Amenemhet VI

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See Amenemhat, for other individuals with this name.

Seankhibre Ameny Antef Amenemhet VI was an Egyptian pharaoh of the early Thirteenth Dynasty ruling in the first half of the 18th century BC [2] during a time referred to as the late Middle Kingdom or early Second Intermediate Period, depending on the scholar. Amenemhat VI certainly enjoyed a short reign, estimated at 3 years or shorter. He is attested by a few contemporary artefacts and is listed on two different king lists. He may belong to a larger family of pharaohs including Amenemhat V, Ameny Qemau, Hotepibre Qemau Siharnedjheritef and Iufni.

Ancient Egypt ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

Pharaoh Title of Ancient Egyptian rulers

Pharaoh is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until Merneptah, c. 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name, and the Two Ladies (nbtj) name. The Golden Horus and nomen and prenomen titles were later added.

Middle Kingdom of Egypt period in the history of ancient Egypt between about 2000 BC and 1700 BC

The Middle Kingdom of Egypt is the period in the history of ancient Egypt following a period of political division known as the First Intermediate Period. The Middle Kingdom lasted from around 2050 BC to around 1710 BC, stretching from the reunification of Egypt under the reign of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty. The Eleventh Dynasty ruled from Thebes and the Twelfth Dynasty ruled from el-Lisht. Some scholars also include the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt wholly into this period as well, in which case the Middle Kingdom would finish around 1650 BC, while others only include it until Merneferre Ay around 1700 BC, last king of this dynasty to be attested in both Upper and Lower Egypt. During the Middle Kingdom period, Osiris became the most important deity in popular religion. The Middle Kingdom was followed by the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt, another period of division that involved foreign invasions of the country by the Hyksos of West Asia.

Contents

Attestations

Historical

Amenemhat VI is listed on the Turin canon, a king list redacted in the early Ramesside period and which serves as the primary historical source regarding the Second Intermediate Period. In the latest reading of the canon by the Danish Egyptologist Kim Ryholt, Amenemhat VI appears in the 7th column, 10th row under his prenomen Seankhibre. [2] [4] This corresponds to the 6th column, 10th row in Alan Gardiner's and Jürgen von Beckerath's reading of the Turin king list. [5] [6]

Turin King List ancient Egyptian manuscript

The Turin King List, also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is an ancient Egyptian hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II, now in the Museo Egizio in Turin. The papyrus is the most extensive list available of kings compiled by the ancient Egyptians, and is the basis for most chronology before the reign of Ramesses II.

Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt Egyptian dynasty from -1295 to -1186

The Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt is classified as the second Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom period, lasting from 1292 BC to 1189 BC. The 19th Dynasty and the 20th Dynasty furthermore together constitute an era known as the Ramesside period. This Dynasty was founded by Vizier Ramesses I, whom Pharaoh Horemheb chose as his successor to the throne.

Kim Steven Bardrum Ryholt is a professor of Egyptology at the University of Copenhagen and a specialist on Egyptian history and literature. He is director of the research center Canon and Identity Formation in the Earliest Literate Societies under the University of Copenhagen Programme of Excellence and director of The Papyrus Carlsberg Collection & Project.

Amenemhat VI is also mentioned on the Karnak king list, entry 37. [7]

Karnak king list Wikimedia list article

The Karnak king list, a list of early Egyptian kings engraved in stone, was located in the southwest corner of the Festival Hall of Thutmose III, in the middle of the Precinct of Amun-Re, in the Karnak Temple Complex, in modern Luxor, Egypt. Composed during the reign of Thutmose III, it listed sixty-one kings beginning with Sneferu from Egypt's Old Kingdom. Only the names of thirty-nine kings are still legible, and one is not written in a cartouche.

Archeological

Amenemhat VI is attested by a few contemporary artefacts. These include 2 cylinder seals from el-Mahamid el-Qibli in Upper Egypt, [8] one of which is dedicated to " Sobek Lord of Sumenu ". [2] [9] [10] An offering table bearing Amenemhat VI's cartouche has been discovered in Karnak and is now in the Egyptian Museum, CG 23040. [1] [11] A stele from Abydos mentions an official, Seankhibre-Seneb-Senebefeni, whose name is likely a basilophorous one, dedicated to Seankhibre Amenemhat. [12] An architrave from a private tomb of the necropolis of Heliopolis bears the name Seankhibre within a cartouche [4] [13] However, recent research indicates that the latter monument may belong to a different king with a similar name, Seankhibtawy Seankhibra.

Upper Egypt strip of land on the Nile valley between Nubia and Lower Egypt

Upper Egypt is the strip of land on both sides of the Nile that extends between Nubia and downriver (northwards) to Lower Egypt.

