposed to senior figure's purge. This rebellion was supported by ulemas, but ended with RM. Alit's death. Amangkurat I turned to face ulemas. They, including their families (approximately more than 5,000–6,000 people), were gathered in alun-alun (city square) to be massacred.
Amangkurat I made a close relation with Dutch East India Company previously fought by his father. In 1646, he allowed Dutch East India Company to open trade posts in Mataram territory, while Mataram was allowed to trade in other Dutch-ruled islands. Both of them also liberated prisoners each other. The treaty was viewed by Amangkurat I as the submission sign of Dutch East India company to Mataram rule. But, he was shocked when Dutch East India Company conquered Sultanate of Palembang in 1659.
Hostility between Mataram and Banten also worsened. In 1650, Cirebon was ordered to conquer Banten but failed. 2 years later, Amangkurat I forbade rice and wood exports to the country.
In the meantime, diplomatic relation between Mataram and Gowa which had been established by Sultan Agung was eventually deteriorated. Amangkurat I refused Gowa's messengers and asked Sultan Hasanuddin himself to come to Java. The request was certainly rejected.
Amangkurat I was also at odds with the crown prince, RM. Rahmat. The conflict was begun by a news that the position of crown prince would be transferred to Prince Singasari (another Amangkurat I's son).
In 1661, RM. Rahmat rebelled against his father, but failed. Amangkurat I suppressed the entire of his son's supporters. In contrast, Amangkurat I also failed in poisoning RM. Rahmat in 1663.
The crown prince (future Amangkurat II) felt that his life was not safe in the court after he took his father's concubine, Rara Oyi, with the help of his maternal grandfather, Pangeran Pekik of Surabaya, making Amangkurat I suspicious of a conspiracy among Surabayan factions to grab power in the capital by using Pekiks’ grandson's powerful position as the crown prince.
Amangkurat I sentenced his own father-in-law, Pangeran Pekik, to death, who was accused to abduct Rara Oyi for RM. Rahmat. Amangkurat I forgave his son after forcing him to kill Rara Oyi with his own hand.
By the mid-1670s dissatisfaction with the king was turning into open revolt, beginning from the recalcitrant Eastern Java and creeping inward. RM. Rahmat conspired with Panembahan Rama of Kajoran, South Klaten, who proposed a stratagem in which the crown prince financed Rama's son-in-law, Trunajaya, to begin a rebellion in the East Java.Raden Trunajaya, a prince from Madura, lead a revolt supported by itinerant fighters from faraway Makassar, led by Karaeng Galesong (supporter of Sultan Hasanuddin who had been defeated by Dutch East India Company in 1668), that captured the king's court at Mataram in mid-1677.
It is believed that a subsequent conflict occurred between Trunajaya and RM. Rahmat, causing Trunajaya not to cede power to him as planned before and even plundered the palace. RM. Rahmat who couldn't control Trunajaya was eventually in his father's side.
The king escaped to the north coast with his eldest son, the future king, leaving his younger son Pangeran Puger in Mataram.Apparently more interested in profit and revenge than in running a struggling empire, the rebel Trunajaya looted the court and withdrew to his stronghold in Kediri, East Java, leaving Puger in control of a weak court. Seizing this opportunity, Puger assumed the throne in the ruins of Plered with the title Susuhunan ing Alaga.
Soon after this episode, Amangkurat I fell sick in exile. According to Babad Tanah Jawi , his death was catalyzed by poisoned coconut water given by RM. Rahmat. Despite this, he still appointed RM. Rahmat as his successor, but accompanied by a curse that none of his descendants who would become a king but one, who would rule in a short period. Amangkurat I also made a will that RM. Rahmat also asked for help to Dutch East India Company in seize the throne from Trunajaya.
Amangkurat I died in Wanayasa forest and buried near his teacher near Tegal. Because of its fragrant soil, the village where Amangkurat I was buried would be known as Tegalwangi or Tegalarum. 12 Dutch soldiers led by Oufers attended his funeral.
He was succeeded by his eldest son as king in 1677,who reigned as Amangkurat II.
The Sultanate of Mataram was the last major independent Javanese kingdom on the island of Java before it was colonised by the Dutch. It was the dominant political force radiating from the interior of Central Java from the late 16th century until the beginning of the 18th century.
Sultan Anyakrakusuma is known as Sultan Agung was the third Sultan of Mataram in Central Java ruling from 1613 to 1645. A skilled soldier he conquered neighbouring states and expanded and consolidated his kingdom to its greatest territorial and military power.
Amangkurat II was the Susuhunan of Mataram from 1677 to 1703. Prior to taking the throne, he was the crown prince and had the title Pangeran Adipati Anom.
Plered was the location of the palace of Amangkurat I of Mataram. Amangkurat moved the capital there from the nearby Karta in 1647. During the Trunajaya rebellion, the capital was occupied and sacked by the rebels, and Amangkurat died during the retreat from the capital. His son and successor Amangkurat II later moved the capital to Kartasura. It was twice occupied by Diponegoro, during the Java War (1825–1830) between his forces and the Dutch. The Dutch assaulted the walled complex in June 1826, which was Diponegoro's first major defeat in the war.