Sobek, in Greek, Suchos (Σοῦχος) and from Latin Suchus ("crocodile"), was an ancient Egyptian deity with a complex and fluid nature. He is associated with the Nile crocodile or the West African crocodile and is represented either in its form or as a human with a crocodile head. Sobek was also associated with pharaonic power, fertility, and military prowess, but served additionally as a protective deity with apotropaic qualities, invoked particularly for protection against the dangers presented by the Nile.

Sumenu or Smenu was an ancient Egyptian town located in Upper Egypt. It housed the most prominent early-Middle Kingdom sanctuary of the crocodile-god Sobek.

Chronology

Relative chronological position

The relative chronological position of Amenemhat VI is secured thanks to the Turin canon. His predecessor was a poorly known pharaoh named Iufni and his successor was an equally obscure king, Semenkare Nebnuni. [2] [14]

Iufni was an Ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to the egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker he was the 7th king of the dynasty, while Jürgen von Beckerath and Detlef Franke see him as the 6th ruler. Iufni reigned from Memphis for a very short time c. 1788 BC or 1741 BC.

Semenkare Nebnuni Egyptian pharaoh

Semenkare Nebnuni is a poorly attested pharaoh of the early 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to Egyptologists Darrell Baker and Kim Ryholt, Nebnuni was the ninth ruler of the 13th dynasty. Alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath and Detlef Franke see him as the eighth king of the dynasty.

Absolute position and dating

The absolute chronological position of Amenemhat VI is less certain owing to uncertainties affecting the earlier kings of the dynasty. According to Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker, he was the 8th king of the dynasty, whereas Thomas Schneider, Detlef Franke and von Beckerath see him as the 7th ruler. [6] [14]

Detlef Franke was a German Egyptologist specialist of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt.

The duration of Amenemhat's reign is lost due to the poor state of preservation of the Turin papyrus and only the number of days is readable as [...] and 23 days. Ryholt nonetheless assigns him a short reign of 3 years spanning 17881785 BC. [2]

Extent of rule

It is unclear whether or not Amenemhat VI reigned over the whole of Egypt. He likely had control over Lower Nubia, which had been conquered by the 12th Dynasty and would not be abandoned before at least another 60 years. His control over Lower Egypt is debated. Ryholt believes that the Canaanite 14th Dynasty was already in existence at the time, forming an independent realm controlling at least the Eastern Nile Delta. [2] While this analysis is accepted by some scholars—among them, Gae Callender, Janine Bourriau and Darrell Baker, [4] [15] [16] it is rejected by others including Manfred Bietak, Daphna Ben-Tor and James and Susan Allen who contend that the 14th Dynasty could not have existed before the later king of the 13th Dynasty Sobekhotep IV. [17] [18] [19]

Family

The Egyptologist Kim Ryholt proposes that Amenemhat VI was a member of a larger royal family including pharaohs Sekhemkare Amenemhat V, Ameny Qemau, Hotepibre Qemau Siharnedjheritef and Iufni. He bases this conclusion on the double names borne by these pharaohs, which he believes are filiative nomina, i.e. names referring to one's parents. Hence the Ameny in Ameny Qemau would indicate that he was the son of Amenemhat V, then succeeded by his own son Hotepibre Qemau Siharnedjheritef as shown by the Qemau in his name. Similarly "Ameny Antef Amenemhat (VI)" would be a triple name meaning "Amenemhat, son of Antef, son of Ameny" possibly because his father was a certain "King's son Antef" attested on scarab seals dated on stylistic ground to the 13th Dynasty and who would himself be a son of Amenemhat V. Amenemhat VI's predecessor Iufni would also be part of this family although his precise relation to the other members cannot be settled due to the lack of material dating to his very short reign. [2]

Less than 10 years after Amenemhat VI's reign, a king named Renseneb Amenemhat took the throne. Following the same logic, he would be a son of a king Amenemhat who could possibly be Amenemhat VI or one of the intervening kings. [2] Ryholt's analysis is contested by some Egyptologists as it relies on the unproven assumption that double names are necessarily filiative nomina.

Related Research Articles

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Amenemhat IV Pharaoh of Egypt

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Renseneb Amenemhat was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th Dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologist Kim Ryholt, Renseneb was the 14th king of the dynasty, while Detlef Franke sees him as the 13th ruler and Jürgen von Beckerath as the 16th. Renseneb is poorly attested and his throne name remains unknown.

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Ameny Qemau Egyptian pharaoh

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Sehetepibre Egyptian pharaoh

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Nehesy Egyptian pharaoh

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Hotepibre Egyptian pharaoh

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Seankhenre Mentuhotepi Egyptian pharaoh

Seankhenre Mentuhotepi was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh during the fragmented Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker, he was the fifth king of the 16th Dynasty reigning over the Theban region in Upper Egypt. Alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath sees him as the fifth king of the 17th Dynasty.