The Sultanate of Cirebon was an Islamic sultanate in West Java founded in the 15th century. It is said to have been founded by Sunan Gunungjati, marked by his letter proclaiming Cirebon's independence from Pajajaran in 1482, although the settlement and the polity had been established earlier in 1445. Sunan Gunungjati also established the Sultanate of Banten. It was one of the earliest Islamic states established in Java, along with the Sultanate of Demak.
Surakarta Sunanate was a Javanese monarchy centred in the city of Surakarta, in the province of Central Java, Indonesia.
Trunajaya (Madurese) or Tronajâyâ, also known as Panembahan Maduretno, was a prince and warlord from Arosbaya, Bangkalan, Madura, known for leading a rebellion against the rulers of the Mataram Sultanate on the island of Java.
Pakubuwono I, uncle of Amangkurat III of Mataram was a combatant for the succession of the Mataram dynasty, in the First Javanese War of Succession.
Amangkurat III was a short-lived ruler of Susuhunan of Mataram, reigned 1703–1705.
Trunajaya rebellion or Trunajaya War was the ultimately unsuccessful rebellion waged by the Madurese prince Trunajaya and fighters from Makassar against the Mataram Sultanate and its Dutch East India Company (VOC) supporters in Java during the 1670s.
The Battle of Surabaya was fought in May 1677 during the Trunajaya rebellion, in which the Dutch East India Company defeated the forces of Trunajaya and took Surabaya on behalf of its ally, the Mataram Sultanate.
The Fall of Plered was the capture of the capital of the Mataram Sultanate by the rebel forces loyal to Trunajaya in late June 1677. The attack on Plered followed a series of rebel victory, notably in the Battle of Gegodog and the fall of most of Mataram's northern coast. The aged and sick King Amangkurat I and his sons offered an ineffective defense, and the rebel overran the capital on or around 28 June. The capital was plundered and its wealth taken to the rebel capital in Kediri. The loss of the capital led to the collapse of the Mataram government and the flight of the royal family. The king fled with his son the crown prince and a small retinue to Tegal and died there, passing the kingship to the crown prince, now titled Amangkurat II, without any army or treasury.
The Battle of Gegodog took place in 13 October 1676 during the Trunajaya rebellion, and resulted in the victory of the rebel forces over the Mataram army led by the Crown Prince Pangeran Adipati Anom. Gegodog is located in the northeastern coast of Java, east of Tuban.
Pangeran Pekik was a Javanese prince, and son of the last Duke of Surabaya, Jayalengkara. After the Mataram conquest of Surabaya he was forced to live in Mataram court. He was executed in 1659 under the orders of Mataram's King Amangkurat I, who suspected him of conspiracy.
Raden Kajoran, also Panembahan Rama was a Javanese Muslim nobleman and a major leader of the Trunajaya rebellion against the Mataram Sultanate. He led the rebel forces which overran and sacked Plered, Mataram's capital in June 1677. In September 1679, his forces were defeated by the combined Dutch, Javanese, and Bugis forces under Sindu Reja and Jan Albert Sloot in a battle in Mlambang, near Pajang. Kajoran surrendered but was executed under Sloot's orders.
The 1678 Kediri campaign took place from August to December 1678 in Kediri during the Trunajaya rebellion. The forces of the Mataram Sultanate, led by Amangkurat II, and the Dutch East India Company (VOC), led by Anthonio Hurdt, marched inland into eastern Java against Trunajaya's forces. After a series of marches beset by logistical difficulties and harassment by Trunajaya's forces, the Mataram–VOC army crossed the Brantas River on the night of 16–17 November. They then marched on Trunajaya's capital and stronghold at Kediri and took it by direct assault on 25 November. Kediri was plundered by the Dutch and Javanese victors, and the Mataram treasury—captured by Trunajaya after his victory at Plered—was completely lost in the looting. Trunajaya himself fled Kediri and continued his greatly weakened rebellion until his capture at the end of 1679.
Panembahan Senapati, formally styled Panembahan Senapati ing Ngalaga Sayyidin Panatagama, was the founder of the Mataram Sultanate. His biography is discovered from traditional accounts, such as Javanese chronicles in the future era.
Massacre of ulema by Sultan Amangkurat I was a mass killing that was committed in the territory of the Sultanate of Mataram at one afternoon in the year 1648. Around 5,000-6,000 ulemas and their family members were slain within less than thirty minutes. This massacre was ordered by Sultan Amangkurat I in order to exact revenge, since two days before his own younger brother Prince Alit tried to overthrow him. Although this coup failed and Prince Alit was killed during the ensuing chaos, Amangkurat intended to eradicate all groups who were allegedly conspiring with his younger brother.
Giri Kedaton was an Islamic kedatuan located in Gresik, East Java and existed in the 15th to 17th centuries, until Giri was conquered by the Mataram Sultanate in 1636.