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Sewahenre Senebmiu Egyptian pharaoh

Sewahenre Senebmiu is a poorly attested Egyptian pharaoh of the late 13th dynasty during the Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologist Jürgen von Beckerath, he was the forty-first king of the 13th dynasty. Alternatively, Darrell Baker proposes that he may have been its fifty-seventh ruler. Kim Ryholt only specifies that Senebmiu's short reign dates to between 1660 BC and 1649 BC.

Merkheperre Pharaoh of the 13th dynasty of Egypt

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Sekheperenre Egyptian pharaoh

Sekheperenre was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 14th Dynasty of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period. According to the egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker, Sekheperenre was the twenty-second king of the dynasty; alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath sees him as the seventeenth ruler. As a king of the 14th dynasty, Sekheperenre would have reigned from Avaris over the eastern Nile Delta and possibly over the western Delta as well.

Nebsenre Egyptian pharaoh

Nebsenre was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 14th Dynasty of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period. Nebsenre reigned for a least five months over the Eastern and possibly Western Nile Delta, some time during the first half of the 17th century BCE. As such Nebsenre was a contemporary of the Memphis based 13th Dynasty.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Ahmed Bey Kamal: Tables d'offrandes, vol. I, Le Caire, 1909, available online see item 23040 p. 3137
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 K.S.B. Ryholt: The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c.1800–1550 BC, Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997, excerpts available online here.
  3. Thomas Schneider: Lexikon der Pharaonen, Albatros 2002, ISBN   978-3491960534
  4. 1 2 3 Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN   978-1-905299-37-9, 2008, p. 3334
  5. Alan Gardiner: The Royal Canon of Turin, Griffith Institute, new edition 1997, ISBN   978-0900416484
  6. 1 2 Jürgen von Beckerath: Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen, Münchner ägyptologische Studien, Heft 49, Mainz : Philip von Zabern, 1999, ISBN   3-8053-2591-6, see pp.90–91, king No 7.
  7. This corresponds to entry 34 in Ryholt and Baker's numbering of the king list.
  8. One of the two cylinder seals is housed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, see online catalog
  9. William C. Hayes: The Scepter of Egypt: A Background for the Study of the Egyptian Antiquities in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Vol. 1, From the Earliest Times to the End of the Middle Kingdom, MET Publications 1978, available online, see p. 342 fig. 226
  10. Jean Yoyotte: Le Soukhos de la Maréotide et d'autres cultes régionaux du Dieu-Crocodile d'après les cylindres du Moyen Empire, Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Archeologie Orientale (BIFAO) 56, 1957, p. 8195 available online Archived 2014-10-06 at the Wayback Machine see p. 88 2.cc
  11. Auguste Mariette-Bey: Karnak. Étude topographique et archéologique avec un appendice comprenant les principaux textes hiéroglyphiques découverts ou recueillis pendant les fouilles exécutées a Karnak, Leipzig, 1875, available online see p. 4546 pl. 910.
  12. Marie-Pierre Foissy-Aufrère (editor): Égypte & Provence. Civilisation, survivances et «cabinetz de curiositez», 1985, 7678, 80 fig. 41
  13. Detlef Franke: Zur Chronologie des Mittleren Reiches (12.-18. Dynastie) Teil 1 : Die 12. Dynastie, in Orientalia 57 (1988) see p. 267268 no. 57
  14. 1 2 Thomas Schneider in Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss, and David A. Warburton (editors): Ancient Egyptian Chronology, Handbook of Oriental Studies, available online, see p. 176 for the chronology.
  15. Gae Callender: The Middle Kingdom Renaissance (c. 20551650 BC) in Ian Shaw (editor): The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, Oxford University Press (2004), ISBN   978-0192804587
  16. Janine Bourriau: The Second Intermediate Period (c.1650-1550 BC) in: Ian Shaw (editor): The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, 2000, Oxford University Press, ISBN   0-19-815034-2
  17. Daphna Ben-Tor & James and Susan Allen: Seals and Kings, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (BASOR) 315, 1999, pp.47-73.
  18. Manfred Bietak: Egypt and Canaan During the Middle Bronze Age, BASOR, 281 (1991), pp. 21-72, esp. p. 38, available online
  19. Daphna Ben-Tor: Scarabs, Chronology, and Interconnections: Egypt and Palestine in the Second Intermediate Period, Volume 27 of Orbis biblicus et orientalis / Series archaeologica: Series archaeologica, Academic Press Fribourg 2007, ISBN   978-3-7278-1593-5, excerpts available online
Preceded by
Iufni
Pharaoh of Egypt
Thirteenth Dynasty
Succeeded by
Semenkare Nebnuni